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10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language
10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language
1. American Sign Language (ASL) is Not English on the Hands
1. American Sign Language (ASL) is Not English on the Hands
2. ASL Is A Visuo-Spatial Language
2. ASL Is A Visuo-Spatial Language
ASL is a Visuo-Spatial Language Continued
ASL is a Visuo-Spatial Language Continued
3. American Sign Language has Grammatical Features
3. American Sign Language has Grammatical Features
ASL Grammatical Features Continued
ASL Grammatical Features Continued
4. English Word Endings Are Not Used to Depict Tense in ASL
4. English Word Endings Are Not Used to Depict Tense in ASL
Indicating Tense in ASL
Indicating Tense in ASL
Indicating Tense in ASL Continued
Indicating Tense in ASL Continued
Prepositions in English Locatives in ASL
Prepositions in English Locatives in ASL
Prepositions/Locatives Continued
Prepositions/Locatives Continued
6. Adjectives in English and ASL
6. Adjectives in English and ASL
Classifiers Used as Adjectives
Classifiers Used as Adjectives
Classifiers Representing Size and Shape
Classifiers Representing Size and Shape
7. Negation
7. Negation
Negation Continued
Negation Continued
8. The Verb “To Be”
8. The Verb “To Be”
9.The Role of Fingerspelling in American Sign Language
9.The Role of Fingerspelling in American Sign Language
Fingerspelling Continued
Fingerspelling Continued
The American Manual Alphabet
The American Manual Alphabet
10
10
ASL Does Not Use A Written Format Continued
ASL Does Not Use A Written Format Continued
10 Things to Remember
10 Things to Remember
10 Things to Remember Continued
10 Things to Remember Continued
References
References

Презентация на тему: «10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language». Автор: . Файл: «10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 404 КБ.

10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language

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1 10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language

10 Things You Should Know About American Sign Language

Dr. Nanci A. Scheetz, CSC Professor, VSU Dr. Susan Easterbrooks Professor, GSU

2 1. American Sign Language (ASL) is Not English on the Hands

1. American Sign Language (ASL) is Not English on the Hands

ASL is a complex language used within and among members of the Deaf community. It is “a complete natural language, quite independent from English” (Lane, Hoffmeister, & Bahan, 1996).

3 2. ASL Is A Visuo-Spatial Language

2. ASL Is A Visuo-Spatial Language

Signed messages are produced in the signing space. ASL is based on visual perception and visual conveyance of ideas, information and feeling concepts In essence, space provides the backdrop for the expression of the language.

4 ASL is a Visuo-Spatial Language Continued

ASL is a Visuo-Spatial Language Continued

Space is used to… Convey noun/verb relationships Identify nouns and pronouns Refer to individuals who are not present Illustrate time sequences Reflect spatial relationships Express distance between locations Compare and contrast

who

what

when

where

5 3. American Sign Language has Grammatical Features

3. American Sign Language has Grammatical Features

where

when

where

who what

why how

Some of these features include: Use of Space Indicating Tense Temporal Aspect Prepositions/Locatives Classifiers Topic/Comment Conditional Sentences

6 ASL Grammatical Features Continued

ASL Grammatical Features Continued

Negation “WH” Questions “Yes”/”No” Questions Directional Verbs Listing Rhetorical Questions

7 4. English Word Endings Are Not Used to Depict Tense in ASL

4. English Word Endings Are Not Used to Depict Tense in ASL

English word endings such as: “ing” as in Walking “ed” as in Walked “s” or “es” as in Walks are not part of ASL

8 Indicating Tense in ASL

Indicating Tense in ASL

In American Sign Language… Time is generally indicated at the beginning of a sentence Tense indicators such as now or today can be signed at the beginning to designate the tense Yesterday, recently, before and long ago are frequently signed to indicate past tense Future tense can be indicated by signing future, will, tomorrow, or later

9 Indicating Tense in ASL Continued

Indicating Tense in ASL Continued

English establishes tense with verb inflections such as “ed”, “ing”, etc. and time adverbials may occur at the beginning or end of a sentence Once tense is established in ASL it is not necessary to repeat it in every sentence When a change in tense occurs within a narrative a new tense indicator appears alerting the listener to the time frame.

10 Prepositions in English Locatives in ASL

Prepositions in English Locatives in ASL

English prepositions may pose a challenge to deaf individuals because they are frequently represented in ASL through the use of locatives. When prepositions are signed in English the English preposition is represented; however when the preposition is not represented in ASL the meaning may be vague.

11 Prepositions/Locatives Continued

Prepositions/Locatives Continued

When signing sentences in ASL such as: “I am going to the store” the word “to” is incorporated into the sign for GO-TO “Put the plate in the cupboard” the word “in” would be incorporated into the sign for PLATE and the location would be designated by sign movement and location in space.

12 6. Adjectives in English and ASL

6. Adjectives in English and ASL

English and ASL are both rich with adjectives. However, each language represents them differently. Adjectives in ASL may be placed before or after the noun. After the noun they create a pattern that is contrary to English structure. When describing a tall man with red curly hair in ASL you could sign either: MAN TALL HAIR RED CURLY or TALL MAN RED CURLY HAIR

13 Classifiers Used as Adjectives

Classifiers Used as Adjectives

Classifiers can be used as size and shape specifiers (SASS) In these instances they can be used to describe the visual characteristics of an object or a person. Once an object is identified it can be described using a classifier

14 Classifiers Representing Size and Shape

Classifiers Representing Size and Shape

Several classifiers that are used to show size and shape. Two of them are: CL:F (“F” handshape) is used to show a small round object such as a coin, piece of candy, a spot on an animal, etc. CL:B (“B” handshape) is used to show a large pile, a big stomach, a handful of something

http://www.jal.cc.il.us/ipp/Classifiers/credits.swf

15 7. Negation

7. Negation

There are several ways to form negative sentences in ASL. Non-manual markers: produced in isolation Negative headshake Eyebrows squeezed together Non-manual markers: combined with signs No Never Not none http://www.lifeprint.com/dictionary.htm

16 Negation Continued

Negation Continued

No is used in response to a Yes/No Question None can be used to indicate zero quantity and can be signed before or after the verb Not and never occur either before the verb or at the end of the sentence thus producing a negative consequence

17 8. The Verb “To Be”

8. The Verb “To Be”

ASL shows the verb “to be” in a variety of ways: Incorporating it into the verb phrase “I am going to work” Including it as part of a reference for a noun or pronoun as in the sentence: “She is over there” or Including it as part of a descriptive adjective as in: “He is tall” English sign systems have signs for is, are, was, were, am, and be. However, these are not signed in ASL.

18 9.The Role of Fingerspelling in American Sign Language

9.The Role of Fingerspelling in American Sign Language

Fingerspelling is a manual representation of the language that is spoken. In ASL it is used to represent: Proper names Titles Addresses Words that there are no signs for

19 Fingerspelling Continued

Fingerspelling Continued

Fingerspelling is a process of spelling out English words where there is no sign equivalent in ASL. The fingerspelled alphabet corresponds to the English alphabet When fingerspelling the signer produces the handshapes in a rapid sequence, pausing slightly between words (Easterbrooks & Baker, 2002).

20 The American Manual Alphabet

The American Manual Alphabet

21 10

10

ASL Does Not Use A Written Format

ASL is produced visually with signs simultaneously communicating information and other grammatical information. Signed messages are produced in the signing space. Unlike spoken language that follow a linear order, sound by sound, word by word, and can be represented in a written format, ASL is produced visually.

22 ASL Does Not Use A Written Format Continued

ASL Does Not Use A Written Format Continued

As a result, information that students comprehend visually/conceptually may become challenging if sign to print connections are not made. When teachers/interpreters provide students with the sign to print link the opportunity for reading comprehension to occur is enhanced.

23 10 Things to Remember

10 Things to Remember

ASL is Not English on the hands ASL is a visuo-spatial language ASL has grammatical features English word endings are not used to depict tense in ASL Prepositions in ASL are shown in locatives

24 10 Things to Remember Continued

10 Things to Remember Continued

Adjectives in ASL may be placed before or after the noun There are several ways for form negative sentences in ASL The verb “to be” is signed differently in ASL and is not represented by English signs Fingerspelling plays a role in ASL ASL does not use a written format

25 References

References

Easterbrooks, S. & Baker, S. (2002). Language learning in children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon. Scheetz, N. (2001). Orientation to deafness. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon Scheetz, N. (2005). Forming connections: understanding the difference between ASL and Contact Signing. Unpublished document Scheetz, N. (in press) Building American Sign Language Skills. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

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