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Food Safety
Food Safety
Overview
Overview
Organisms
Organisms
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Salmonella had
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
History
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Surveillance/Regulation
Surveillance/Regulation
Surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance
Surveillance
Estimated Cost
Estimated Cost
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Transmission
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Produce Processing
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Important Organisms
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Norwalk-like Viruses
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacter jejuni
Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacteriosis
Campylobacteriosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
Salmonellosis
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
E. coli O157:H7
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
MMWR
Botulism
Botulism
Botulism
Botulism
Reported Cases
Reported Cases
Reported Cases
Reported Cases
Shigellosis
Shigellosis
Rate
Rate
Rate
Rate
Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis
Emerging Pathogens
Emerging Pathogens
Emerging Pathogens
Emerging Pathogens
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004
Prevention and Control
Prevention and Control
HACCP
HACCP
On Farm Strategies
On Farm Strategies
On Farm Strategies
On Farm Strategies
At the Slaughter Plant
At the Slaughter Plant
At the Slaughter Plant
At the Slaughter Plant
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
Irradiation
USDA Recall Classification
USDA Recall Classification
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
In the Home
Additional Resources
Additional Resources
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
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Food

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1Food Safety. 30University 2004.
2Overview. Organisms History Epidemiology Transmission 31Salmonellosis. Sources Raw poultry and eggs Raw milk Raw
Foodborne illness Prevention and Control. Center for Food beef Unwashed fruit, alfalfa sprouts Reptile pets: Snakes,
Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004. turtles, lizards Signs Onset: 12-72 hours Diarrhea, fever,
3Organisms. Estimated 250 foodborne pathogens Foodborne cramps Duration: 4-7 days. Center for Food Security and Public
illness 2 or more cases of a similar illness resulting from Health Iowa State University 2004.
ingestion of a common food Bacteria most common cause Also 32Salmonellosis. Reported cases per 100,000 population, by
viruses, parasites, natural and manufactured chemicals, and year – U.S., 1972-2002. Rate. Most common serotypes: S.
toxins from organisms. Center for Food Security and Public typhimurium, S. enteriditis, S. Newport. 30 25 20 15 10 5 0.
Health Iowa State University 2004. 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002. MMWR. Year. Center for Food
4Foodborne disease outbreaks, cases and deaths 1993-1997 Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
Salmonella had the highest number. Center for Food Security and 33E. coli O157:H7. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC)
Public Health Iowa State University 2004. Surface proteins; toxin Sources Undercooked or raw hamburger;
5History. salami Alfalfa sprouts; lettuce Unpasteurized milk, apple juice
6History. Early 1900’s Contaminated food, milk and water or cider Well water Animals: Cattle, other mammals. Center for
caused many foodborne illnesses Sanitary revolution Sewage and Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
water treatment Hand-washing, sanitation Pasteurization of milk- 34E. coli O157:H7. Signs Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea,
1908 Refrigeration in homes- 1913. Center for Food Security and cramps Onset: 2-5 days Duration: 5-10 days Sequela Hemolytic
Public Health Iowa State University 2004. Uremic Syndrome (HUS) Acute kidney failure in children Life
7History. Animals identified as a source of foodborne threatening. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
pathogens Improved animal care and feeding Improved carcass State University 2004.
processing Surveillance and research Outbreak investigations 35MMWR. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State
Laws and policies regarding food handling. Center for Food University 2004.
Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004. 36Botulism. Clostridium botulinum Neurotoxin leads to flaccid
8Epidemiology. paralysis Infants at greatest risk Annually: 10-30 outbreaks;
9Epidemiology. Foodborne diseases each year in US Affects 1 ~110 cases Sources: Home-canned foods, honey Signs Double
in 4 Americans 76 million illnesses 325,000 hospitalizations vision, drooping eyelids, difficulty speaking and swallowing
5,000 deaths 1,500 of those deaths caused by Salmonella, Onset: 18-36 hours. Center for Food Security and Public Health
Listeria, and Toxoplasma. Center for Food Security and Public Iowa State University 2004.
Health Iowa State University 2004. 37Reported Cases. 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002. MMWR. Year. 110
10Epidemiology. Many unrecognized or unreported Mild disease 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0. Center for Food Security and
undetected Same pathogens in water and person to person Emerging Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
pathogens unidentifiable Greatest risk Elderly Children 38Shigellosis. Bacillary dysentery Most cases Shigella sonnei
Immunocompromised. Center for Food Security and Public Health 90,000 cases every year in U.S. Sources: Human fecal
Iowa State University 2004. contamination of food, beverages, vegetables, water Signs:
11Surveillance/Regulation. Surveillance CDC FoodNet and Watery or bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, cramps, fever
PulseNet Regulation FDA Domestic and imported food USDA FSIS Onset: 2 days Duration: 5-7 days. Center for Food Security and
Meat, eggs, poultry National Marine Fisheries Service. Center Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004. 39Rate. 15 10 5 0. 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002. MMWR.
12Surveillance. FoodNet: Active surveillance Established 1996 Year. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State
CDC, USDA, FDA, select state health departments Nine sites in University 2004.
U.S. monitor 13% of U.S. population California, Colorado, 40Toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasma gondii- intracellular protozoan
Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New York, Oregon, 112,500 cases annually Pregnant women/immunocompromised at
Tennessee. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State greatest risk Sources Infected cats, soil, undercooked meat
University 2004. Signs Fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes. Center for Food
13Surveillance. PulseNet: Identify cause Molecular Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
fingerprinting 45 state public health labs certified Passive 41Emerging Pathogens. Cyclospora (Protozoan) 1996, imported
surveillance: Survey methods Hospital discharges Outpatient raspberries Listeria monocytogenes Sources Ready-to-eat meats,
treatment facilities FoodBorne Disease Outbreak Surveillance soft cheeses Signs Human abortions and stillbirths Septicemia in
System All states submit outbreak data. Center for Food Security young or low-immune. Center for Food Security and Public Health
and Public Health Iowa State University 2004. Iowa State University 2004.
14Estimated Cost. Economic Research Service - USDA Cost of top 42Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State
5 foodborne pathogens $6.9 billion annually Medical cost University 2004.
Productivity losses (missed work) Value estimate of premature 43Prevention and Control.
death. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State 44HACCP. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point To monitor and
University 2004. control production processes Identify food safety hazards and
15Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State critical control points Production, processing and marketing
University 2004. Establish limits Monitor Applied to meat, poultry, and eggs.
16Transmission. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University
17Transmission. Oral route Contamination varies Organism, 2004.
reservoir, handling/processing, cross-contamination Human 45On Farm Strategies. Testing and removal for Salmonella
reservoir Norwalk-like virus, Campylobacter, Shigella Animal Serologic, fecal culture, hide culture Vaccinating Many
reservoir Campylobacter, Salmonella, E. coli 0157:H7, Listeria, serotypes Varying effectiveness Minimize rodents, wild birds
and Toxoplasma. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa Isolation of new animals. Center for Food Security and Public
State University 2004. Health Iowa State University 2004.
18Transmission. Contamination can occur at several points 46At the Slaughter Plant. FSIS target organisms Salmonella and
along the food chain On the farm or in the field At the E. coli Control points Removal of internal organs Minimize
slaughter plant During processing At the point of sale In the contact between carcasses Proper movement through facilities
home. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State Chilling Cooking processes (time, temperature). Center for Food
University 2004. Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
19Produce Processing. Center for Food Security and Public 47Irradiation. Used since 1986 for Trichina control in pork
Health Iowa State University 2004. Gamma rays Poultry in 1990/1992 Meat in 1997/1999 Reduction of
20Important Organisms. bacterial pathogens Kills living cells of organisms Damaged and
21Important Organisms. Norwalk-like viruses Campylobacter cannot survive. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
Salmonella E. coli O157:H7 Clostridium botulinum Shigella spp State University 2004.
Toxoplasma Emerging organisms. Center for Food Security and 48Irradiation. Identified with radura….. Does not affect taste
Public Health Iowa State University 2004. quality Nutrients remain the same Handle foods appropriately
22Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State afterwards Does not sterilize Contamination can still occur.
University 2004. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University
23MMWR. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State 2004.
University 2004. 49USDA Recall Classification. Center for Food Security and
24MMWR. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
University 2004. 50In the Home. Drink pasteurized milk and juices Wash hands
25Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State carefully and frequently After using the bathroom Changing
University 2004. infant’s diapers Cleaning up animal feces Wash hands before
26Norwalk-like Viruses. Norovirus; Caliciviridae family Most preparing food. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
common foodborne agent 23 million cases annually Sources State University 2004.
Person-to-person Shed in human feces, vomitus Outbreaks in 51In the Home. Wash raw fruits and vegetables before eating
daycares, nursing homes, cruise ships Contaminated shellfish. After contact with raw meat or poultry Wash hands, utensils and
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University kitchen surfaces Hot soapy water Defrost meats in the
2004. refrigerator. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
27Norwalk-like Viruses. Small infectious dose Signs 12-48 State University 2004.
hours post-exposure Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps 52In the Home. Cook beef/beef products thoroughly Internal
Headache, low-grade fever Duration: 2 days Food handlers should temperature of 160oF Cook poultry and eggs thoroughly Internal
not return to work for 3 days after symptoms subside. Center for temperature of 170-180oF Eat cooked food promptly Refrigerate
Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004. leftovers within 2 hours after cooking Store in shallow
28Campylobacter jejuni. Leading cause of bacterial diarrhea containers. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
2.4 million people each year Children under 5 years old Young State University 2004.
adults (ages 15-29) Very few deaths Can lead to Guillain-Barr? 53Additional Resources. Centers for Disease Control and
Syndrome Leading cause of acute paralysis Develops 2-4 weeks Prevention http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/ U.S. Department of
after Campylobacter infection (after diarrheal signs disappear). Agriculture http://www.foodsafety.gov
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodborne/statemen.html. Center for
2004. Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
29Campylobacteriosis. Sources Raw or undercooked poultry 54Acknowledgments. Development of this presentation was funded
Non-chlorinated water Raw milk Infected animal or human feces by a grant from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Poultry, cattle, puppies, kittens, pet birds Clinical signs to the Center for Food Security and Public Health at Iowa State
Diarrhea, abdominal cramps, fever, nausea Duration: 2-5 days. University. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa
Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State University State University 2004.
2004. 55Acknowledgments. Author: Co-authors: Reviewer: Glenda
30Salmonellosis. Gram negative bacteria Many serotypes can Dvorak, DVM, MS, MPH Danelle Bickett-Weddle, DVM, MPH Radford
cause disease S. enteritidis and typhimurium 41% of all human Davis, DVM, MPH Jean Gladon, BS. Center for Food Security and
cases Most common species in U.S. 1.4 million cases annually 580 Public Health Iowa State University 2004.
deaths. Center for Food Security and Public Health Iowa State
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Презентация: Food | Тема: Тексты на английском | Урок: Английский язык | Вид: Картинки