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Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and
Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and
Outline Overview of Brazilian higher education system A bit of history
Outline Overview of Brazilian higher education system A bit of history
Higher education in Brazil, 2010
Higher education in Brazil, 2010
Higher education in the state of S
Higher education in the state of S
HE in Brazil 1960-1994
HE in Brazil 1960-1994
HE in Brazil 1995-2010
HE in Brazil 1995-2010
Undergraduate enrollment in presential programs, 1980-2010
Undergraduate enrollment in presential programs, 1980-2010
Access: national vs local systems Up to 2009, Brazilian HEIs developed
Access: national vs local systems Up to 2009, Brazilian HEIs developed
Access: standardized vs
Access: standardized vs
The challenge of equity: race/ethnicity and SES
The challenge of equity: race/ethnicity and SES
The challenge of equity vs quality: Prouni (federal program)
The challenge of equity vs quality: Prouni (federal program)
The challenge of quality vs quantity: engineering programs
The challenge of quality vs quantity: engineering programs
The challenge of equity+quantity: the State Technological Colleges, S
The challenge of equity+quantity: the State Technological Colleges, S
Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective -
Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective -
The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 1. General
The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 1. General
Ranking with extra points
Ranking with extra points
The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 2. Best students
The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 2. Best students
Whats next in Brazil: more challenges
Whats next in Brazil: more challenges
Thank you
Thank you

: Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and equity. : Luciane Politi Lotti. : Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and equity.pptx. zip-: 488 .

Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and equity

Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and equity.pptx
1 Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and

Access to higher education in Brazil: the challenges of quality and

equity

Renato H. L. Pedrosa Deputy Head, Center of Advanced Studies Coordinator, Group of Studies in Higher Education

Workshop on Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective Higher School of Economics Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

2 Outline Overview of Brazilian higher education system A bit of history

Outline Overview of Brazilian higher education system A bit of history

1960-2010 Access: national vs local systems Access: standardized tests vs ? The challenge of equity: race/ethnicity and SES The challenge of quality vs quantity: engineering programs The challenge of equity vs quality: Prouni (federal program) The challenge of equity+quantity: the Technological Colleges, S?o Paulo The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs Whats next in Brazil: more challenges

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

3 Higher education in Brazil, 2010

Higher education in Brazil, 2010

Area: 8.5 million sq km Population: 192 million GDP = U$ 2.6 trillion (U$13,500 GDP/capita) Higher Education 2,378 institutions (278 public) 190 universities (101 public) 6.3 million undergrad students enrolled 5.4 million in presential programs 76% of enrollments in the private system 50% in for-profit institutions Net enrollment ratio (18-24 age cohort): 15% Gross enrollment ratio: 27% Federal system 58 universities, 37 Technological Institutes and 4 Colleges 930,000 undergraduate students 820,000 in presential programas 15% of total undergraduate enrollment

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

4 Higher education in the state of S

Higher education in the state of S

o Paulo

22% of the Brazilian population: 41 million 33% of Bazilian GDP = U$ 850 billion (U$21,000 GDP/capita) Higher Education 26% of all enrollment = 1.63 million (1.47 million in presential programs) 32% of graduating class: 260,000 of 830,000 total Net enrollment ratio: 18% (34% gross enrollment ratio) 86% in private HEIs (3/4 of those in for-profit HEIs) Small federal participation, only 1.5% of enrollment State Public HE system Best university system in Brazil 3 universities, 28 campi, 120,000 undergraduate students, 50,000 graduate students 52 State Technical Colleges (FATECs), 55,000 students But still, only 14% of all enrollment is in public HEIs

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

5 HE in Brazil 1960-1994

HE in Brazil 1960-1994

1960: about 140,000 students enrolled in HE 1980: number had grown to about 1.4 million (+900%) 1980-1994: Longest period of economic stagnation in Brazils republican history Little development in HE, public or private Enrollment in 1994 = 1.7 million (+21%)

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

6 HE in Brazil 1995-2010

HE in Brazil 1995-2010

Economic growth Expansion of private sector New National Law of Education (1996) New paths for diversification of system Deregulation Universalization of basic education (1st-8th grades) and increase of number of secondary education graduates (though that has stagnated recently) HE enrollment in 2010: 6.3 million (+270% over 1994 figure) BUT: most growth was in the private sector, mostly in the for-profit sybsector

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

7 Undergraduate enrollment in presential programs, 1980-2010

Undergraduate enrollment in presential programs, 1980-2010

Census of Higher Education, Ministry of Education, Brazil

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

8 Access: national vs local systems Up to 2009, Brazilian HEIs developed

Access: national vs local systems Up to 2009, Brazilian HEIs developed

their own admission systems Vestibular (non-standardized oral/written/MC examinations) Natl Ed Law-NEL of 1968 required HEIs to use vestibular With new Natl Ed. Law-NEL (1996), HEIs had freedom to choose methodology, but all selective universities kept to the vestibular tradition 1998: Ministry of Education-ME starts High School National Exam (ENEM) (non-standardized, written essay + 68 MC items, 4hr test) 1998-2008: many HEIs start to use ENEM as part of their admission systems 2009: ME changes ENEM and establishes a national admissions system (SISU) Standardized via IRT WE + 180 MC items, 2-day test (total = 9hrs) SISU allows for applicants to choose among all participant HEIs Many federal HEIs adopted the system, but not the most selective

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

9 Access: standardized vs

Access: standardized vs

Vestibular still enjoys a strong appeal Credibility: no security issues at more selective HEIs Perceived as just (same for all) Meritocratic: score is indication of present performance Admission is a prize for that performance Score usually assumed as good predictor of future performance ENEM, although standardized, lack same credibiliy, due to security issues that have plagued editions since 2009 Research indicates standardized tests have limitations, may show bias against certain groups (minorities, women) and that HS grades and other applicants characteristics may play a relevant role in predicting future academic performance SAT and later performance (J. Soares, W. Bowen et al) SAT and gender (U Cal studies) Brazil: Unicamp study about vestibular,later performance, SES and gender (Pedrosa et al) Very few alternative systems; affirmative action comes as some sort of remedy for perceived elitism of pure Vestibular/Enem systems

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

10 The challenge of equity: race/ethnicity and SES

The challenge of equity: race/ethnicity and SES

Over 50% of the young (18-24) in Brazil declare themselves as blacks (B) or pardos (P) (of mixed race/color) 30% in the state of S?o Paulo, but about 50% in Rio de Janeiro and over 70% in some NE states like Bahia Overall in Brazil, about xx% of enrolled students belong in that group, less so in public universities In the public universities in S?o Paulo, less than 15% of the students say they belong in that group. In the public universities in SP, about 25% of enrolled students have families with a total yearly income of U$20,000 or less, even though group comprises about 50% of the SP population But: situation was much worse 10 or 15 years ago. For example, in the SP public universities, as late as 2004, only 10% or less of the student pop. belonged in the B/P group What happened: expansion + affirmative action policies

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

11 The challenge of equity vs quality: Prouni (federal program)

The challenge of equity vs quality: Prouni (federal program)

Started 2005 Public is low-income students graduating from public HS system Fiscal waiver for private HEIs About 120,000 admissions per semester currently, one million scholarships granted since 2005 Uses ENEM as only admission criterion Detailed data related to program is not made public Theres provision for quality requirements for programs/institutions to participate, but data and information regarding compliance has not been released as well

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

12 The challenge of quality vs quantity: engineering programs

The challenge of quality vs quantity: engineering programs

In 2008, 32,000 new engineers graduated from Brazilian HEIs Some 26,000 participated in the Enade test thats part of the National System of Higher Ed Assessment (Sinaes) Enade is composed of general education and subject area items, both written and MC Program is scored 1-5 using its students scores, 5 being the top one The Ministry of Education considers that levels 4 and 5 should be considered adequate But among lower scores in level 4 one finds averages that are half of top scores Even so, only 28% of all graduating engineering students were enrolled in programs scoring 4 or 5, which indicates that most graduates lacked very basic knowledge expected from engineers Splitting public vs private: 48% of those enrolled in public HEIs and 11% of those in private HEIs belonged in 4/5 level programs

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

13 The challenge of equity+quantity: the State Technological Colleges, S

The challenge of equity+quantity: the State Technological Colleges, S

o Paulo

Started in 1969, but only in the last 10 years has seen expressive growth Offers 3-year programs with direct links to job market (but also in some traditional areas, like technical health training) Spreaded across the state, each campus offers programs related to the local economy State investment has grown 5-fold in the Fatec system from 2005 to 2010 No cuts in the state universities budgets Employability 1 year after graduation: 92% Some programs reach 96% or more: construction, information systems Average monthly salary 1 year after graduation $1,500 About 75% of average salary in traditional academic careers in Brazil More than wages in some traditional academic degrees Follows OECD countries average

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

14 Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective -

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective -

Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

15 The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 1. General

The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 1. General

affirmative action program - PAAIS

Based on a study that followed all students admitted during the years 1994-1997 until they graduated or dropped out Pedrosa et all, 2007, Higher Ed Management and Policy (OECD) The study showed that students that had graduated from public HS or had low income or were women, performed better during their academic life than the complementary groups University used that info to develop a program that attributed extra points in the vestibular, increasing their chance to being admitted

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

16 Ranking with extra points

Ranking with extra points

Ranking without extra points

Ranking at end of 4th year

MedIcal School/UNICAMP 2003-2004: 11 students coming from public schools - 10% 2005: 33 students coming from public schools 30% 2003-2004: 5 blacks/pardos 2005: 11 blacks/pardos

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

17 The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 2. Best students

The challenge of quality+equity: Unicamps programs 2. Best students

program - PROFIS

Facts Campinas has 96 public high schools In 2008-2009, more than half didnt have a single student enrolled in Unicamps programs Action Unicamp developed a Texas style program, admitting at least one student from every HS in the city, as many as two, in a new program, with a general education flavor Students would choose their major after two years in that program, including the most selective (medicine, engineering, etc.) Results (Andrade et al, preprint Unicamp, 2012) Still in the beginning of second year, not much info on academic performance Drop-out rate is lower than Unicamps average Much lower SES compared to general Unicamp student pop. (actually, lower than general SP pop.) Parents with much lower educational level than general Unicamp student pop. More black/pardos than in the SP population (even more than in the Campinas pop.)

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

18 Whats next in Brazil: more challenges

Whats next in Brazil: more challenges

Its clear not enough is being done across the board in terms of access and equity in Brazil, especially if quality is brought into the picture Brazils HE system is plagued by governance issues, including the public sector Brazils public HE system is not as efficient as could be, student/faculty ratio is in the low 10s Federal system is quite unequal in most aspects, from financing to academic qualifications Still, it is much better qualified than the private sector The not-for-profit sector is disappearing, now more than 2/3 of the private sector is for-profit Most recent growth is happening in the less qualified part of the private sector, including strategic areas like engineering Very recently, most growth is in distance learning, with dubious quality and usually low efficiency

Pedrosa Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

19 Thank you

Thank you

Renato H. L. Pedrosa renato.pedrosa@reitoria.unicamp.br http://www.gr.unicamp.br/ceav/english/index.php http://www.revistaensinosuperior.gr.unicamp.br/

Equity in Higher Education: the International Perspective - Higher School of Economics, Moscow, April 19-20, 2012

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