<<  Nationalism in India 1920-1947 English Monolingual Lexicography  >>
merican english
merican english
Linguistic situation in the US now
Linguistic situation in the US now
Is English the Official Language of the USA
Is English the Official Language of the USA
Rapid English Language Aquisition
Rapid English Language Aquisition
merican english
merican english
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005
merican english
merican english
The English-only movement
The English-only movement
The English-only movement arguments
The English-only movement arguments
The English-only movement
The English-only movement
The English-only movement
The English-only movement
English-Plus Concept
English-Plus Concept
The English-Plus Movement Arguments
The English-Plus Movement Arguments
The English-Plus Movement Arguments A study at the University of Miami
The English-Plus Movement Arguments A study at the University of Miami
The History of American English
The History of American English
The Colonial Period
The Colonial Period
The National Period
The National Period
The International period
The International period
Major Varieties of AE
Major Varieties of AE
merican english
merican english
merican english
merican english
The Northern Dialects
The Northern Dialects
Northern pronunciation
Northern pronunciation
Rhotic area
Rhotic area
The Southern dialects
The Southern dialects
The Southern Dialects This area is characterized by a strong African
The Southern Dialects This area is characterized by a strong African
Southern pronunciation
Southern pronunciation
Southern vocabulary
Southern vocabulary
The Midland
The Midland
Midland pronunciation
Midland pronunciation
The West
The West
Western pronunciation
Western pronunciation
Western vocabulary
Western vocabulary
Cow
Cow
Other influences on US dialects
Other influences on US dialects
Ethnic varieties in A E
Ethnic varieties in A E
Black English
Black English
Black English pronunciation
Black English pronunciation
BE Grammar
BE Grammar
BE Vocabulary
BE Vocabulary
Black English Vernacular
Black English Vernacular

: merican english. : . : merican english.ppt. zip-: 271 .

merican english

merican english.ppt
1 merican english

merican english

2 Linguistic situation in the US now

Linguistic situation in the US now

Speakers of American English outnumber all native speakers of English outside the US by about 2 to 1 and those of British English by nearly 4 to 1 About 28 mil people or about 1 in 9, of the inhabitants of the US have a language other that English as their mother tongue. In descending order for numbers of speakers, the main languages of the US are: English, Spanish, Italian, German, French, Polish, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean and Vietnamese.

3 Is English the Official Language of the USA

Is English the Official Language of the USA

English is the national language of the US It is not the official language because it is not legally prescribed as the language of gov. operations

4 Rapid English Language Aquisition

Rapid English Language Aquisition

5 merican english
6 Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than

Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak a Language Other Than

English at Home: 2005

7 Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005

Percent of People 5 Years and Over Who Speak Spanish at Home: 2005

8 merican english
9 The English-only movement

The English-only movement

The English-only activism has its roots in 1980s when 23 states declared English to be their official language In 1996, for the first time, Congress voted on a bill- The English Language Empowerment Act of 1996- designating English as the federal governments sole language of official business. The targets of the English-only movement were linguistic minorities, bilingual educators and Indian tribes

10 The English-only movement arguments

The English-only movement arguments

English has been social glue in the United States Because of government-sponsored bilingual programs new immigrants are reluctant to learn English Language diversity is dangerous for the whole nation because it leads to ethnic hostility, language conflict and political separatism like in Quebec

11 The English-only movement

The English-only movement

America is made up of individuals. As Woodrow Wilson said, as long as you consider yourself a part of a group, you are still not assimilated into American society, because America, like other nations, is made up of individuals and not made up of groups. Toby Roth Debate on English-only Legislation. Aug 1996

12 The English-only movement

The English-only movement

According to Chicago Tribune, in 1996 there were 91 charge filings on language discrimination, in 2001 that number rose to 441 Such complaints seldom make it to court It is impossible to track how many workers are negatively impacted by these policies

13 English-Plus Concept

English-Plus Concept

LULAC (League of United Latin American Citizens) is the organization that advocates the English-Plus Concept About 175 indigenous languages survive today but only 20 of these are still being learned by children. It celebrates the cultural and linguistic diversification of America and treats this nation's multiethnic and multilingual communities as national resources

14 The English-Plus Movement Arguments

The English-Plus Movement Arguments

Immigrants have much to offer from their diversified languages and cultural backgrounds Additive bilingualism creates a language competent society: both limited English proficient individuals and native English speakers will be able to develop fluency in a second language Bilingual students develop a mental agility and flexibility For bilingual students it is easier to study another foreign language

15 The English-Plus Movement Arguments A study at the University of Miami

The English-Plus Movement Arguments A study at the University of Miami

(1990)

Linguistic knowledge among Hispanic families drastically affects family income. Families who spoke: only Spanish had an average income of $ 18,000; those with only English, $32,000; and those with Spanish and English, $50,376.

16 The History of American English

The History of American English

The Colonial Period (1607-1776), birth of distinctive American English; The National Period (1776-1898) establishment and consolidation of American English; The International Period (from 1898) AE has influenced other varieties of English and other languages.

17 The Colonial Period

The Colonial Period

Divergent features leveled inside a single colony. The barrier of the Atlantic began the process of divergence of American from British usage almost immediately. Changes in the motherland were slow to reach the colonies Colonists adapted old uses to new purposes and borrowed from other groups : the Amerindians, the Dutch, the French.

18 The National Period

The National Period

Linguistically, this period faced two related challenges: the evolution and recognition of a separate standard English for the USA; the extension of that standard over the whole nation as it expanded westward (Noah Webster Federal English)

19 The International period

The International period

The USA extended its overseas interests: an Open Door policy for China; the Panamanian revolution against Colombia, intervention in Latin American affairs,etc. The USA played an increasing role in world politics and economics with a consequent effect on AE usage. Spread of AE and American pop culture throughout the world.

20 Major Varieties of AE

Major Varieties of AE

Varieties of AE are more determined by region than by any other factors such as ethnicity, gender, age, social class. AE Dialects are treated under four broad geographical headings: the North, the Coastal South, Midland and the West.

21 merican english
22 merican english
23 The Northern Dialects

The Northern Dialects

The ND stretches from New England and New York westward to Oregon and Washington (North, New York, New England)

24 Northern pronunciation

Northern pronunciation

The most noticeable difference within the region is that New York and New England areas are non-rhotic while the western portion of the North is rhotic. Merger of vowels in cot and cought [o:] ? [?] might be observed in New England Matter and Madder are often near-homophones in the North.

25 Rhotic area

Rhotic area

Non-Rhotic Area

26 The Southern dialects

The Southern dialects

SD centers on the Atlantic port cities of the states of Virginia, the Carolinas, Georgia, blending westward along the Gulf Coast into Texas.

Non-Rhotic

27 The Southern Dialects This area is characterized by a strong African

The Southern Dialects This area is characterized by a strong African

influence on AE especially on the islands of South Carolina and Georgia where Gullah is spoken.

28 Southern pronunciation

Southern pronunciation

non-rhotic; Diphthongs into monophthongs: hide [h?d] is a near rhyme of both hod and non-rhotic hard[ai > ?]; Monophthongs into diphthongs: loft [lauft] which results is a near rhyme with lout [? >au]; Merger of vowels in pin and pen [ i ] > [ e ];

29 Southern vocabulary

Southern vocabulary

Archaic expressions: branch- a brook; all-overs- feelings of uneasiness; hull- the shell of a nut; kinfolk- relatives; Scat!- Bless you! Other languages have contributed to Southern: Amerindian languages: terrapin a turtle; the French of Louisiana: armoire wardrobe, bayou a small river; Spanish influence: vaquero cowboy African languages.

30 The Midland

The Midland

Rhotic

North Midland - Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa; South Midland - Kentucky, Tennessee Missouri and Arkansas, West Virginia

31 Midland pronunciation

Midland pronunciation

Midland is rhotic The merger of vowels - tot and taught [O: >?] In the Ohio River valley the vowel of itch rhymes with each (in both cases [i:]) [ i >i:] , so that fish and television have the sound of the vowel in meet [i:].

32 The West

The West

Rhotic

the West is a source of linguistic innovation It is a coherent-dialect region.

33 Western pronunciation

Western pronunciation

The merger of long and short vowels in "don" and "dawn" is universal [o:] ? [^]. The vowel in "measure"; "fresh" is pronounced as a diphthong [ei], so such words as "edge" and "age" are homophones [e] ? [ei] Vowels in "seal" and "sill" are almost identical [i:]?[i].

34 Western vocabulary

Western vocabulary

"parking" a band of grass between sidewalk and curb; "chesterfield" a sofa. Borrowings from Mexican Spanish: adios - goodbye, bronco - wild, hombre - guy. Other languages have contributed words: aloha - farewell (Hawaiian), kung fu (Chinese), nisei - a person of Japanese descent born in the US (Japanese).

35 Cow

Cow

time

Cot/ caught

men

Seal/sill

[r]

[au]

[ai]

[?]-[o : ]

[e]

[i:]-[i]

[?]

[? u]

[? i]

[? ]

[e]

[i:]-[i]

[? ]

[? u]

[? i]

[? ]-[ o: ]

[e]

[i:]-[i]

[? ]

[? u]

[?]

[? ]-[ o: ]

[i]

[i:]-[i]

[r]

[? u]

[?]

[? ]-[o : ]

[i]

[i]

[r]

[? u]

[? i]

[? ]-[o : ]

[e]

[i]

[r]

[? u]

[? i]

[? ]

[e]

[i]

Car rhotic/ non-rhotic

North

New England

New York city

South

South Midland

North Midland

West

36 Other influences on US dialects

Other influences on US dialects

The usage of all Americans, regardless of dialect, is influenced by such factors as: ethnic background; gender; age; social class; occupation or profession.

37 Ethnic varieties in A E

Ethnic varieties in A E

Black English or Ebonics or Vernacular English; Hispanic English; Indian English, Jewish English, Pennsylvania Dutch English; The Cajun English of Louisiana and some others.

38 Black English

Black English

Pidgin compromise commu- nication system

Creole languages

Modern Black English

39 Black English pronunciation

Black English pronunciation

non-rhotic; [n] is commonly replaced [?] in ing comin, runnin; final consonant clusters are reduced: des for desk, tes for test, [d] takes the place of the initial [?] dat day for that day; dis house etc; [f] often replaces [? ] in south; shift of stress in disyllabic words: p`olice, define.

40 BE Grammar

BE Grammar

Multiple negation is common: No way no girl cant wear no platform shoes to no amusement park. Inflected forms such as plural, possessive ed, -s are omitted; Question inversion: What it is? It replaces there: It aint no food here. Been is used to express long-standing events with remote past: I been see dat movie. = I saw that movie long ago. Come functions as a semi-auxiliary: He come tellin me some story = He told me a lie.

41 BE Vocabulary

BE Vocabulary

The influence of West African languages (yam - sweet potato; tote to carry). Significant changes of words are common: bad is used to mean good and vice versa. Many expressions have crossed over into mainstream of colloquial AE: boom box tape recorder; hip someone who is very knowledgeable about popular culture, dude as a reference for any male.

42 Black English Vernacular

Black English Vernacular

Non-standard Black to Black

Standard

BEV of the North

BEV of the South

Chicago BEV

merican english
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/american-english-108953.html
c

29
900igr.net > > > merican english