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Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history
Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history
Where is Chernobyl
Where is Chernobyl
Chernobyl
Chernobyl
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
Background
Background
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
RBMK Reactor
RBMK Reactor
Fuel assemblies
Fuel assemblies
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
Reactor Plant Scenario
Reactor Plant Scenario
Day of disaster
Day of disaster
26 April 1986
26 April 1986
26 April 1986 (cont
26 April 1986 (cont
26 April 1986 (cont
26 April 1986 (cont
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
Human Errors
Human Errors
Human Errors (cont
Human Errors (cont
Accident Prevention
Accident Prevention
System Analysis
System Analysis
Summary of Facts
Summary of Facts
Far Reaching Radiation
Far Reaching Radiation
Radioactive fallout
Radioactive fallout
Direct Casualties
Direct Casualties
Indirect Casualties
Indirect Casualties
Environment Impact
Environment Impact
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
23 May 2007
Problems Today
Problems Today
Recommendations
Recommendations
Recommendations (cont
Recommendations (cont
23 May 2007
23 May 2007

Презентация на тему: «Чернобыль ppt». Автор: . Файл: «Чернобыль ppt.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 2120 КБ.

Чернобыль ppt

содержание презентации «Чернобыль ppt.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history

Chernobyl disaster The worst manmade disaster in human history

Czech Technical University In Prague 23 May 2007

2 Where is Chernobyl

Where is Chernobyl

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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3 Chernobyl

Chernobyl

Built in 1978-1979 Chornobyl

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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4 23 May 2007

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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5 Background

Background

Reaktor Bolshoy Moshehnosty Kipyashiy RBMK, a Russian acronym translated roughly means “reactor (of) high power (of the) channel (type)” reactor cooled by water and moderated by graphite

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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6 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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7 RBMK Reactor

RBMK Reactor

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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8 Fuel assemblies

Fuel assemblies

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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9 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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10 Reactor Plant Scenario

Reactor Plant Scenario

As the reaction occurs, the uranium fuel becomes hot The water pumped through the core in pressure tubes removes the heat from the fuel The water is then boiled into steam The steam turns the turbines The water is then cooled Then the process repeats

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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11 Day of disaster

Day of disaster

25 April 1986 01:00 The preparation for the test 13:47 Lowering of the reactor power halted at 1,600 MWt 14:00 The ECCS was isolated 23:10 The power reduction resumed

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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12 26 April 1986

26 April 1986

24:00 Operation shift change 24:28 Power level is now 500 MWt and kept decreasing to 30 MWt 24:40 The operator withdrew some control rods 01:00 Power had risen to 200 MWt 01:03 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the left loop of the system 200 MWt 01:07 Connecting the fourth main cooling pump to the right of the loop system - this was a violation of NOP

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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13 26 April 1986 (cont

26 April 1986 (cont

01:19 Increased feed water flow to the steam drums and removed more control rods -violation of NOP 01:23 The test was started 01:23:10 Automatic rods withdrawn from the core 01:23:21 Two groups of automated control rods were back to the core

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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14 26 April 1986 (cont

26 April 1986 (cont

01:23:30 Power kept increasing 01:23:40 Emergency button pushed 01:23:44 Power is at 300000 MWth 01:23:48 1st thermal explosion 01:23:55 2nd explosion

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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15 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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16 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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17 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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18 Human Errors

Human Errors

Isolation of the emergency core cooling system Unsafe amount of control rods withdrawn Connection of the four main cooling pumps to the right and left of the system

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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19 Human Errors (cont

Human Errors (cont

Mental model The operator did not have a good mental model of the system itself Overconfidence By having an electrical engineer on site for an electrical test No confirmation of cues obtained from the system Beta too high Many missed signals before the accident

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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20 Accident Prevention

Accident Prevention

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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21 System Analysis

System Analysis

Use of graphite as a moderator Lack of a well-built containment structure Inadequate instrumentation and alarms for an emergency situation There were no physical controls that prevented the operators from operating the reactor in its unstable state

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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22 Summary of Facts

Summary of Facts

April 26, 1986: Chernobyl nuclear power plant Operator errors cause a reactor explosion Explosion releases 190 tons of radioactive gasses into the atmosphere Fire starts that lasts 10 days People: 7 million lived in contaminated areas; 3 million were children Wind: Carries radiation far distances

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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23 Far Reaching Radiation

Far Reaching Radiation

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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24 Radioactive fallout

Radioactive fallout

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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25 Direct Casualties

Direct Casualties

5.5 million people still live in contaminated areas 31 people died in 3 months of radiation poisoning 134 emergency workers suffered from acute radiation sickness 25,000 rescue workers died since then of diseases caused by radiation Cancer afflicts many others Increased birth defects, miscarriages, and stillbirths

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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26 Indirect Casualties

Indirect Casualties

By the year 2000 there were 1800 case of thyroid cancer in children and adolescent High number of suicide and violent death among Firemen, policemen, and other recovery workers

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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27 Environment Impact

Environment Impact

Areas still impacted today: Soil Ground Water Air Food Crops Livestock

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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28 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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29 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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30 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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31 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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32 23 May 2007

23 May 2007

Czech Technical University in Prague

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33 Problems Today

Problems Today

The Sarcophagus After the disaster, a huge cement box was built around the radioactive material It is falling apart! According to a 2003 report by the Russian Atomic Energy Minister, Alexander Rumyantsev, "the concrete shell surrounding the Chernobyl nuclear reactor is in real danger of collapsing at any time." A new Sarcophagus is scheduled to be completed in 2009

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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34 Recommendations

Recommendations

Have proper Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for both normal and emergency situations Have scheduled trainings and practices for normal and emergency situations

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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35 Recommendations (cont

Recommendations (cont

Always have a reactor expert on site Have operators confirm any cues from the system before making hypothesis or take action Have a team work kind of environment such that every body is involved

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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36 23 May 2007

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Czech Technical University in Prague

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