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America: The Beginnings
America: The Beginnings
I. Bering Straight (Beringia) Land Bridge
I. Bering Straight (Beringia) Land Bridge
Southwestern Cliff Dwellings
Southwestern Cliff Dwellings
Long Houses
Long Houses
Teepees
Teepees
European Exploration of the Americas
European Exploration of the Americas
MANY OF THOSE DESIRES FOR EXPLORATION HAD ALREADY EXISTED FOR
MANY OF THOSE DESIRES FOR EXPLORATION HAD ALREADY EXISTED FOR
III
III
Spanish
Spanish
Spanish (contd)
Spanish (contd)
America: The Beginnings
America: The Beginnings
Aztec Empire
Aztec Empire
Inca Empire
Inca Empire
Spanish (contd)
Spanish (contd)
Spanish (contd)
Spanish (contd)
French
French
IV
IV
French (contd)
French (contd)
French (contd)
French (contd)
Dutch
Dutch
V. Dutch
V. Dutch
Dutch (contd)
Dutch (contd)
VI
VI
English Puritanism
English Puritanism
English (contd)
English (contd)
English
English
Pilgrims
Pilgrims
Religious Dissent
Religious Dissent
Religious Dissent (contd)
Religious Dissent (contd)
Maryland and the Carolinas
Maryland and the Carolinas
VII
VII

: America: The Beginnings. : ROBERT ALVERADO. : America: The Beginnings.ppt. zip-: 672 .

America: The Beginnings

America: The Beginnings.ppt
1 America: The Beginnings

America: The Beginnings

2 I. Bering Straight (Beringia) Land Bridge

I. Bering Straight (Beringia) Land Bridge

25,000 B.C. Hunter- Gatherers 4 mill. 20 mill. in Mex.

3 Southwestern Cliff Dwellings

Southwestern Cliff Dwellings

4 Long Houses

Long Houses

5 Teepees

Teepees

6 European Exploration of the Americas

European Exploration of the Americas

7 MANY OF THOSE DESIRES FOR EXPLORATION HAD ALREADY EXISTED FOR

MANY OF THOSE DESIRES FOR EXPLORATION HAD ALREADY EXISTED FOR

CENTURIES, SO WHAT CHANGED?

NEW TECHNOLOGY: COMPASS GLOBE RUDDER IMPROVED SHIP BUILDING TECHNIQUES AND DESIGN QUADRANT (IMPROVED ABILITY TO DETERMINE LATITUDE BASED ON ALTITUDE OF STARS) MAPS FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES MARCO POLOS WRITINGS

8 III

III

Spanish

Hernando Cortez Francisco Pizarro

9 Spanish

Spanish

Hernando Cortez and Francisco Pizarro Convert natives to Catholicism Economic factors 1519 Cortez invaded Mexico and met the Aztecs in Tenochitlan (Mexico City) 2 yrs. later Aztecs defeated? Spanish had better technology (ie: guns, horses, steel), and diseases (ie: smallpox)

10 Spanish (contd)

Spanish (contd)

3. 1531-Pizarro defeats the Incas in the Andes mountains. ***1565, the first permanent European settlement in North America, St. Augustine, was founded in what is now Florida

11 America: The Beginnings
12 Aztec Empire

Aztec Empire

13 Inca Empire

Inca Empire

14 Spanish (contd)

Spanish (contd)

Gold was shipped back to Spain Large Spanish Empire was created in N. & S. America In N. America, missionaries and economic opportunists settled in Southwester U.S. and Florida Effects of Spanish conquests Decrease in native populations Harsh rule; Native Americans were near-slaves on Spanish plantations Horses altered Native American life?travel, follow game

15 Spanish (contd)

Spanish (contd)

16 French

French

Samuel de Champlain Fur Trade

17 IV

IV

French

1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec Few French came: climate, few incentives to leave France 65% who came to Quebec, returned home! Huguenots-French Protestants, who settled in the Americas. French Intersts: Catholic Converts; not as harsh as the Spanish Farming?trapping and fur trading

18 French (contd)

French (contd)

Jesuits-Missionary group with settlements in FL, NM, Paraguay, and French territory in N.America?organized with military precision and order Jesuit Jaques Marquette & fur trader Louis Joliet reached the Mississippi River, WI, and AK Robert La Salle explored the Mississippi River and name the territory Louisiana (after Louis XIV)

19 French (contd)

French (contd)

Effects of the French Disease wiped out @30% of Native Americans they encountered Bloody wars with the Native Americans over the fur trade Had more Catholic converts?didnt require forced labor (ie: Spanish) SUCCESSES: Fur trade industry, native converts FAILURS: large numbers of settlers never took root there

20 Dutch

Dutch

Henry Hudson? Perhaps he never sat for a portrait

21 V. Dutch

V. Dutch

Commercial/economic interests 1609, Henry Hudson discovered and named the Hudson River Established trading centers in present-day NY, Manhattan, NJ, CT, PA SUCCESSES: Successful fur traders FAILURES: Many bloody conflicts with the Native Americans, limited economic endeavors

22 Dutch (contd)

Dutch (contd)

IN 1624 THE DUTCH PURCHASED WHAT TODAY IS THE ISLAND OF MANHATTAN IN NEW YORK FROM LOCAL INDIANS FOR THE EQUIVALENT OF $24. THE DUTCH NAMED THE AREA NEW AMSTERDAM. THE DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY create COLONY OF NEW NETHERLAND WHEN 30 FAMILIES SETTLED ALONG THE DELAWARE AND HUDSON RIVERS AND GOVERNORS ISLAND. THE DUTCH CONTROLLED THIS AREA UNTIL 1664 WHEN THE GOVERNOR SURRENDERED THE TERRITORY TO THE BRITISH

23 VI

VI

English

Reasons they came: England after 1550 High inflation Decline in wages Huge population growth? overcrowding Religion Puritans? followers of John Calvin, left England to the Americas to practice their religion free of English civil or religious authorities Remained a part of the Church of England aka Anglican Church, wanted to make the Church of England, purer, hence Puritans

24 English Puritanism

English Puritanism

Believed in predestination and in the authority of Scripture over papal authority.

25 English (contd)

English (contd)

Separatists aka Pilgrims? wanted to separate from the Church of England entirely First Permanent English settlement: Jamestown, VA, founded in 1607 by John Smith. Successful because of the cultivation of TOBACCO

26 English

English

Tobacco needed workers Indentured Servants-Had to work for a number of years (ie: 3, or 10) for free passage to the Americas African slaves came in 1619 House of Burgesses, 1619? 1st representative government in any British Colony

27 Pilgrims

Pilgrims

New England Colonization 1620, Mayflower Compact? the Pilgrim settlement would have a government answerable to the will of the governed (self-government) 1691, joined the Massachusetts Bay Colony est. by the Puritans MA/VA Colonies both had Rep. Gov. VA had slaves; Mass. didnt

28 Religious Dissent

Religious Dissent

Mass. Bay Colony? purpose to SERVE GOD Dissent NOT tolerate Roger Williams? believed Puritans were still too close to the Church of England Preached Total Separation of Church and State Settled in Providence, Rhode Island Anne Hutchinson? claimed to have received revelations from God Founded Portsmouth near Narragansett Bay

29 Religious Dissent (contd)

Religious Dissent (contd)

John Davenport & Thomas Hooker establish CT., 1662.

30 Maryland and the Carolinas

Maryland and the Carolinas

Propriety Coloniesgiven to single individuals or groups of individuals; not a company Marylandsettled 1632, John Calvert Refuge for English Catholics N. & S. Carolina? used indentured servants and Native Americans at first; then turned to slavery when they needed large numbers and after indentured servants gained freedom

31 VII

VII

Effects of English, French, and British Settlement

Disease killed many Agricultural products changed the ecosystem Population patterns changed: influx of slaves, loss of many Nat. Ams., increase in Europeans Gradually introduced representative gov. and freedom of religion-? which were concepts not popular in much of Europe

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