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Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning
Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning
Basic Premise
Basic Premise
Modeling
Modeling
Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate
Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate
The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps
The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps
Step 1: Attentional Processes
Step 1: Attentional Processes
Step 2: Retention Processes
Step 2: Retention Processes
Step 3: Production Processes
Step 3: Production Processes
Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes
Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes
Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-efficacy
Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-efficacy
Self-Efficacy
Self-Efficacy
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy
Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification
Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Television and Aggressive Behaviors
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Television and Aggressive Behaviors
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory
Assessment of Bandura’s Theory
Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning
Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning

Презентация: «Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning». Автор: Mary Shuttlesworth. Файл: «Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 128 КБ.

Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning

содержание презентации «Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning

Albert Bandura: Social / Observational Learning

2 Basic Premise

Basic Premise

We learn behavior through observation Vicarious reinforcement: Learn through observing consequences of behaviors of others

3 Modeling

Modeling

Observe behavior of others and repeat the behavior Bobo doll studies (1963) Disinhibition: Weakening of inhibition through exposure to a model

4 Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate

Factors Influencing Modeling: Impact Tendency to Imitate

Characteristics of the models: similarity, age, sex, status, prestige, simple vs. complex behavior Characteristics of observers: Low self-confidence, low self-esteem, reinforcement for imitation Reward consequences of behavior: Directly witnessing associated rewards

5 The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps

The Observational Learning Process: 4 Steps

Attentional processes Retention processes Production processes Incentive and motivational processes

6 Step 1: Attentional Processes

Step 1: Attentional Processes

Developing cognitive processes to pay attention to a model- more developed processes allow for better attention Must observe the model accurately enough to imitate behavior

7 Step 2: Retention Processes

Step 2: Retention Processes

To later imitate behavior, must remember aspects of the behavior Retain information in 2 ways: Imaginal internal representation: Visual image Ex: Forming a mental picture Verbal system: Verbal description of behavior Ex: Silently rehearsing steps in behavior

8 Step 3: Production Processes

Step 3: Production Processes

Taking imaginal and verbal representations and translating into overt behavior- practice behaviors Receive feedback on accuracy of behavior- how well have you imitated the modeled behavior? Important in mastering difficult skills Ex: Driving a car

9 Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes

Step 4: Incentive and Motivational Processes

With incentives, observation more quickly becomes action, pay more attention, retain more information Incentive to learn influenced by anticipated reinforcements

10 Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-efficacy

Aspects of the Self: Self-reinforcement and Self-efficacy

Self-reinforcement: Rewards or punishments given to oneself for reaching, exceeding or falling short of personal expectations Ex: Pride, shame, guilt Self-efficacy: Belief in ability to cope with life Meeting standards: Enhances self-efficacy Failure to meet standards: Reduces self-efficacy

11 Self-Efficacy

Self-Efficacy

High self-efficacy Believe can deal effectively with life events Confident in abilities Expect to overcome obstacles effectively Low self-efficacy Feel unable to exercise control over life Low confidence, believe all efforts are futile

12 Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy

Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy

Performance attainment Most influential Role of feedback More we achieve, more we believe we can achieve Leads to feelings of competency and control

13 Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy

Sources of Information in Determining Self-efficacy

Vicarious experience Seeing others perform successfully If they can, I can too Verbal persuasion Verbal reminders of abilities Physiological and emotional arousal Related to perceived ability to cope Calm, composed feelings: Higher self-efficacy Nervous, agitated feelings: Lower self-efficacy

14 Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Childhood Infancy: Direct modeling immediately following observation, develop self-efficacy with control over environment By age 2: Developed attentional, retention and production processes to model behavior some time after observation, not immediately

15 Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Adolescence Involves coping with new demands Success depends on level of self-efficacy established during childhood

16 Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Adulthood: 2 Periods Young adulthood: Adjustments: Career, marriage, parenthood High self-efficacy to adjust successfully Middle adulthood: Adjustment: Reevaluate career, family life Need to find opportunities to continue to enhance self-efficacy

17 Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Developmental Stages of Modeling and Self-efficacy

Old age: Decline in mental/physical function, retirement Requires reappraisal of abilities Belief in ability to perform a task is key throughout the lifespan

18 Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification

Application of Social Learning Theory: Behavior Modification

Fears and phobias Guided participation: Observe and imitate Covert modeling: Imaginal Anxiety Fear of medical treatment Test anxiety

19 Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy

Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Self-efficacy

Age and gender differences Physical appearance Academic performance Career choice and job performance Physical health Mental health Coping with stress

20 Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Television and Aggressive Behaviors

Assessment of Bandura’s Theory: Television and Aggressive Behaviors

Relationship between watching violence and imitating violence

21 Assessment of Bandura’s Theory

Assessment of Bandura’s Theory

Strengths: Focus on observable behavior- research support Practical application to real-world problems Large-scale changes

22 Albert Bandura: Social Observational Learning
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