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Alex II and Alex III- revision
Alex II and Alex III- revision
Sample Essay Titles
Sample Essay Titles
Aim for a thematic approach Make sure you know how much Alex II and
Aim for a thematic approach Make sure you know how much Alex II and
Alex II
Alex II
Alex III
Alex III
Tsar Liberator
Tsar Liberator
Emancipation- views
Emancipation- views
Other reforms  for revision
Other reforms for revision
BUT
BUT
Alex III- the Reactionary
Alex III- the Reactionary
But
But
Policy of Russification- key features
Policy of Russification- key features
Task
Task
Compare and contrast- thematic structure
Compare and contrast- thematic structure
Alex II and Alex II- compare and contrast
Alex II and Alex II- compare and contrast

: Alex II and Alex III- revision. : wis. : Alex II and Alex III- revision.ppt. zip-: 117 .

Alex II and Alex III- revision

Alex II and Alex III- revision.ppt
1 Alex II and Alex III- revision

Alex II and Alex III- revision

2 Sample Essay Titles

Sample Essay Titles

Compare and contrast the policies of Alexander II (1855-81) and Alexander III (1881-94) of Russia. For what reasons, and with what results, did Alexander II try to reform Russian institutions? Analyse the strengths and weaknesses of Russia in the second half of the nineteenth century. Alexander II tried to reform Russian institutions only because the Crimean War showed that Russia was no longer a great military power. Use specific examples of Alexanders reforms to show to what extent you agree with this assertion. Last Specific focus on Foreign Policy question was in 2001 Despite his apparently liberal policies, Alexander II was just as conservative as Alexander III. To what extent do you agree with this statement? REFORM VS REACTION REFORM OF RUSSIAN INSTITUTIONS

3 Aim for a thematic approach Make sure you know how much Alex II and

Aim for a thematic approach Make sure you know how much Alex II and

Alex III reformed Russian institutions- this can then help you do compare / contrast or success / failure.

4 Alex II

Alex II

Key phrase often used in exam questions is the reform of Russian institutions be sure to state what they are- (army, judiciary, education, local government, serfdom) this then sets up a thematic approach to the essay. Any essay on Alex II domestic policy should deal with the Emancipation of the Serfs. Alex II as Tsar Liberator- again use the institutions and particularly the Emancipation of the Serfs. The emancipation of the serfs in Russia was the only genuine reform introduced by Alexander II. To what extent do you agree with this assertion?- again you would start with Serfdom and then move onto other institutions

5 Alex III

Alex III

Key phrase often used is reaction / counter reform- be clear to explain this. How far was he a reactionary? He did make some reforms

6 Tsar Liberator

Tsar Liberator

Recognised that reform needed to come from above to avoid forces of change from below. Impact of defeat in the Crimean War. Serfdom was inefficient- economic reasons for emancipation (1861). Emancipation of the Serfs- state engineering- broke the feudal contract- the Mir system was strengthened- some local autonomy for peasants- more freedom of movement for peasants/ rise of a new class of peasant- BUT redemption payments tied peasants to the land- Mir exercised control over the peasants in the same way the gentry had/ Civil disturbances

7 Emancipation- views

Emancipation- views

Moral improvement Great step forward for Russia Decline in the overall size of peasants land holding Opportunity missed by Alex to reform further due to his commitment to Autocracy

8 Other reforms  for revision

Other reforms for revision

Admin / Govt setting up of the ZEMSTVA rural local councils local initiative- local government for the people- but still dominated by the nobility. JUDICIARY- reforms dealt with various abuses of law- dealt with corruption within justice system. Trial by jury / Public trials. Pay for judges. Police / Judge role redefined. MILITARY- Milyutins reforms- training of officers / Military Code- response to Crimean defeat. Conscription / Education of soliders- overall failure with defeats in 1904 / 1917 EDUCATION- zemstva controlled rather than the church- liberalisation of education- women / class / curriculum choice- university independence. NOTE OVERALL INFLUENCE OF ARISTOCRACY WHICH LIMITS SCALE OF REFORMS

9 BUT

BUT

To what extent was he a reformer?

Autocracy- reforms made to ensure its survival. Nobility still had great influence in Russian institutions. Radical in the context of Tsarism- but not enough. Reforms gave rise to political consciousness. Ultimately Alex II reliant upon repression to uphold the regime.

10 Alex III- the Reactionary

Alex III- the Reactionary

Personality- assassination of Father- - western style govt not Russian. Wanted to rule as an autocrat- Black Tsar. High levels of repression- formation of Okhrana. High levels of censorship. Attempts to turn back the clock on the reform of Russian institutions Controls on judiciary- justice of peace (volost) abolished- replaced with Land Captains- nobility influence again. In camera trials allowed. Crimes against state officials heard without a jury Zemstva came under the control of the Ministry of the Interior Education- women denied access to higher courses. Fees increased. Church influence over primary schools increased.

11 But

But

there were reforms

1883 Peasants Land Bank- loans to peasants. Abolition of poll tax 1886 1885 Nobles Land Bank 1882 Child Labour Laws- working hours

12 Policy of Russification- key features

Policy of Russification- key features

Emphasis on Russian language, culture, religion and identity. Use of the education system to support this. Conscription into the army. Closure of Jewish schools 1881- 1883 Pogroms- attacks on Jewish businesses / property. 1882 Provisional Rules measures to restrict the civil rights of Jews- e.g. no right of appeal in court.

13 Task

Task

Reasons and results of Alex II reform of Russian institutions Reasons and results of Alex IIIs counter reforms.

14 Compare and contrast- thematic structure

Compare and contrast- thematic structure

Personality. Attitude towards autocracy. Attitude towards reform of Russian institutions. Attitude towards opposition groups. Foreign Policy. Use of repression / Russification

15 Alex II and Alex II- compare and contrast

Alex II and Alex II- compare and contrast

Comparison

Contrast

Alex II and Alex III- revision
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