<<  Background, Healthcare Academic Medicine Developments in MeteoAlarm for Europe  >>
Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying
Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying
McNiff: Action Research: Principles and Practice (1988:4-6)
McNiff: Action Research: Principles and Practice (1988:4-6)
Action Research Processes
Action Research Processes
Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral
Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral
Reconnaissance: identifying and defining the problematic issue
Reconnaissance: identifying and defining the problematic issue
Planned solution (collaborative assessed task, with input from
Planned solution (collaborative assessed task, with input from
The task: students had to
The task: students had to
Rank Scale concept (Coulthard 1985:121)
Rank Scale concept (Coulthard 1985:121)
Sample sentence to analyse  After Dan Brown
Sample sentence to analyse After Dan Brown
Sample rank scale sentence analysis
Sample rank scale sentence analysis
Acting out the process
Acting out the process
Acting out the process 2 with new  more reflective  tools Group
Acting out the process 2 with new more reflective tools Group
Marking Scheme: 50% module mark group task + individual reflective
Marking Scheme: 50% module mark group task + individual reflective
Reflection - evaluation of data and re-planning (at the end of each
Reflection - evaluation of data and re-planning (at the end of each
ATLAS ti
ATLAS ti
ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis
ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis
Troublesome grammar knowledge
Troublesome grammar knowledge
Other problems: students beliefs (Wenden 1991) and need to compare
Other problems: students beliefs (Wenden 1991) and need to compare
Factors affecting understanding of key concepts
Factors affecting understanding of key concepts
Re-planning  changes from phase one to phase two
Re-planning changes from phase one to phase two
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (1)
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (1)
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (2)
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (2)
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (3)
Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (3)
Other emerging data
Other emerging data
Other emerging data 2
Other emerging data 2
Elusive nature of troublesome grammar knowledge
Elusive nature of troublesome grammar knowledge
Collaboration helps
Collaboration helps
Success
Success
Conclusion
Conclusion
Any questions
Any questions

: Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge. : George Lah-Anyane. : Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge.ppt. zip-: 902 .

Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge

Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge.ppt
1 Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying

Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying

troublesome grammar knowledge

Marina Orsini-Jones Faculty of Business, Environment and Society Coventry University m.orsini@coventry.ac.uk

Linking Teaching and Research in Languages, Linguistics and Area Studies University of Southampton, 10/07/07

2 McNiff: Action Research: Principles and Practice (1988:4-6)

McNiff: Action Research: Principles and Practice (1988:4-6)

Applied to classrooms, action research is an approach to improving education thorough change, by encouraging teachers to be aware of their own practice, to be critical of that practice, and to be prepared to change it.() It is research WITH rather than research ON. () (It) encourages teachers to become adventurous and critical in their thinking, to develop theories and rationales for their practice, and to give reasoned justification for their public claims to professional knowledge. It is this systematic ENQUIRY MADE PUBLIC which distinguishes the activity as research.

3 Action Research Processes

Action Research Processes

Reconnaissance Planning Acting Reflecting Re-planning (and cycle starts again)

4 Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral

Figure 1: The Action Research Spiral

After Kemmis and McTaggart (1988:14) cited in Hopkins (1993:48).

5 Reconnaissance: identifying and defining the problematic issue

Reconnaissance: identifying and defining the problematic issue

Focus group research and students results in language tasks highlighted lack of grammatical awareness amongst languages students (first year undergraduates majoring in one or more languages); Subject benchmark requirement that students should develop appropriate linguistic tools and metalanguage to describe and analyse the main features of the language(s) studied

6 Planned solution (collaborative assessed task, with input from

Planned solution (collaborative assessed task, with input from

students and staff)

Design of a group grammar project for a mandatory skills module to address the issue of lack of grammatical competence. Use of the Hallidayan rank scale grammar classification. Syllabus to evolve on a yearly basis according to action-research findings. Task to include both individual elements and group ones as: Without connection people cannot grow, yet without separation they cannot relate (Ackermann, 1996:32).

7 The task: students had to

The task: students had to

Create a website containing linked web pages. Analyse a sentence on each web page according to the rank scale concept and categories. At least one of the chosen sentences (minimum of 3) had to be in one of the target languages studied, and the other(s) in English. Choose sentences from a list given to them, and each group had to create the relevant analysis and website. Upload the website into the Virtual Learning Environment (WebCT)s collaborative group area. Present their website and grammar analysis to the rest of the class with the support of a PowerPoint slide presentation to highlight the major issues encountered while completing the project. Write an individual report on the experience of building the grammar project.

8 Rank Scale concept (Coulthard 1985:121)

Rank Scale concept (Coulthard 1985:121)

A first assumption of a categories description is that the analytic units can be arranged on a rank-scale which implies that units are related in a consists of relationship with smaller units combining with other units of the same size to form larger ones. Thus a sentence consists of one or more clauses, each of which in turn consists of one or more groups, and so on. The structure of each unit is expressed in terms of permissible combinations of units from the rank below, the structure of a clause for example being described in terms of nominal, verbal, adverbial and prepositional groups.

9 Sample sentence to analyse  After Dan Brown

Sample sentence to analyse After Dan Brown

Bundling his black cassock around himself, the bishop climbed into the back seat and settled in for the infuriatingly long drive to the country retreat.

10 Sample rank scale sentence analysis

Sample rank scale sentence analysis

11 Acting out the process

Acting out the process

Group work: webpage of grammar analysis 2004-2005 (Word/Compact HTML) sample group project page (word classification)

12 Acting out the process 2 with new  more reflective  tools Group

Acting out the process 2 with new more reflective tools Group

grammar analysis with PebblePAD (ePortfolio/Webfolio tool) sentences/clauses

13 Marking Scheme: 50% module mark group task + individual reflective

Marking Scheme: 50% module mark group task + individual reflective

report 30% module mark

Website: grammar content - 30 marks Website: technical aspects (clarity/interface/navigation/colour-scheme/DDAIV friendly) - 10 marks Reflective Power Point presentation (group): reflective content and presentation skills - 10 marks Individual reflective report in Word (1000 w.): reflective content and report style (30 marks)

14 Reflection - evaluation of data and re-planning (at the end of each

Reflection - evaluation of data and re-planning (at the end of each

phase (between 2002-2007)

Quantitative data (marks in the grammar project). Qualitative data: semi-structured interviews, focus group interviews, students reflections in reflective journal, in individual reports for grammar project and on the VLEs discussion forums; staffs reflections. Also: comparison between the students personal assessment of their level of proficiency in grammar analysis (they were asked to predict their grade and identify the problems encountered) and their actual marks for the grammar component of the project.

15 ATLAS ti

ATLAS ti

ATLAS.ti is a workbench for the qualitative analysis of large bodies of textual, graphical, audio, and video data. It offers a variety of tools for accomplishing the tasks associated with any systematic approach to unstructured data, e.g., data that cannot be meaningfully analyzed by formal, statistical approaches. ATLAS.ti offers tools to manage, extract, compare, explore, and reassemble meaningful pieces from large amounts of data in creative, flexible, yet systematic ways.

16 ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis

ATLAS ti: software for qualitative analysis

17 Troublesome grammar knowledge

Troublesome grammar knowledge

morpheme clause phrase words (e.g. adverbs; possessive adjectives vs possessive pronouns) (but also sentence and paragraph structure in general)

18 Other problems: students beliefs (Wenden 1991) and need to compare

Other problems: students beliefs (Wenden 1991) and need to compare

qualitative and quantitative data

Some students stated that they had not understood the concept (and/or its components), but analysed the sentences well and had a good level of understanding. Others were extremely confident in their assessment of their performance in grammar analysis, but their results betrayed lack of understanding.

19 Factors affecting understanding of key concepts

Factors affecting understanding of key concepts

new to me terminology (students opposed to change, refusing new type of analysis, refusing its semantics); prior (mis)knowledge of terms such as phrase or clause - lecturers had to undo their pre-conceived definitions of the grammar categories involved the cohorts composition and the variety of nationalities present in it (e.g. 14 different ones in academic year 2003-2004); prior knowledge - background and previous grammar learning experience; reliance in group work upon peers who found the grammatical categories troublesome but decided nevertheless to take a lead in the analysis of the sentences; misunderstanding of the concepts and lack of ability to ask lecturers for help; lack of motivation towards the module.

20 Re-planning  changes from phase one to phase two

Re-planning changes from phase one to phase two

Doubling of the time allocated to explaining grammar in general (increased from two to four face-to-face sessions) and morphemes in particular, and changing the assessment of the module to better reflect this increase in grammar input; Provision of more samples of grammatical analysis; Provision of more collaborative practice/workshops on morphemes following the lecture on grammar; Uploading of all the grammatical explanations and exercises onto the VLE for those students who had not been able to attend; Creation of a dedicated grammar forum in the VLEs discussion area, enabling students to air their concerns.

21 Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (1)

Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (1)

22 Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (2)

Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (2)

23 Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (3)

Re-planning: more exercises on meta grammar analysis on the VLE (3)

24 Other emerging data

Other emerging data

On the whole students from continental Europe are less challenged by grammar than their British counterparts (and are not scared of grammar) - obvious advantage of French students in understanding the rank scale concept due to their previous exposure to metalinguistic grammar analysis in the French education system; On the whole British students acknowledge that their weakness is English grammar and that they wish they had been taught it at school; Many British students understand grammar in the target language studied better than English grammar (grammar analysis shows this);

25 Other emerging data 2

Other emerging data 2

Negative attitudes towards grammar (difficult, boring) have been fostered at school (British schools); Foreign lecturers teaching in this country are not always fully aware of this grammar gap and assume a basic level of grammar knowledge on the part of their students (which they dont have).

26 Elusive nature of troublesome grammar knowledge

Elusive nature of troublesome grammar knowledge

I understood it in class, it was when we went away, and I just seemed to have completely forgotten everything that we did on it, and I think that was when I struggled because when we were sat in here, wed obviously got help if we had questions, but I did grasp the concept of breaking it down, but when it came to applying it to the project (...) I couldnt. I understood the lectures and everything that we did on it but couldnt actually apply it, I think that was the difficulty

27 Collaboration helps

Collaboration helps

I found the first assessment the most challenging. This was to create a web page, breaking up the grammar of a particular sentence in one of the target languages and in English. I think that this was because it was the first assessment and the fact that I was still settling at university. I had never really studied grammar in this depth and found it quite difficult to grasp at first. However, as we worked as a group, I began to understand more.I have learnt a lot of grammar and now know all the different aspects of grammar, such as clauses, morphemes, etc. This has helped me with my two languages a lot. (Written anonymous feedback, May 2004, highlights by author of this paper).

28 Success

Success

`From doing this project I have definitely learned a lot more about grammar. Initially English grammar such as morphemes and derivation and inflection. This has in turn helped my understanding of foreign grammar. I think English people would benefit if we were taught grammar at a younger age, as people are in foreign countries. There was a lot of information to learn and take inLearning some terms for certain words (nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions) was also helpful as it is helping me with understanding both English and the target languages I am studying. (Portfolio reflective entry about the grammar project, May 2004).

29 Conclusion

Conclusion

The identification of troublesome knowledge can underpin student-centred curricular design via action research across a course, not just for one module. A-R findings can inform teaching and learning strategies that are targeted at the troublesome knowledge identified. With reference to the findings, it might be time to re-think grammar teaching in the UK and have a cross-sector exchange of ideas on this topic (with possible link with literacy/employability).

30 Any questions

Any questions

For further details: Orsini-Jones, M. and Jones, D. (2007) Supporting Collaborative Grammar Learning via a Virtual Learning Environment Arts and Humanities in Higher Education. 6:(1) 90-106.

Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/action-research-for-curriculum-developments-in-languages-identifying-troublesome-grammar-knowledge-187738.html
c

29
900igr.net > > > Action research for curriculum developments in languages: identifying troublesome grammar knowledge