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CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE
CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE
LANGUAGE PLAY & MAPPING
LANGUAGE PLAY & MAPPING
And the exciting thing is that this mapping happens not only for the
And the exciting thing is that this mapping happens not only for the
THE CONTINUITY PARADOX
THE CONTINUITY PARADOX
FORM-MEANING CORRELATION
FORM-MEANING CORRELATION
WORD-LEVEL VS
WORD-LEVEL VS
WHAT A GRAMMAR MUST DEAL WITH
WHAT A GRAMMAR MUST DEAL WITH
FORM VS
FORM VS
LEVELS OF ADEQUACY
LEVELS OF ADEQUACY
SURFACE STRUCTURE
SURFACE STRUCTURE
DEEP STRUCTURE
DEEP STRUCTURE
EVOLUTION
EVOLUTION
M. A. K. Hallidays 7 Functions of Language:
M. A. K. Hallidays 7 Functions of Language:
In terms of language, Whos in charge
In terms of language, Whos in charge
In Through the Looking-Glass Humpty Dumpty Says to Alice
In Through the Looking-Glass Humpty Dumpty Says to Alice
Poem by Maurice Evan Hare
Poem by Maurice Evan Hare
THE INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS
THE INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS
Noam Chomsky reviewed B. F. Skinners Verbal Behavior in Language, the
Noam Chomsky reviewed B. F. Skinners Verbal Behavior in Language, the
Language is very complex
Language is very complex
4. No animals learn a human-type language
4. No animals learn a human-type language
ANIMAL MESSAGES: Come
ANIMAL MESSAGES: Come
WASHOW SIGNING TICKLE (KEMP AND SMITH 671) 671)
WASHOW SIGNING TICKLE (KEMP AND SMITH 671) 671)
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CONFIGURATION (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CONFIGURATION (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams
BEES ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)
BEES ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)
BEES TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)
BEES TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)
SARAHS SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)
SARAHS SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)
YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)
YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)
5. There are many human-language universals, and these are only a
5. There are many human-language universals, and these are only a
8. Human language is rule-governed (like mathematics)
8. Human language is rule-governed (like mathematics)
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CONCLUSION
CONCLUSION
LANGUAGE VARIATION
LANGUAGE VARIATION
The most creative aspect of language is its ability to adapt to new
The most creative aspect of language is its ability to adapt to new
HOMO ERECTUS, HOMO SAPIENS, HOMO LOQUENS AND HOMO RIDENS
HOMO ERECTUS, HOMO SAPIENS, HOMO LOQUENS AND HOMO RIDENS
Language is a tool that allows us to deal with the real world
Language is a tool that allows us to deal with the real world
Exercise 2: *Ungrammatical
Exercise 2: *Ungrammatical
J. It is easy to frighten Emily
J. It is easy to frighten Emily
Exercise 3: Onomatopoeia
Exercise 3: Onomatopoeia
Exercise 3: Sound Symbolism
Exercise 3: Sound Symbolism
Exercise 3: Reduplication
Exercise 3: Reduplication
Exercise 4: Iconicity & Paralanguage
Exercise 4: Iconicity & Paralanguage
Exercise 12: Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw
Exercise 12: Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw
!My Fair Lady by Lerner and Lowe
!My Fair Lady by Lerner and Lowe
!!Exercise 13: English Only vs
!!Exercise 13: English Only vs
!!!Animal-Play Web Sites:
!!!Animal-Play Web Sites:
I CAN HAS CHEEZBURGER WEB SITE: http://icanhascheezburger
I CAN HAS CHEEZBURGER WEB SITE: http://icanhascheezburger
References: Aitchison, Jean
References: Aitchison, Jean
Emmorey, Karen
Emmorey, Karen

: CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE. : dnilsen. : CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE.ppt. zip-: 484 .

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE.ppt
1 CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE

CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE

PowerPoint by Don L. F. Nilsen to accompany An Introduction to Language (8th or 9th edition 2007/2011) by Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman and Nina Hyams

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2 LANGUAGE PLAY & MAPPING

LANGUAGE PLAY & MAPPING

The primary function of language is not to communicate, but is rather to think creatively or analogically. Language play allows humans to map an infinite number of real-world details onto a small finite number of sounds, letters and words. (cf. Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 8-11)

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3 And the exciting thing is that this mapping happens not only for the

And the exciting thing is that this mapping happens not only for the

infinite details of the real world, but of all possible worlds whether real, discovered, invented, postulated, fictionalized, or imagined.

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4 THE CONTINUITY PARADOX

THE CONTINUITY PARADOX

Derek Bickerton states it as follows: Until we cease to regard language as primarily communicative and begin to treat it as primarily representational, we cannot hope to escape from the Continuity Paradox (Bickerton 689).

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5 FORM-MEANING CORRELATION

FORM-MEANING CORRELATION

CONTRAST SOUNDS, SPELLINGS AND MEANINGS: Antonyms: tall vs. short Converses: buy vs. sell Cognates: embarrassed vs. embarazada Heteronyms: minute vs. minute Homographs: bank vs. bank Homonyms: Homographs or Homophones Homophones: too vs. two vs. to Hyponyms: metaphor vs. metaphor Synonyms: big vs. large (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 196-198)

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6 WORD-LEVEL VS

WORD-LEVEL VS

SENTENCE-LEVEL GRAMMAR LEXICAL: SYNTACTIC: AMBIGUITY: Take your pick! Call me a taxi! ANOMALY: She wanted a gnepf. John me cow a gave. PARAPHRASE: William hit a policeman. Bill hit John. vs. Bill slugged a cop. vs. John was hit by Bill.

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7 WHAT A GRAMMAR MUST DEAL WITH

WHAT A GRAMMAR MUST DEAL WITH

Analysis vs. Synthesis: Parsing vs. Generative Grammar Denotation vs. Connotation: Pro-Choice vs. Pro-Life views of abortion Systematic vs. Accidental Gaps: schplick vs. blick

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8 FORM VS

FORM VS

MEANING

Linguistics is concerned with the mapping of meaning onto form (decoding) and form onto meaning (encoding). The form is the surface structure (phonology, graphology, morphology and syntax) The meaning is the deep structure (semantics, pragmatics, discourse) (cf. Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 8-11)

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9 LEVELS OF ADEQUACY

LEVELS OF ADEQUACY

Prescriptive Adequacy: What people should do Descriptive Adequacy: What people do do Explanatory Adequacy: Patterns, Trends, and Predictions Evaluative Adequacy: Based on Elegance Simplicity Completeness Internal Consistency Generative Power (cf. Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 13-18)

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10 SURFACE STRUCTURE

SURFACE STRUCTURE

Syntax Allotag Tagmeme Morphology Allomorph Morpheme Graphology Allograph Grapheme Phonology Allophone Phoneme

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11 DEEP STRUCTURE

DEEP STRUCTURE

Pragmatics (Context, Deictics, Anaphora, Speech Acts, Conversational Implicatures, Intent, Felicity Conditions) Pragmatics Allobehavior Behavioreme Semantics Alloseme Sememe

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12 EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION

During the past five million years, our forebears became predominantly right-handed, made use of increasingly sophisticated tools, and organized their culture in ever more complex ways. This evolution resulted in a puny, almost hairless animal, with a bent windpipe that reduced breathing efficiency to nearly half of its original capacity. The creatures teeth were practically useless for chewing. But we had an asymetrical brain with the left hemisphere being efficient at learning language. (Heny 634).

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13 M. A. K. Hallidays 7 Functions of Language:

M. A. K. Hallidays 7 Functions of Language:

Instrumental: To get things done Regulatory: To control other people Interactional: To define groups and relationships Personal: To express feelings and beliefs Heuristic:To test hypotheses or to learn Imaginative: To create a world Representational: To give information (Clark, 52)

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14 In terms of language, Whos in charge

In terms of language, Whos in charge

We make language more than language makes us (Clark, 55). Go to slide 15 to find out what Humpty Dumpty said about language?

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15 In Through the Looking-Glass Humpty Dumpty Says to Alice

In Through the Looking-Glass Humpty Dumpty Says to Alice

I dont know what you mean by glory, Alice said. Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. Of course you donttill I tell you. I meant theres a nice knock-down argument for you! But glory doesnt mean a nice knock-down argument, Alice objected. When I use a word, Humpty Dumpty said, in a rather a scornful tone, it means just what I choose it to meanneither more nor less. The question is, said Alice, whether you can make words mean so many different things. The question is, said Humpty Dumpty, which is to be master. Thats all.

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16 Poem by Maurice Evan Hare

Poem by Maurice Evan Hare

There once was a man who said, Damn! It is born in upon me I am An engine that moves In predestinate grooves, Im not even a bus; Im a tram. --Aitchison 560

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17 THE INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS

THE INNATENESS HYPOTHESIS

Noam Chomsky claims that language is innate. B. F. Skinner claims that language is learned; it is basically a stimulus-response mechanism.

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18 Noam Chomsky reviewed B. F. Skinners Verbal Behavior in Language, the

Noam Chomsky reviewed B. F. Skinners Verbal Behavior in Language, the

journal of the Linguistic Society of America and convincingly presented twelve types of evidence that language is basically innate, not learned.

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19 Language is very complex

Language is very complex

Consider the complexity of any complete English grammar book. 2. The model for language learning is imperfect. Mothers use caregiver language; friends use baby talk; children use modified grammar (holophrastic, pivot-open, or telegraphic). 3. All humans learn a spoken language (NOTE: Chomsky does not claim that written language is innate). (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-34)

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20 4. No animals learn a human-type language

4. No animals learn a human-type language

However, some animal languages are impressive: primates (Vikki-Hayes, Koko-Patterson, Warshow-Gardners, Lana, Nim Chimsky-Terrace, Sarah-Thomas/Church) bees (Von Frisch) dolphins (Lilly) birds, parrots and cockatiels canines equines bovines felines ants (cf. Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 21-27)

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21 ANIMAL MESSAGES: Come

ANIMAL MESSAGES: Come

Go. Food. Protection (camouflage, assistance, misleading enemies). Sex. Territory, Dominance, Mimic, Defiance, Friendship, Attention ANIMAL LANGUAGE: Calls. Body Coloring and Shape. Tail Slap, Facial Expression. Tail Wagging, Baring Throat, Dancing (Round, Tail-wagging, Sickle), Whistling, Chuttering, Attacking, Singing, Giving Off Pheromones HUMAN-LANGUAGES AMONG ANIMALS: AMESLAN, Yerkish, Computers, Magnetic Chips, Sugar Fruit, Finger Bracelet 2nd-Generation Language (Planet of the Apes)

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22 WASHOW SIGNING TICKLE (KEMP AND SMITH 671) 671)

WASHOW SIGNING TICKLE (KEMP AND SMITH 671) 671)

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23 AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CONFIGURATION (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman

AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: CONFIGURATION (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman

Hyams [2011] 257-258)

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24 AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams

AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: PLACE (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams

[2011] 257-258)

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25 AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams

AMERICAN SIGN LANGUAGE: MOVEMENT (Emmorey 82) (cf Fromkin Rodman Hyams

[2011] 257-258)

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26 BEES ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)

BEES ROUND DANCE (Kemp & Smith 663)

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27 BEES TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)

BEES TAIL-WAGGING DANCE (Kemp and Smith 664)

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28 SARAHS SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)

SARAHS SYMBOLS (Kemp and Smith 672)

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29 YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)

YERKISH LEXIGRAMS (Kemp and Smith 672)

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30 5. There are many human-language universals, and these are only a

5. There are many human-language universals, and these are only a

small subset of semiotic possibilities; computer languages dont have these same natural-language constraints (embedding, cross-over, A over A, etc.). 6. There is a critical age for foreign-language acquisition (around puberty). 7. There is a sequence in language acquisition (holophrastic, pivot-open, telegraphic, adult). Note also color acquisition in both phylogeny and ontogeny. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37)

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31 8. Human language is rule-governed (like mathematics)

8. Human language is rule-governed (like mathematics)

It is not memorized. 9. Human language is very creative. Except for small-talk, almost all sentences are novel. Language can adjust to new situations (unlike bee-language for unexpected placing of honey source). (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37)

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32 10

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Human language has duality. A limited number of symbols are reused in many different ways. 11. Human language has displacement in Time, Place, and Truth. 12. Human language is not predictable. Given a particular stimulus, there is a much wider range of responses for humans than for animals. (Fromkin Rodman Hyams [2011] 1-37)

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33 CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

The most important of Chomskys observations is that Language is Creative. Language should not be prescribed, as that would limit its creativity. Rather, language should be allowed to adapt to social situations. In other word language VARIES in the following ways:

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34 LANGUAGE VARIATION

LANGUAGE VARIATION

V-Vocational Differences A-Age Differences Individual (holophrastic vs. adult language) Language (Old English vs. Modern English) R-Regional Differences I-Informality Differences E-Ethnic Differences S-Sex Differences

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35 The most creative aspect of language is its ability to adapt to new

The most creative aspect of language is its ability to adapt to new

situations, and it does this by using the Master Tropes: Metaphor, Metonymy, Synecdoche, and Irony.

METAPHOR, METONYMY, SYNECDOCHE, IRONY AND LANGUAGE PLAY

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36 HOMO ERECTUS, HOMO SAPIENS, HOMO LOQUENS AND HOMO RIDENS

HOMO ERECTUS, HOMO SAPIENS, HOMO LOQUENS AND HOMO RIDENS

Humans have been called homo erectus because like primates, kangaroos and chickens they stand erect. They have been called homo sapiens because they are the thinking animal. They have been called home loquens because they are the talking animal. But they have been called homo ridens because they are the only animal that laughs appropriately.

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37 Language is a tool that allows us to deal with the real world

Language is a tool that allows us to deal with the real world

It allows us to solve the problems of the real world. It helps us survive. But as we spend less and less time working to survive and more and more time thinking and pondering, our language needs to meet these new needs.

LANGUAGE FOR ENGAGEMENT LANGUAGE FOR TRANSCENDENCE

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38 Exercise 2: *Ungrammatical

Exercise 2: *Ungrammatical

A. Robin forced the sherrif go. B. Napoleon forced Josephine to go. C. The devil made Faust go. D. He passed by a large pile of money. E. He came by a large sum of money F. He came a large sum of money by. G. Did in a corner little Jack Horner sit? H. Elizabeth is resembled by Charles Nancy is eager to please. (Fromkin Rodman & Hyams [2011] 38-39)

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39 J. It is easy to frighten Emily

J. It is easy to frighten Emily

K. It is eager to love a kitten. L. That birds can fly amazes. M. The fact you are late to class is surprising. N. Has the nurse slept the baby yet? O. I was surprised for you to get married. P. I wonder who and Mary went swimming. Q. Myself bit John. R. What did Alice eat the toadstool with? S. What did Alice eat the toadstool and? (Fromkin Rodman & Hyams [2011] 38-39)

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40 Exercise 3: Onomatopoeia

Exercise 3: Onomatopoeia

Animals across languages: Cows Horses Pigs Chickens Roosters Chicks Lions Tigers Goat Cats Dogs Turkeys Geese Pigeons Sheep Pigs Frogs Donkeys Hens Crows Flies (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 39)

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41 Exercise 3: Sound Symbolism

Exercise 3: Sound Symbolism

Bang Beep Bubble Buzz Clap Click Crackle Crunch Gong

Groan Gurgle Hiss Kerplop Screech Sigh Slap Slurp Smack

Smash Snap Swish Thump Tinkle Whiz Zing Snap crackle & pop (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 39)

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42 Exercise 3: Reduplication

Exercise 3: Reduplication

Children Bowwow Dada Dingdong Doodoo Mama Peepee Weewee

Adults: Hanky Panky Ticktock Tooty Fruity Zig Zag Zsa Zsa

Other Examples: (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 92)

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43 Exercise 4: Iconicity & Paralanguage

Exercise 4: Iconicity & Paralanguage

I II III IV X 1 2 3 0 ? ? ? ? * ? . ? ! $

Shhh! Shush! Hiss Tsk tsk Uh Huh! (yes) Uh uh (no) Huh? Giddyup (lateral click)

Raspberry (Bronx Cheer) Uchhhhh Yuchhhhh Wolf Whistle Swearing (*^&%+#@!) (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 39)

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44 Exercise 12: Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

Exercise 12: Pygmalion by George Bernard Shaw

The rain in Spain is mainly on the plain. In Heartford, Herriford and Hartshire, hurricanes hardly ever happen. Look at hera prisoner of the gutters; Condemned by evry syllable she utters. By right she should be taken out and hung For the cold-blooded murder of the English tongue! (Pygmalion, 109)

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45 !My Fair Lady by Lerner and Lowe

!My Fair Lady by Lerner and Lowe

An Englishmans way of speaking absolutely classifies him. The moment he talks he makes some other English despise him, One common language Im afraid well never get. Oh, why cant the English learn to Set a good example to people whose English is painful to your ears? The Scots and the Irish leave you close to tears. There even are places, where English completely disappears. In America, they havent used it for years! (110) (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 40-41)

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46 !!Exercise 13: English Only vs

!!Exercise 13: English Only vs

Bilingualism

Discuss Queen Elizabeth Is outlawing of Celtic dress, music and traditions King James Translation of the Bible into English to unite England with Ireland, Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland by an English-Only movement What about the English-only movement today vs. bilingualism? (Fromkin, Rodman & Hyams [2011] 41)

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47 !!!Animal-Play Web Sites:

!!!Animal-Play Web Sites:

ANIMAL POWER MOVES: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GkYbFr7dcIs CATS VS. DOGS PLAYING: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3dugipeVZtE ELEPHANTS PLAYING SOCCER: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6sP09MejTcA ELEPHANT PLAYING SOCCER: http://www.videovat.com/videos/1419/elephant-soccer.aspx

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48 I CAN HAS CHEEZBURGER WEB SITE: http://icanhascheezburger

I CAN HAS CHEEZBURGER WEB SITE: http://icanhascheezburger

com/ LOLCAT BIBLE: http://www.lolcatbible.com/index.php?title=Genesis_1 PETCENTRIC WEB SITE: http://www.petcentric.com/article/aspx?C=1&OID=180 TAASP: THE ASSOCIATION FOR THE STUDY OF PLAY: http://www.tasplay.org

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49 References: Aitchison, Jean

References: Aitchison, Jean

Predestinate Grooves: Is There a Preordained Language Program? (Clark 560-578). Bickerton, Derek. The Continuity Paradox (Clark 681-695). Bolton, W. F. Language: An Introduction (Clark, 61-73). Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa. Language: Readings in Language and Culture, 6th Edition. New York, NY: St. Martins Press, 1998. Daniels, Harvey A. Nine Ideas about Language (Clark, 43-60).

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50 Emmorey, Karen

Emmorey, Karen

Sign Language (Clark 78-94). Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams. What is Language? An Introduction to Language, 9th Edition. Boston, MA: Thomson Wadsworth, 2011, 1-42. Heny, Jeannine. Brain and Language (Clark, 634-657). Kemp, William, and Roy Smith. Signals, Signs, and Words: From Animal Communication to Language (Clark 658-679). Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen. Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2000. Nilsen, Don L. F., and Alleen Pace Nilsen. Language Play: An Introduction to Linguistics. Rowley, MA: Newbury House Publishers, 1978.

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CHAPTER 1: WHAT IS LANGUAGE
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