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Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter
Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter
Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods
Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods
Music in Everyday Experience
Music in Everyday Experience
Music in Everyday Experience: New Orleans
Music in Everyday Experience: New Orleans
Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet Music and Instruments
Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet Music and Instruments
Music in Everyday Experience: The Contributions of Servants
Music in Everyday Experience: The Contributions of Servants
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in Early America
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in Early America
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791)
Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791)
Music in Everyday Experience: Professional Composers
Music in Everyday Experience: Professional Composers
Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr (1768-1831)
Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr (1768-1831)
Professional Composers: Alexander Reinagle (1756-1809)
Professional Composers: Alexander Reinagle (1756-1809)
Terms:
Terms:
Listening Example 16
Listening Example 16
Early American Theater
Early American Theater
Early American Theater During Wartime
Early American Theater During Wartime
Early American Theater: After the American Revolution
Early American Theater: After the American Revolution
Early American Musical Theater Grew in Popularity
Early American Musical Theater Grew in Popularity
Early American Musical Theater Offered a Potpourri of Entertainment
Early American Musical Theater Offered a Potpourri of Entertainment
Early American Musical Theater: Popular Types of Entertainment
Early American Musical Theater: Popular Types of Entertainment
Early American Musical Theater: Composers in America
Early American Musical Theater: Composers in America
Early American Bands
Early American Bands
Early Military Bands: History
Early Military Bands: History
Early Bands: New Orleans
Early Bands: New Orleans
Listening Example 17
Listening Example 17
Part 1 Summary
Part 1 Summary
Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the Sixteenth Century
Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the Sixteenth Century
Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools
Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools
Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century Secular Music
Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century Secular Music
Part 1 Summary Concluded
Part 1 Summary Concluded
Image Credits
Image Credits

: Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University. : Myra Malamut. : Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University.ppt. zip-: 409 .

Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University

Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University.ppt
1 Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter

Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter

Malamut Georgian Court University

Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods

2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

2 Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods

Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods

Late 1720s: Public concerts began to be performed in some of the larger American cities Simple and popular pieces were performed Consisted of marches, dance tunes, program music, folk songs, popular songs from contemporary theater Program music Instrumental pieces purporting to imitate sounds of nature or to tell a story Programmatic battle pieces, imitating the sounds of a battle, were popular Yet for most of the eighteenth century, Americans showed little interest in formal concert music

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3 Music in Everyday Experience

Music in Everyday Experience

American music included home music work music music for entertainment music for dancing In rural areas work activities were social gatherings with singing, music, dancing barn raisings maple sugaring corn husking

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4 Music in Everyday Experience: New Orleans

Music in Everyday Experience: New Orleans

New Orleans music must have been rich and varied due to the cultural diversity of its inhabitants African Native American Caribbean French Spanish

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5 Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet Music and Instruments

Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet Music and Instruments

Late 1700s: Music publishing was an important business Sheet music for amateur musicians was popular Simple vocal and piano pieces were called household music More Americans had violins, guitars, oboes, flutes, keyboard instruments including Harpsichords VirginalsSmall and often elaborately decorated FortepianosThe predecessor of the piano, but smaller and more delicate; produced varied dynamics as its name implies Children and young women learned music by taking lessons from immigrant professional musicians

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6 Music in Everyday Experience: The Contributions of Servants

Music in Everyday Experience: The Contributions of Servants

Talented African American and white servants were hired and expected to play music African Americans sometimes supplied music for Social dancing Dancing schools Taverns Formal balls The favored instrument to accompany dancing was the fiddleSmaller and lighter than todays violin, with a louder and more vibrant sound Fiddles: Used for the barnyard or ballroom

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7 Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs

Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs

American amateurs became increasingly active Many joined musical societies in larger cities Musical societies presented instrumental or choral music mostly written by European composers

Professional foreign musicians often joined with the amateur performers for their concerts which lasted three or more hours

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8 Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs

Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs

The first performances in America of important European symphonic and choral works were given by Moravian musicians whose music and performances were of the highest quality who were amateurs only in the sense that they composed and performed for enjoyment, not for money who attracted audiences from long distances including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington

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9 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)

Jefferson was an amateur violinist who participated enthusiastically in music activities and believed that the arts were meaningful only as they bore relevance to everyday life; i.e., must be practical to be worthwhile (a common belief of early Americans) Jefferson believed the musical arts to be an essential part of the human experience Jefferson enjoyed playing duets with Patrick Henry

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10 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)

Franklin played guitar, harp, and his popular invention, the armonica or glass harmonica; wrote verses for favorite tunes He warned Americans not to cultivate taste for the arts before they could produce arts with European quality Considered the arts as appropriate at times in America Thought that the American music scene was inferior to music in Europe

The glass harmonica consisted of a series of hollow, hemispheric glass bowls or bells, each with a short neck. The glasses are mounted on a horizontal spindle, each fitted inside the next largest with a finger width of brim exposed on which to play. The performer keeps the spindle turning through a trough of water by working a pedal, producing a delicate sound by rubbing the wet rims of the glasses with the fingers.

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11 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in Early America

Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in Early America

The first secular songs published in America were by Europeans, many from England, and usually were associated with theater But while the singing school masters wrote religious songs to teach students, other amateur Americans began to write secular music

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12 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791)

Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis Hopkinson (1737-1791)

Francis Hopkinson, first secretary of the Navy, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the first American to write art songs An art song is intended for concert or recital performance The song text is a high quality poem by a known poet The expressive music is to enhance the poems meaning Performed in original language so as not to mar translations American art songs were suitable for amateur musicians Hopkinsons art songs were European in style But his songs had texts often based upon American subjects

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13 Music in Everyday Experience: Professional Composers

Music in Everyday Experience: Professional Composers

Talented and accomplished European musicians who immigrated to the United States enriched the American concert experience before and after the turn of the nineteenth century, including Benjamin Carr Alexander Reinagle

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14 Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr (1768-1831)

Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr (1768-1831)

Composer Singer Conductor Pianist and organist Music publisher Music store owner Carr arrived in Philadelphia from England after the Revolution One of the first to be active in the music business in the US Made lasting contributions to music performance, business, and appreciation in North America

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15 Professional Composers: Alexander Reinagle (1756-1809)

Professional Composers: Alexander Reinagle (1756-1809)

Raised in Edinburgh by an Austrian father and Scottish mother, Carr taught music in New York City before settling in Philadelphia as director of a theater company and director of a concert series Composed the Philadelphia Sonatas A set of piano pieces that includes the three movement Sonata II in E, the third example of which is Listening Example 16

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16 Terms:

Terms:

Sonata: A large musical form for one or more solo instruments, consisting of several movements Rondo: The opening melodic material (A) returns to alternate with the other material (B, C, etc.) The return of A lends balance and unity Contrasting sections add interest The mood is typically bright, with fast tempo

Examples of Rondo Form: A B A C A A B A B A B A A B A C A D A

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17 Listening Example 16

Listening Example 16

Sonata II in E third movement By Alexander Reinagle Listening Guide page 72 Form: Modified rondo with longer and complex contrasting sections Tempo: Allegro Meter: Duple Key: E Major (the uppercase E in the title is indicative of a major key)

This sonata is for the pianoforte, an early piano, smaller and lighter than the modern grand piano Sonata II in E has three movements Notice the Alberti bass, the broken-chord pattern in the left hand; i.e., one note of the chord is played at a time

A B A C A D A

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18 Early American Theater

Early American Theater

Musical theater became popular in some areas during the 1730s European professional musicians performed in concert halls and theaters Theatrical performances made these musician/composers music popular and provided them with a living These professionals provided performance and educational opportunities previously denied colonial Americans Early centers of theatrical music activity included Charleston, North Carolina Williamsburg, Virginia

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19 Early American Theater During Wartime

Early American Theater During Wartime

1778: Continental Congress decreed that frequenting Play Houses and theatrical entertainments has a fatal tendency to divert the minds of people from a due attention to the means necessary for the defense of their country and preservation of their liberties Congress banned all theatrical performances at that time

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20 Early American Theater: After the American Revolution

Early American Theater: After the American Revolution

1786: The ban on theatrical performances was lifted 1787: The first national copyright act Protected printed materials including music for fourteen years with the possibility of renewal for another fourteen This law encouraged foreign (mostly British) musicians to come to America, where they Performed onstage and in orchestra pits Taught music to aspiring amateurs Composed many pieces, including Americas first popular songs

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21 Early American Musical Theater Grew in Popularity

Early American Musical Theater Grew in Popularity

As interest in music and the theater moved north to New York and then Philadelphia Philadelphia dominated the music scene Theater patrons included George Washington Overruled the Quakers disapproval of theater Declared that theater elevated ones manners Yet audiences in cheaper seats (called the gallery) were rowdy, yelling at performers, demanding favorite songs, vocally criticizing the performance, tossing bottles and fruit onstage and into the pit

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22 Early American Musical Theater Offered a Potpourri of Entertainment

Early American Musical Theater Offered a Potpourri of Entertainment

Performances, often four to five hours, included A main drama Plus a shorter, lighter, often comic piece Music was added even into nonmusical plays Musical entertainment occurred between the dramatic pieces and after the comedy A march played at the end as the audience left to attend a nearby dance

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23 Early American Musical Theater: Popular Types of Entertainment

Early American Musical Theater: Popular Types of Entertainment

Eighteenth-century English plays were adapted for American taste Shorter and lighter than contemporary European works, they included more comedy Ballad opera was the most popular type of performance A simple unsophisticated musical play Spoken dialogue replaced recitative (sung speech) of opera Popular songs of the day appeared throughout the show The first ballad opera (1728 in England) to become popular in America was John Gays Beggars Opera

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24 Early American Musical Theater: Composers in America

Early American Musical Theater: Composers in America

1781: A short musical play credited to Francis Hopkinson may have been Americas earliest original musical theater work But Hopkinson probably just set new words to existing music Foreign professionals, such as Alexander Reinagle, dominated the American popular music stage, significantly affecting the development of music in America

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25 Early American Bands

Early American Bands

1777: Washington issued an order requiring military music be provided to American troops The first American military bands were established at that time Consisted of drums and small flutes called fifes Called fife and drum corps Many of the members were African American These bands had uses including announcing Beginning and end of the day Mealtimes and activities Commands on the battlefield that could not otherwise be heard over musket fire

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26 Early Military Bands: History

Early Military Bands: History

Colonial military bands began to develop to be like European bands 1792: American laws standardized the formation of American military bands to resemble European models Included woodwinds, brass and percussion 1798: President John Adams signed into law the creation of the United States Marine Corps Included thirty-two drummers and fifers, drum major, fife major Added later: Two horns, two clarinets, bassoon, bass drum 1801: This band performed for Jeffersons inauguration 1830: Brass instruments became significant members of military bands due to improvements to these instruments (valves added)

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27 Early Bands: New Orleans

Early Bands: New Orleans

Eighteenth-century New Orleans had its own strong musical heritage Military bands played a prominent role Black musicians, slave and free, provided music for balls and parades Blacks dominated the transition of the military funeral parade to a civic custom First Battalion of Free Men of Colors band included people identified as Creole-of-Color = Partly European, active in French-dominated city culture

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28 Listening Example 17

Listening Example 17

Yankee Doodle Anonymous Listening guide page 75 Tune: Origin of tune and meaning of title are unknown Meter: Duple Form: Strophic Hear the high-pitched fifes carry the tune, while drums mark the rhythm with distinctive beats and rolls

Yankee Doodle was a favorite tune played by American military bands to entertain the public First appearing in print in 1792, the British first sang the song to make fun of the Yankees, who later adopted it as their own, adding countless verses of text

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29 Part 1 Summary

Part 1 Summary

The earliest North American music was that of American Indians Ritual, dance, ceremony, work Most consists of songs sometimes accompanied with percussion instruments Drums, rattles, rasps, flute Contemporary Native American music reflects traditions and new styles, some borrowed Even the new songs remain a potent source of power in American Indian culture

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30 Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the Sixteenth Century

Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the Sixteenth Century

Europeans came to settle in the New World Native Americans in Florida and Southwest missions learned Roman Catholic music and European secular music German and English speaking Protestants established permanent settlements in America Brought hymns, psalm tunes, folk and other secular music The first book printed in America was a psalter, the Bay Psalm Book Slaves sang work songs and other songs of African custom European Americans sang ballads and played fiddle tunes

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31 Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools

Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools

Early efforts to improve singing in New Englands churches led to the forming of singing schools Singing school masters composed their own tunes Singing school masters became the members of The First New England School of Composers Their music was uniquely American William Billings, Daniel Read, and others composed Psalm tunes, hymns, fuging tunes, patriotic songs for singing school, church, home

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32 Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century Secular Music

Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century Secular Music

Americans musical tastes became more secular and varied Music supplied entertainment at home, at concerts, and theater People learned to play instruments and sing Musical societies formed to perform instrumental and choral music Amateurs performed in recitals and composed songs and keyboard music Moravians composed music of unprecedented complexity and quality among other early American compositions

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33 Part 1 Summary Concluded

Part 1 Summary Concluded

Public concerts and musical theater had become a popular form of entertainment by the middle of the eighteenth century European musicians were involved with early American theater European musicians adapted popular European plays and ballad operas to suit the less sophisticated American taste Band music became increasingly popular Fife and drum corps, as well as military bands Played public concerts Performed military functions

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34 Image Credits

Image Credits

Slide 3: Music is Contagious, painted by William Sidney Mount (1808-1868) COREL Slide 7: Eighteenth-century chamber music concert CORBIS Slide 27: Taylor, the Drummer Boy of the 78th United States Colored Infantry Regiment, Poses Proudly With His Drum CORBIS

Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods

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Americas Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University
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