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A Quick History of Entomology
A Quick History of Entomology
A Quick History of Entomology
A Quick History of Entomology
Important Concepts about Agriculture and Insects
Important Concepts about Agriculture and Insects
Why insects become pests of plants
Why insects become pests of plants
Integrated Pest Mangement
Integrated Pest Mangement
Basic Pest Management Decision Theory
Basic Pest Management Decision Theory
Some Types of Insect Control Used in Pest Management Systyems
Some Types of Insect Control Used in Pest Management Systyems
Pesticides (a summary)
Pesticides (a summary)
Pesticides (continued)
Pesticides (continued)
Development of pesticide resistance in the USA
Development of pesticide resistance in the USA
Classical food web exemplifying stability and control of a pest
Classical food web exemplifying stability and control of a pest
Biological Control A component of some IPM systems General Concept:
Biological Control A component of some IPM systems General Concept:
Potential Problems with Composed Biocontrol Programs Ecological
Potential Problems with Composed Biocontrol Programs Ecological
Developing a Biocontrol Program Research & Development Essential to
Developing a Biocontrol Program Research & Development Essential to
Classical response of biocontrol agent to host
Classical response of biocontrol agent to host
Historical outcome of biocontrol of weeds
Historical outcome of biocontrol of weeds
History of Biological Control Historical uses selected to succeed
History of Biological Control Historical uses selected to succeed
C. V. Riley an early professional entomologist
C. V. Riley an early professional entomologist
A Quick History of Entomology
A Quick History of Entomology
Two pest species in WA currently under IPM
Two pest species in WA currently under IPM
Control of the Boll Weevil An Integrated Pest Management Success Story
Control of the Boll Weevil An Integrated Pest Management Success Story
Cotton flowers or squares
Cotton flowers or squares
Boll weevil adult, attacking (ovipositing into) a young boll or fruit
Boll weevil adult, attacking (ovipositing into) a young boll or fruit
original detection in U.S.A.,1892
original detection in U.S.A.,1892
Cotton stubble, refuge habitat for overwintering boll weevil adults
Cotton stubble, refuge habitat for overwintering boll weevil adults
Fields used to be heavily sprayed during bloom
Fields used to be heavily sprayed during bloom
Cotton plow down program surveilance & compliance
Cotton plow down program surveilance & compliance
Boll weevil pheromone monitoring trap
Boll weevil pheromone monitoring trap
Biological control supplements other procedures
Biological control supplements other procedures
Epitaph: The boll weevil has become a minor pest; cotton IPM systems
Epitaph: The boll weevil has become a minor pest; cotton IPM systems
~ end ~
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: A Quick History of Entomology. : Dave Hurley. : A Quick History of Entomology.ppt. zip-: 4928 .

A Quick History of Entomology

A Quick History of Entomology.ppt
1 A Quick History of Entomology
2 A Quick History of Entomology

A Quick History of Entomology

Prehistory, humans & insects in nature, lore Ancient History, first recorded descriptions & uses of insects, Greek, Egyptian, Chinese cultures Enlightment Period & Natural History Darwin Industrial Revolution => Advent of large scale agriculture (especially in USA) & 1st professional entomologists. CV Riley & Biocontrol. Elucidation of insect vectored diseases Pesticide era Post-pesticide era & IPM Modern era, beyond traditional IPM Future: destabilized Earth era?

3 Important Concepts about Agriculture and Insects

Important Concepts about Agriculture and Insects

Pest is a relative term (Natural vs. Anthropophilic worlds). Agriculture is the manipulation of nature to serve the food and fiber demands of humans. Agricultural systems are inherently unnatural because of reduced diversity or altered, non-coadapted components and therefore tend toward instability. Insects, weeds, and plant diseases are the major pest groups. Economic and practical goals of pest management frequently do not match. This field is ever-changing; climate instability is the newest, most pervasive factor.

4 Why insects become pests of plants

Why insects become pests of plants

Review: Natural World: no pests; every species plays a part Anthropogenic World: pests in context: damage to food or fiber crops = competition with humans. Some Origins of Plant Pests Scale + Economy: massive agricultural operations with low economic injury levels Ecological disruption: breakdown of natural controls from pesticides, other agricultural practices, habitat detruction Changing crop types: new crops with new pests Host plant switching: native insects move from native host plants to agricultural crops Exotic pests: insects introduced from elsewhere Resistance: resurgence through adaptive response

5 Integrated Pest Mangement

Integrated Pest Mangement

An approach to the control of pests (insects, diseases, weeds) in which all available techniques are evaluated and integrated into a unified program. Evans, 1984

Major points: More a mind-set than a method or set of particular methods. NOT just an alternative to pesticides; may actually include conditional use of pesticides. Concept that pests are best managed rather than eradicated. Concept of stability of whole agro-ecosystem. Concept of living with the pest as part of a stable system (cf. eradication per se.) Concepts of ET & EIL as a quantitative guides for triggering control action. Predictive: requires detailed biological knowledge of pest and environmental factors influencing the system. Depends on concurrent, accurate pest & environmental monitoring.

6 Basic Pest Management Decision Theory

Basic Pest Management Decision Theory

7 Some Types of Insect Control Used in Pest Management Systyems

Some Types of Insect Control Used in Pest Management Systyems

Pesticides Traditional toxics Low-residual chemicals Botanical compounds (e.g. rotenone) Biologicals (hormone analogs) Confusants (pheromones that interrupt mating) Cultural controls hand-picking (small scale) mulching crop rotation habitat modification Biological control inundative augmentative

8 Pesticides (a summary)

Pesticides (a summary)

Any substance that can be used to directly reduce populations of a pest. (Pest = weed, fungus, microbe, insect, vertebrate). Pesticides have been used for thousands of years. There are thousands of types of pesticides and dozens of major categories, based on chemical nature and method of effect. Petrochemicals are the base of most modern conventional pesticides. Unconventional pesticides, especially as used on insects, include microbes, behavior-changing chemicals, hormone analogs, and other taxon-specific substances. In the USA today, a new pesticide must undergo rigorous testing to make sure it works and does not cause unintentional harm to the environment or users. (Such testing is not necessarily adequate.)

9 Pesticides (continued)

Pesticides (continued)

It generally takes many years and millions of dollars to register a new pesticide for field use. Large firms develop and make pesticides; only the most lucrative (not necessarily the most safe or effective) are eventually marketed. Most of the most toxic &/or environmentally harmful pesticides are no longer legal to sell or use in the USA. (But some are still made and used in other countries, e.g. DDT) Pesticide use, on the farm and in the home, is still very high and represents a major environmental challenge. In many instances of pest control, a pesticide is used to guarantee maximum profit margin, i.e. an otherwise harvestable and saleable crop is made more valuable by treating. Insects, in particular, have become resistant to many pesticides. This is now a major factor in both managing insects and in developing new pesticides.

10 Development of pesticide resistance in the USA

Development of pesticide resistance in the USA

multiple resistance, i.e. instances of resistance

Gullen & Cranston, 2005

11 Classical food web exemplifying stability and control of a pest

Classical food web exemplifying stability and control of a pest

complex through a diverse natural enemy community. Ecological studies of food webs and the particular population dynamics of their components led to the theory and eventual application of biological control.

12 Biological Control A component of some IPM systems General Concept:

Biological Control A component of some IPM systems General Concept:

certain species on higher levels of food web (predators, parasitoids, microbes) used to control plant pests (primary consumers) in agroecosystems. Assumptions 1) Natural ecosystem of biocontrol agent is equivalent to target agroecosystem 2) Biocontrol agent will respond similarly to surrogate prey/hosts. Types Natural, native or naturalized elements, background effect Composed, natural enemies purposely introduced or augmented to gain desired control effect

13 Potential Problems with Composed Biocontrol Programs Ecological

Potential Problems with Composed Biocontrol Programs Ecological

mismatch, biocontrol agent non adapted to target system (climate, other predators, parasites, competition, etc.) Differential response, agent responds differently than anticipated (slow growth, different prey/host) System initiation, legal/reulatory, time/money constraints, conflicting research results Backfire! Biocontrol agent may become a pest by attacking other beneficial organisms or by becoming a nuisance, e.g. Multicolored Asian Lady Beetle.

14 Developing a Biocontrol Program Research & Development Essential to

Developing a Biocontrol Program Research & Development Essential to

establishing a working system & protecting environment Pioneer for biocontrol agents Classical: go to pest country or origin (e.g. Riley) Modern: cooperative efforts, genetic manipulation. Test in experimental setting with simulated target system, potential alternative prey/hosts. Artificial rearing in large numbers. Economic parameters developed. Release in real world Monitor & Modify as system changes

15 Classical response of biocontrol agent to host

Classical response of biocontrol agent to host

16 Historical outcome of biocontrol of weeds

Historical outcome of biocontrol of weeds

(Weed biocontrol has generally been more successful than biocontrol of insects.)

17 History of Biological Control Historical uses selected to succeed

History of Biological Control Historical uses selected to succeed

Some very old success stories have survived, e.g. citrus pest control with ants in China. Some early successes in modern agriculture, e.g. Vedalia beetle in citrus. Many failures, some disasterous (e.g. Multi-colored Asian Lady Beetle). Modern milieu: still useful but proceed with great caution.

18 C. V. Riley an early professional entomologist

C. V. Riley an early professional entomologist

The Vedalia beetle [& a parasitic fly, Cryptochaetum iceriae (not shown)] introduced from host country (Australia) to control cottony cushion scale on citrus in USA. The first major modern classical biological control success story.

19 A Quick History of Entomology
20 Two pest species in WA currently under IPM

Two pest species in WA currently under IPM

Apple maggot

Gypsy moth

Monitoring Quarantine Trapping Cultural control Chemical control

Monitoring Quarantine Microbial control

21 Control of the Boll Weevil An Integrated Pest Management Success Story

Control of the Boll Weevil An Integrated Pest Management Success Story

22 Cotton flowers or squares

Cotton flowers or squares

23 Boll weevil adult, attacking (ovipositing into) a young boll or fruit

Boll weevil adult, attacking (ovipositing into) a young boll or fruit

Larva feeding inside the boll.

24 original detection in U.S.A.,1892

original detection in U.S.A.,1892

MEXICO, original range

Range expansion of the cotton boll weevil, Antohonomous grandis, (COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae), a native insect turned into a pest by agricultural modification of habitat & food source.

25 Cotton stubble, refuge habitat for overwintering boll weevil adults

Cotton stubble, refuge habitat for overwintering boll weevil adults

26 Fields used to be heavily sprayed during bloom

Fields used to be heavily sprayed during bloom

But stubble is easily removed by chopping and plow down.

27 Cotton plow down program surveilance & compliance

Cotton plow down program surveilance & compliance

28 Boll weevil pheromone monitoring trap

Boll weevil pheromone monitoring trap

Monitoring is integral to all pest management programs.

29 Biological control supplements other procedures

Biological control supplements other procedures

Laboratory test of boll weevil parasite.

Field release of parasites.

30 Epitaph: The boll weevil has become a minor pest; cotton IPM systems

Epitaph: The boll weevil has become a minor pest; cotton IPM systems

have changed to meet the challenges of new pests and new environmental factors.

31 ~ end ~

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A Quick History of Entomology
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