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Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www
Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www
In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and
In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they "adopted" and
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the
Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 Although the
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful
Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A youthful
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus
Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its
Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. With its
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In
Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - 220 A.D. In
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi
Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was
Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 Julia Titi was
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A
Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman, Rome, about A
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200
Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 - 200
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask
Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian
Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An Egyptian
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup
Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads
Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you have come" reads
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium)
Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel
Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful enamel
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1 13portrait depicts Julia with a dramatic, curling hairstyle. A
2Roman art 509 BC - 337 AD Sources: www.Getty.edu diadem originally inlaid with materials such as gold, silver, or
www.arthistory.about.com www.georgeortiz.com. gems marked her imperial status. Julia would have worn earrings,
3In terms of style, when Rome conquered Greece, they probably made of gold, which are now missing; the small holes at
"adopted" and "borrowed" their artistic either side of her neck indicate the original presence of a
concepts - thus continuing the tradition of cultural greatness. now-missing necklace. Traces of paint preserved in Julia's curls
By this time, people were in the habit of collecting art and show that her hair was originally a reddish color. The deeply
placing it in their villas so it was best not to rock the boat - drilled curls and chiaroscuro effect are typical of Roman
so to speak. Generally speaking, Roman artworks (specifically sculpture in this period. Portraits of the women in the imperial
those works which are now considered to have been the first family set fashions for the entire Roman Empire. A hairstyle
civic sculptures) were created to glorify those in charge. It worn by an empress or princess would soon appear on portraits of
was thought that the best way to do this was to make the art big ladies of the imperial court and then spread out through the
--- really big. And so, arches, buildings and statues (eight and rest of Roman society as a sign of taste and status. Elaborate
a half foot tall busts were not uncommon), dwarfed most curled hairstyles reminiscent of that worn by Julia became the
everything around them. Another interesting aspect of the art of mark of fashionable women in the Flavian period.
Rome is that it depicted people as they really were. After years 14Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess.
of "faking it", portraits were crafted to look like 15Seated Cybele with Portrait Head of her Priestess Roman,
the people they represented rather than idealized versions of Rome, about A.D. 50 This large statue of a seated woman portrays
the same. Cybele, the mother goddess, with many of her attributes, each
4Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady. signifying a different role. She wears a crown in the form of a
5Portrait Bust of a Roman Lady Roman, Rome, A.D. 150 - 160 towered wall, a symbol of her role as protectress of cities. Her
Although the woman shown in this Roman portrait bust can not be right hand holds a bunch of wheat and poppy heads, a symbol of
identified, stylistic features reveal when and where she was her role as a goddess of agriculture. Her most famous attribute,
made. Her hairstyle copies one worn by the Empress Faustina, the the lion, sits at her feet, symbolizing her power over wild
wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius, who reigned from A.D. 138 to animals. Under her left arm she holds additional symbols: the
161. The highly polished surface of the bust also signals an rudder and the cornucopia. This statue's most unusual feature is
Antonine date for its creation. Portraits of the imperial family its face, which belongs to an older Roman matron, not an
defined high style and fashion, setting the standards for idealized goddess. Wealthy Roman women would frequently
private portraiture of the social elite. This woman appears to commission portraits of themselves depicted as if they were
be of mature years, yet she displays no physical signs of aging. goddesses. Cybele is an unusual choice, however, which may
Roman portraits of women tend to be more idealized and less indicate that this woman was a priestess in the goddess's
individualized than those of men. The political or social service.
message that a portrait conveyed was as important as its actual 16Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros.
resemblance to the person portrayed. For this reason, portraits 17Aphrodite - Hygieia with Eros Roman, Asia Minor, A.D. 100 -
of Roman women often are concerned more with representing the 200 Standing with her weight on one leg and clothed in a
latest ideas of fashion and beauty than they are with depicting voluminous gown, this statue of a goddess looks off to her left.
actual features. Her precise identity is uncertain because the figure displays
6Statuette of Mars/Cobannus. elements connected with more than one deity: Hygieia, the
7Statuette of Mars/Cobannus Roman, Gaul, A.D. 125 - 175 A goddess of health, and Aphrodite, the goddess of love. The
youthful figure wears a typical costume for the northern Roman presence of the small, sleeping Eros, the winged young god of
provinces: a long-sleeved tunic, leggings, and a cloak fastened love, who leans against her leg, and the goddess's hairstyle
with a round brooch. On his head he wears a contemporary Roman argue in favor of her identity as Aphrodite. Yet the dress the
helmet, rather than the classicizing headgear found on most goddess wears and the snake she holds are more typical of
Roman sculpture. The whites of his eyes are silvered and the Hygieia. Furthermore, the egg she holds, an emblemof Hygieia's
irises drilled. The figure's pose looks odd now, but he father Asklepios, associates her with that goddess. As a
originally held a spear in his upraised right hand and rested relative latecomer to the classical pantheon, Hygieia lacked a
his left hand on a shield. The Latin inscription on the base distinct mythology and hence definitive attributes. Frequently
reads, "Sacred to the venerable god Cobannus, Lucius Hygieia was blended or merged with another goddess, both in cult
Maccius Aeternus, duumvir, [dedicated this] in accordance with a practice and in depictions, and this combination may be
vow." The statue probably represents Cobannus, a local represented here.
deity who was equivalent to Mars, the Roman god of war. The 18Cameo Glass Flask.
family of Lucius Maccius Aeternus is known from other 19Cameo Glass Flask Roman, Rome, about 25 B.C. - A.D. 25 An
inscriptions in Gaul and must have been important, for a duumvir Egyptian pharaoh, identified by his crown and staff, and an
was one of the two chief magistrates of a Roman colony. This obelisk with meaningless hieroglyphs decorate the front of this
statuette is said to have been found in France, in the Roman Roman cameo glass flask. On the other sides, one boy approaches
province of Gaul. an altar surmounted by the Egyptian god Thoth in the form of a
8Statuette of Venus. baboon, while a second boy approaches another altar decorated
9Statuette of Venus Unknown, sculptor; Roman, 100 - 1 B.C. with a uraeus or sacred snake. The decoration of this small
With its depiction of Venus, the goddess of love, crouching in flask, which probably held perfumed oil, may show the story of
her bath, this damaged statuette is a copy of an original the young god Horus, who was brought back to life by Thoth after
large-scale sculpture dating to the 100s B.C., probably by being stung by a scorpion. The imagery on this vessel may have
Doidalsas of Bithynia. The goddess crouches low in order to had specific meaning for its owner; or, more probably, it may
allow an attendant, who is not depicted, to pour water over her. reflect the general popularity of Egyptianizing scenes in Roman
The original statue showed the interest of Hellenistic sculptors art after the Roman Empire's annexation of Egypt. Due to the
in rendering the nude female form. While the earlier statue does time and labor involved in its creation, cameo glass was very
not survive, later copies such as this piece preserve its rare. Artisans first covered or encased colored glass with
general appearance. These copies were especially popular in the opaque white glass. They partially cut away the white layer to
Roman period, with artists reproducing the original in large reveal the colored background, then carved the raised white
numbers in a variety of media and sizes and with slight areas in relief. Artisans practiced this technique almost
variations of pose. Roman patrons often commissioned miniature exclusively in the early Roman Empire.
copies of large-scale Greek public art for their private use, 20Mold-Blown Cup.
decorating their homes with the statuettes. The use of the 21Mold-Blown Cup Roman, A.D. 1 - 50 "Be glad that you
valuable medium of rock crystal marks this piece as a have come" reads the Greek inscription encircling this
prestigious luxury item for a rich patron. Roman mold-blown glass cup. This common expression urging the
10Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant. drinker to enjoy the moment is typical of the friendly
11Statuette of a Snake-legged Giant Roman, Asia Minor, 180 - exhortations found on early Roman cups. Glass vessels decorated
220 A.D. In Greek mythology the giants, children of Ge (Earth) with inscriptions were extremely popular in the first century
and Uranus (Sky), tried to overthrow the Olympian gods in a A.D. and were found throughout the Roman Empire. An artisan made
mighty battle. This young giant, identified by his snaky legs, this cup by blowing glass into a baked clay mold, a technique
was originally shown in combat with a now-missing opponent. He that originated in the first century A.D. in the area of Roman
raises his right arm, wrapped in an animal skin, to ward off a Palestine. This technique allows the mass-production of
blow. The giant's unkempt hair and the clumps of body hair identical vessels. At first, the new technique was employed to
sprouting from his chest, belly, and shoulders emphasize his produce ornate vessels, but simple forms were soon manufactured
wildness and barbarity. The battle between the Olympian gods and as well.
the giants was extremely popular in Greek art; after the Persian 22Aryballos (Unguentarium).
War, it became an allegory for battles between Greeks and 23Aryballos (Unguentarium) Roman, Gaul, A.D. 70 - 100 Colorful
barbarians. The giant's twisting pose, the intense pathos of his enamel inlays elaborate the twelve large pentagonal panels
expression, and the choice of the subject itself were deeply covering the surface of this Roman bronze aryballos. Within
influenced by the style of art developed in the Greek city of these panels, curling tendrils on a blue enamel background
Pergamon in the 100s B.C., a style that saw a resurgence in surround an inner pentagon outlined in red enamel. The inner
Roman art of the late 100s A.D. This figure may originally have pentagons contain different decorative motifs, including birds
been part of a large group depicting the battle. In the Roman and rosettes. The use of enamel and pentagonal panels is typical
period, groups of small bronzes were often used as decorative of metal vessels made in northern Gaul. With its round body and
elements on objects such as furniture or chariots; the broad mouth, this aryballos reproduces the shape of a type of
attachment hole on the giant's "knee" suggests this handleless ancient Greek vessel used to hold perfumed oils,
usage. popular six hundred years before this object was made. This
12Portrait Head of Julia Titi. Roman version has an enameled metal handle suspended from wire
13Portrait Head of Julia Titi Roman, Italy, about A.D. 90 loops. Stylized elephant heads, now missing their trunks, form
Julia Titi was the daughter of the Roman emperor Titus, who the attachment points on the mouth of the vessel, yet the heavy
ruled during the Flavian dynasty from A.D. 79 to 81. Recorded in weight of the metal vessel's body would have made the handle
history as a wild young woman who was her uncle Domitian's nonfunctional.
mistress, Julia died in A.D. 91 at the age of thirty. This
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