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CAS LX 522 Syntax I
CAS LX 522 Syntax I
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
X-bar parameters
The problem of VSO languages
The problem of VSO languages
French
French
French
French
X-bar theory: A sham
X-bar theory: A sham
Movement
Movement
Movement
Movement
Movement
Movement
Movement
Movement
French
French
French
French
Why does this happen
Why does this happen
Pondering about T
Pondering about T
Features
Features
Projections
Projections
Projections
Projections
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
What happens when V moves to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
Why does V move to T
A word on auxiliaries
A word on auxiliaries
A word on auxiliaries
A word on auxiliaries
A word on auxiliaries
A word on auxiliaries
English yes-no questions
English yes-no questions
English yes-no questions
English yes-no questions
?+Q
?+Q
English yes-no questions
English yes-no questions
T to C
T to C
T to C
T to C
Negation
Negation
NegP
NegP
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
French negation
Head Movement Constraint
Head Movement Constraint
Colloquial French
Colloquial French
English negation
English negation
English negation
English negation
Back to VSO
Back to VSO
Irish
Irish
VSO order in Irish
VSO order in Irish
VSO order in Irish
VSO order in Irish
VSO order in Irish
VSO order in Irish
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
A VP-internal subject
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
The Italian DP
And English
And English
Wrapup
Wrapup
? ? ?
? ? ?

: CAS LX 522 Syntax I. : Paul Hagstrom. : CAS LX 522 Syntax I.ppt. zip-: 338 .

CAS LX 522 Syntax I

CAS LX 522 Syntax I.ppt
1 CAS LX 522 Syntax I

CAS LX 522 Syntax I

Week 5. Head movement

2 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

Many (most?) languages of the world have something like a basic word order, an order in which words come in in neutral sentences. English: SVO Akira ate an apple. Japanese: SOV John wa ringo o tabeta. John top apple acc ate John ate an apple.

3 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

These two word orders work nicely with X-bar theory as it stands; the difference can be stated in terms of a simple parameter which differentiates languages as to whether they are head-initial or head-final.

TP

TP

DP

DP

T?

T?

Akira

T

VP

John

VP

T

-ed

-ta

V?

V?

DP

DP

V

V

tabe

eat

an apple

ringo o

4 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

Notice that in English, both V and T are head-initial, and in Japanese, both V and T are head-final. In fact, languages tend to be consistent in their headedness: Japanese has postpositions, C comes after TP in embedded clauses English has prepositions; C comes before TP in embedded clauses

TP

TP

DP

DP

T?

T?

Akira

T

VP

John

VP

T

-ed

-ta

V?

V?

DP

DP

V

V

tabe

eat

an apple

ringo o

5 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

There are also languages in which the basic word order is VOS, although they are few in number. Malagasy: VOS Nahita ny mpianatra ny vehivavay. saw the student the woman The woman saw the student. See how we might generate an X-bar structure of this?

6 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

By changing the order of the specifier and the X?, we can get VOS order, and by changing the order of both (with respect to English) we can get OVS order. Malagasy: VOS Nahita ny mpianatra ny vehivavay. saw the student the woman The woman saw the student. Hixkaryana: OVS Kana yan?mno b?ryekomo Fish caught boy The boy caught a fish

TP

T?

DP

T

VP

ny vehi- vavay

TP

V?

T?

DP

DP

V

VP

T

b?rye- komo

nahita

ny mpia- natra

V?

DP

V

yan?mno

kana

[PAST]

[PAST]

7 X-bar parameters

X-bar parameters

So by changing the parameters of head-complement order and specifier-X? order we can generate the following basic word orders: SVO (spec-initial, head-initial) (English) SOV (spec-initial, head-final) (Japanese) VOS (spec-final, head-initial) (Malagasy) OVS (spec-final, head-final) (Hixkaryana) And thats all

8 The problem of VSO languages

The problem of VSO languages

There are quite a number of languages, however, for which the basic word order is VSO. Irish, Welsh, and Arabic are among them. Try as we might, there is no way to set the X-bar parameters to get VSO orderwe have a specifier (the subject) between the verb and its complement.

9 French

French

French presents a similar problem; consider the English sentence I often eat apples. The adverb often is an adjunct, attached at V?, as seen here.

TP

DP

T?

I

T

VP

V?

AdvP

V?

DP

V

often

eat

apples

[PRES]

10 French

French

In French the sentence is Je mange souvent des pommes. I eat often of.the apples I often eat apples. The adverb souvent appears between the verb and its complement; there is no place to put it in this tree. Moreover, it should be basically in the same place as in English, given the structural similarity and the sameness of meaning.

TP

DP

T?

I

T

VP

V?

AdvP

V?

DP

V

often

eat

apples

[PRES]

11 X-bar theory: A sham

X-bar theory: A sham

So is X-bar theory not up to the task of being a universal principle of phrase structure, despite its initial promise in English (and Japanese and Malagasy and Hixkaryana)? Should we scrap it and start over? Answer: No There is a way we can salvage all the good stuff weve gotten from X-bar theory so far

12 Movement

Movement

Consider English yes-no questions To form a question from a statement like: Bill should eat his peas. We prepose the modal should to the front of the sentence, before the subject. Should Bill eat his peas? Where is should in this sentence?

13 Movement

Movement

Should Bill eat his peas? There is one position in our sentence structures so far that is to the left of the subject, the one where the complementizer that goes (C): I said that Bill should eat his peas. This is where we expect should to be. It is, after all, a modal, of category T. It is not a complementizer. Also notice that if we embed this question, should stays after the subject, and if is in C: I wonder if Bill should eat his peas.

14 Movement

Movement

All of this suggests that the way to look at this is that we start with the sentence Bill should eat his peas as usual, and if were forming a yes-no question, we follow this up by moving should to the position of C. If we cant move it (in an embedded question, theres already something in C: if), it stays put.

15 Movement

Movement

Given that things do seem to move around in the sentence (that is, they start where wed expect them to but we hear them somewhere else), this gives us a way we might save X-bar theory from Irish and French. Lets go back and look at French with this in mind

16 French

French

DS

Jean mange souvent des pommes. Jean eats often of.the apples Jean often eat apples. If we suppose that the French sentence starts out just like the English sentence, we have the underlying DS (deep structure) representation shown here. What needs to happen to get the correct surface word order?

TP

DP

T?

Jean

T

VP

V?

AdvP

V?

souvent

PP

V

mange

des pommes

[PRES]

17 French

French

SS

Jean mange souvent des pommes. Jean eats often of.the apples Jean often eat apples. Of coursethe V (mange) moves up to the T position. This always happens in French with a tensed/agreeing verb. This generally doesnt happen in English. Hence, the difference in adverb position (really, of course, its verb position)

TP

DP

T?

Jean

Vi+T

VP

mange+[PRES]

V?

AdvP

V?

souvent

ti

PP

des pommes

18 Why does this happen

Why does this happen

Why would a language need to move its verb up to tense? In French, verbs are marked for tense and agreementpast tense verbs look different from present tense verbs, which look different from future tense verbs. If the tense information is in T ([PRES]), and the verb reflects this, somehow the verb needs to get together with T. French does this by moving the verb to T. English does this by moving T (-ed) to the verb.

19 Pondering about T

Pondering about T

In the DS of every matrix sentence (French or English or anything) there is a TP. In the example Jean mange souvent des pommes, the tense marked on the verb is present tense. So, we suppose that T was present, which we can mark as being [PRES], i.e. having the feature for present on tense. The present tense morpheme in French is ?, so writing the feature is clearer.

20 Features

Features

In general, as far as syntax is concerned, we can think of the things at the terminal nodes in our tree as being bundles of features or collections of properties. The T node has (by definition) the feature is of category T for one. Terminal nodes have categorial features, like [T]. The T node also has features indicating what kind of tense it is ([PRES], [FUT], [PAST], [-FIN]). The V node has features indicating its theta-grid, and so forth.

21 Projections

Projections

When we say the category of the head of an X-bar phrase determines the category of the phrase as a whole (i.e. an N heads an NP, a D heads a DP, and so forth), we sometimes refer to this as projection of the category feature (property). A DP is a DP because the [D] feature of its head projects up to the phrase level (and through the intermediate bar-levels as well). For this reason, XPs are sometimes referred to as projections (of their head).

22 Projections

Projections

One consequence of modeling category this way is that an XP node doesnt have a category feature intrinsically, it essentially inherits it from its head. For this reason, an XP (a phrase, a projection) must always have a head. For similar reasons, we also assume that an XP cant have two headsonly one head projects its features to the XP.

23 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

If we think that V moves to T in order to get the verb together with the tense feature, then certainly V cannot replace T. T must still be there, with its tense feature. Moreover, if T were replaced by V, the TP wouldnt be a TP any longer, would it?

TP

DP

T?

Vi+T

VP

mange+[PRES]

V?

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

24 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

The T and V must fuse in some way, retaining the features of T, since the tense feature of T is why the verb needed to move up there. In fact the features of T must still be primary, since a phrase cannot have two heads and it remains a TP (not a VP).

TP

DP

T?

Vi+T

VP

mange+[PRES]

V?

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

25 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

To show that V attaches to T, but that T remains primary, this is drawn in the tree structure like this. We say that V head-adjoins (attaches, head-to-head) to T.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

T

Vi

V?

mange

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

26 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

This structure that is formed in this way is a complex head. Its a head (T) with another head (V) attached to it. Its still a T head, it still heads the TP. It just has a V attached to it. The tree structure shown is the normal convention for drawing this, so we will follow this convention. This will require a bit of concentration. This is one head, there is one Twith a V attached.

T

T

Vi

mange

[PRES]

27 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

In past years, I experimented with introducing a convention of drawing the connection between the two Ts in the diagram differently to help reinforce the idea that its not a normal mother-daughter relationship. I will try to continue this tradition this year, using a double-line (to evoke the idea of an extra-strong connection), although outside this class you will almost always see it drawn as a regular line.

T

T

Vi

mange

[PRES]

28 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

We should also consider what happens to the VP from which the V moved. This too is still a VP, it must still have a head. We notate the original location of the V by writing t (standing for trace left behind by the original V), and we co-index the V and trace to indicate their relationship.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

T

Vi

V?

mange

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

29 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

Since the VP is still a VP, it still gets a [V] category feature projected up from its head. So the trace is still a verb. In fact, theres no reason to suppose that any of the features of the original verb have been removed given that [V] is still there. We write it as t, but its content has not really changed.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

T

Vi

V?

mange

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

30 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

What has changed is that the original verb is now related to a higher position in the tree, and for many purposes, the top copy in the tree is considered to be primary. What we have created by moving the verb is a chain of positions in the tree that the verb has occupied.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

T

Vi

V?

mange

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

31 What happens when V moves to T

What happens when V moves to T

SS

When we think of moved elements in SS and LF structures, we will often need to consider the chain of positions; this is usually written like: ( Vi , ti ) referring to the two positions held by Vi and ti in the structure here.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

T

Vi

V?

mange

AdvP

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

32 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

The verb and tense have to get together is what I said before, but we can focus this question a little bit more. Think about the English past tense morpheme, generated in (originating in, at DS) T, which weve written as -ed. We wrote it this way because it isnt a whole word, it is the regular past tense suffix that appears attached to verbs.

33 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

Similarly in French, regular tense morphology is realized as a suffix on the verb. One productive way of thinking about why the verb and tense need to get together is that tense is a verbal suffix. By definition, a verbal suffix cant stand on its own, it needs a verb to attach to. That is, the need for the verb and tense to get together isnt something that the verb needs, its something that tense needs. A verbal suffix needs a verb to attach to. If tense is stranded with no verb, the result is morphologically ill-formed = ungrammatical.

34 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

In English, the tense affix (e.g., -ed) moves down to the verb rather than the verb moving up to T. However, the negative marker not blocks this movementfor reasons that are controversial, but we can state the fact as a stipulation (not otherwise derived from our system) like so: Affix lowering is blocked by the presence of not in English.

35 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

What happens in negative sentences in English, then, is that the tense affix is stranded up in T; it cant lower to the verb because not is in the way. Bill -ed not buy cheese. (DS) As a last resort, English has a rule which salvages this situation by inserting the meaningless verb do to support the tense affix do is only there to provide something for -ed to affix to. Bill did not buy cheese. (SS)

36 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

We can state the rule like this: Do-insertion When there is no other way to support inflectional affixes in T, insert the dummy verb do into T. Bill did not buy cheese. In this sentence, the verb has not moved up to T nor has T moved down to V. And we see no tense suffix on the verb as a result.

37 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

English has two special verbs which do move to T, the auxiliary verbs have and be in English. Bill is sloppily eating apples. Bill is not eating apples. *Bill sloppily is eating apples. *Bill not is eating apples. *Bill did not be eating apples. Bill has not eaten the apples. *Bill not has eaten the apples.

38 Why does V move to T

Why does V move to T

Notice that if there is something in T already, like a modal, then the verb doesnt move up to T. John might not be eating apples. And moreover, the verb has no tense inflection. This all suggests that the view that it is the affix in T which causes V to move to T. The verb is happy not to move, but will move when it can in order to help T out. There are requirements on T, not on V.

39 A word on auxiliaries

A word on auxiliaries

English has two auxiliary (helping) verbs have and be, which are not the main verbs of a sentence but generally serve to indicate differences in verbal aspect (progressive, past perfect, ). These auxiliary verbs are verbs, but they have special properties. Among these properties: they move to T, and they have no theta-roles to assign.

40 A word on auxiliaries

A word on auxiliaries

DS

The DS of a sentence with an auxiliary verb would be something like this, where the auxiliary verb heads a VP, and takes the main verbs VP as its complement. Notice that we are treating the past participle eaten as just a special kind of verb. This is good enough for present purposes.

TP

DP

T?

T

VP

-ed

V?

V

VP

have

V?

V

eaten

41 A word on auxiliaries

A word on auxiliaries

SS

The DS of a sentence with an auxiliary verb would be something like this, where the auxiliary verb heads a VP, and takes the main verbs VP as its complement. Notice that we are treating the past participle eaten as just a special kind of verb. This is good enough for present purposes.

TP

DP

T?

Vi+T

VP

have+-ed

V?

ti

VP

V?

V

eaten

42 English yes-no questions

English yes-no questions

Now, lets go back and think about English yes-no questions, which we took originally to be motivation that movement occurs. Bill will buy cheese. Will Bill buy cheese? Whats happening here? Well, we saw earlier that it is reasonable to think that the modal will, which starts out in T, moves to C in questions. Willi Bill ti buy cheese?

43 English yes-no questions

English yes-no questions

SS

Why does this movement happen? By analogy with the motivation for V-to-T movement, we will take C to hold a special (this time silent, or perhaps prosodic) affix that must be joined up with T. This affix is the question morpheme, of category C, which we can write as ?+Q.

CP

C?

Ti+C

TP

will+?+Q

DP

T?

Bill

ti

VP

buy cheese

44 ?+Q

?+Q

Incidentally, lots of languages have an overt question morpheme, which adds plausibility to our assumption that English has a question morpheme in C that is just null. Akira ga hon o kaimasita ka? (Japanese) Akira top book acc bought Q Did Akira buy the book?

45 English yes-no questions

English yes-no questions

Also notice that if there is an overt question morpheme there in English (which happens in embedded questions), there is no need to move T to C: I asked if Bill will buy cheese. *I asked (if) will Bill buy cheese.

46 T to C

T to C

In English, anything that would be in T moves to C. So, modals and auxiliaries all invert around the subject: Will Bill buy cheese? Is Bill buying cheese? Has Bill bought cheese? But main verbs never raise to T in English. Consider then: Did Bill buy cheese?

47 T to C

T to C

Did Bill buy cheese? Why is there a do there? Before, we only saw do in sentences with not, inserted because the tense affix couldnt reach the verb, blocked by not. What seems to be the case is that if T moves to C (that is, the past tense suffix -ed in this case), it also gets too far away from the verb (now Bill is between the suffix and the verb), and Do-insertion is required.

48 Negation

Negation

Weve used negation as a test, like (in fact usually better than) adverbs to see if the verb appears to the left (suggesting it has raised, in a head-initial language) or to the right (suggesting it has not raised). Negation acts a little bit different from adverbs in a few ways. One way negation acts different is that negation blocks affix lowering in English but adverbs dont (in the tree, both come between T and V at DS): Bill did not buy cheese. Bill never buys cheese. Bill quickly bought cheese.

49 NegP

NegP

A common view of negation is that it has its own projection, a NegP, headed by a negative morpheme. For example, something like this. Interestingly, negation sometimes comes in two parts, with two morphemes implicated in negation. NegP has in principle two positions available for negative morphemes, its specifier and its head. Standard French nepas is an example of this which well look at now.

NegP

Neg?

Neg

50 French negation

French negation

In standard French, the negation of a sentence generally involves a morpheme ne placed before the tensed verb and a morpheme pas placed after it, as in: Jean ne mange pas des pommes. Jean NE eats NOT of.the apples Jean doesnt eat apples. However, English gives us reason to believe (assuming NegP is in the same place in the tree in both languages) that NegP comes between TP and VP: Bill will not eat apples.

51 French negation

French negation

DS

A common view of how French negation looks at DS is like this, with ne being a morpheme of category Neg, heading a NegP with pas in its specifier. For the moment, we wont concern ourselves with the categorial status of pas; clearly it must be an XP of some kind itself, maybe also of category Neg, but it never heads the main NegP in a sentence. Ill write it just as pas in the specifier.

TP

DP

T?

NegP

T

pas

Neg?

Neg

VP

ne

V?

V

PP

[PRES]

52 French negation

French negation

DS

How do we get the correct word order? We know that V needs to move to T, but wouldnt this yield: Jean mange pas ne des pommes. ? Youd think so, yet the facts tell us that we actually get: Jean ne mange pas des pommes.

TP

DP

T?

NegP

T

pas

Neg?

Neg

VP

ne

V?

V

PP

[PRES]

53 French negation

French negation

DS

Suppose, however, that the verb moves first to Neg, and then moves up to T What will happen first is that the V will head-adjoin to Neg, creating a complex head

TP

DP

T?

NegP

T

pas

Neg?

Neg

VP

ne

V?

V

PP

[PRES]

54 French negation

French negation

Note that we take ne to be a prefix (not a suffix), which means when we create the complex head, the verb adjoins on the right. Now, the verb still needs to move to T, but it is attached to the Neg now so the Neg moves to T. Complex heads move as a unit. You cant dis-attach a head from a complex head.

TP

DP

T?

NegP

T

pas

Neg?

Neg

VP

Neg

Vi

V?

ne

ti

PP

[PRES]

55 French negation

French negation

SS

This final movement ends up with the verb close enough to the tense suffix to satisfy the requirement that tense have a verbal host, while at the same time taking ne along to get us the right word order. Jean ne mange pas

TP

DP

T?

NegP

T

Negj

T

pas

Neg?

Neg

Vi

tj

VP

ne

V?

ti

PP

[PRES]

56 French negation

French negation

So, we see that assuming that ne is the head of NegP in French (with pas in the specifier), and assuming that the verb stops off to attach to Neg before moving (now as a part of the complex Neg head) up to T, we get the right word order. Note that, since *Jean mange pas ne des pommes is ungrammatical, we also know that the verb has to stop off at Neg on the way up.

57 Head Movement Constraint

Head Movement Constraint

This is an example which motivated the hypothesis that head movement is constrained by the Head Movement Constraint (or HMC) which says that when a head moves to another head, it cannot skip over a head inbetween. So, the reason the verb stops at Neg is because Neg is between where V began and T. Head Movement Constraint A head cannot move over another head.

58 Colloquial French

Colloquial French

It turns out that the negation morpheme ne that we suppose is the head of the NegP projection is actually generally optional (or even preferentially omitted in colloquial French)yet pas doesnt act any differently (i.e. it doesnt get picked up by the verb on the way up to T instead of ne). What this suggests is that colloquial French has a null morpheme which is the head of NegPthat pas is still in SpecNegP, but the head is ? instead of ne.

59 English negation

English negation

A common view of English negation is actually an extension of this: Many people consider not to be in the specifier of NegP, with a null head. However, sometimes English negation does appear to be the head of NegP, when its contracted as -nt. Isnt Bill hungry? Notice that when the verb moved to T and then to C, it seems to have carried negation along.

60 English negation

English negation

Not doesnt act this way, thoughand often sounds a bit archaic: Has Bill not bought cheese yet? Hasnt Bill bought cheese yet? There are lots of interesting questions about negation in English and other languageswe cant pursue them here any further, but this is a good first approximation to how negation works.

61 Back to VSO

Back to VSO

Now, lets return to the question of VSO order in languages like Irish (remember that?). Recall that we started off with the observation that there isnt any way to generate VSO order at DS using X-bar rules because V and O are sisters at DS. However, now that we have verb movement at our disposal, we could certainly derive VSO like this: DS: Subject Verb Object SS: Verbi Subject ti Object

62 Irish

Irish

In support of verb movement, consider: Ph?g M?ire an lucharach?n. kissed Mary the leprechaun Mary kissed the leprechaun. T? M?ire ag-p?g?il an lucharach?n. Is Mary ing-kiss the leprechaun Mary is kissing the leprechaun. We find that if an auxiliary occupies the verb slot at the beginning of the sentence, the main verb appears between the subject and verbit remains, unmoved. This suggests that deriving VSO from SVO is on the right track.

63 VSO order in Irish

VSO order in Irish

Where is the verb moving to, though? The verb ends up to the left of the subject, which in English we took to be movement to C: Will Bill buy cheese? A natural thing to suppose is that the verb moves to T and then to C in Irish to get VSO order.

64 VSO order in Irish

VSO order in Irish

Except, consider these: An bhfaca t? an madra? Q See you the dog Did you see the dog? Duirt m? gur ph?g M?ire an lucharach?n. Said I that kissed Mary the leprechaun I said that Mary kissed the leprechaun. If the verb moves to C, where are an and gur?

65 VSO order in Irish

VSO order in Irish

In English (and German and other languages) if there is something in C, the verb doesnt move there (it doesnt need to): Is Bill hungry? Should Bill be hungry? I wonder if Bill is hungry. But in Irish, we see an overt complementizer followed by VSO.

66 A VP-internal subject

A VP-internal subject

SS

One possibility that this suggests is that the verb is only moving to T, but the subject is actually lower than Tand we have a place in our tree which hasnt been used yet, the specifier of VP. But what about English? We expect that DS looks pretty much the same across languages, so why does the subject seem to start in different places in Irish and English?

CP

C?

TP

C

T?

T+Vi

VP

DP

V?

ti

67 A VP-internal subject

A VP-internal subject

DS

Actually, though, theres some reason to think that in English the subject originates in SpecVP too, contrary to what weve been assumingand moves to SpecTP. One argument for this concerns the floating quantifier all. All the students will leave. The students will all leave. *The students will leave all. Where can all be found?

CP

C?

TP

C

T?

T

VP

DP

V?

V

68 A VP-internal subject

A VP-internal subject

DS

All the students will leave. The students will all leave. *The students will leave all. First of all, all the students looks like the basic formthis is what the second sentence means, but the all has somehow floated off. However, if the subject moves from SpecVP to SpecTP and if the students can move, leaving all behind, then all got left behind in SpecVP.

CP

C?

TP

C

T?

T

VP

DP

V?

V

69 A VP-internal subject

A VP-internal subject

DS

The movement of DPs (like subjects) will be the topic of next weeks class, but this idea the subject appears in SpecVP in Irish (and indeed in English) is not implausible. Note: For this weeks homework, feel free to continue drawing your DS as if the subject originates in SpecTP. Since we havent talked about the details of NP (DP) movement, you need not concern yourself with it yet.

CP

C?

TP

C

T?

T

VP

DP

V?

V

70 The Italian DP

The Italian DP

Remember earlier (not so long ago, really), we supposed that proper names could be of category D, but yet we observed that in some languages, it is possible (even obligatory) to say the Bill (rather than Bill, as we say in English). Lets take a look at Italian, which has this property.

71 The Italian DP

The Italian DP

In Italian, in many cases, there is simply an option (stylistically governed) as to whether you say The Gianni or just Gianni: Gianni mi ha telefonato. Gianni me has telephoned Gianni called me up. Il Gianni mi ha telefonato. the Gianni me has telephoned Gianni called me up.

72 The Italian DP

The Italian DP

However, there is a difference with respect to the order of adjectives and the noun depending on which one you use. L antica Roma the ancient Rome Ancient Rome *Antica Roma ancient Rome Roma antica Rome ancient

Evenuto il vecchio Cameresi. came the older Cameresi *Evenuto vecchio Cameresi. came older Cameresi Evenuto Cameresi vecchio. came Cameresi older

73 The Italian DP

The Italian DP

SS

But this makes perfect sense, if what is happening in the cases where there is no determiner is that the N is moving up to D (just like V moves up to T in the main clause), and when there is a determiner, the N stays put. L antica Roma the ancient Rome Roma antica *Antica Roma Rome ancient ancient Rome

DP

D?

NP

D+Ni

N?

AdjP

N?

ti

74 And English

And English

So, in Italian, there seems to be pretty good evidence that the N raises to D. In English, adjectives can sometimes be found with proper names, and they precede it: Good old John Ancient Rome However, in English, we can never have a determiner with a proper name (*The Mary). For now, all we can conclude is that English lacks a (null affixal) determiner that causes raising, but Italian has it. Later, we might be able to revise this in light of further discussion.

75 Wrapup

Wrapup

So, what weve seen is basically that there is an operation of head movement which can take the head of an XP and attach it (head-adjoin) it to a higher head. This kind of movement cannot skip over intervening heads in the structure (HMC). Weve seen V-to-T movement, T-to-C movement, and N-to-D movement as examples of this.

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