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Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of
Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of
No scientific theory is worth anything unless it enables us to predict
No scientific theory is worth anything unless it enables us to predict
When two groups are separated so that communication between them is
When two groups are separated so that communication between them is
Growing divergence in North American English
Growing divergence in North American English
The dialects of North American English
The dialects of North American English
Divergence in North American Dialects
Divergence in North American Dialects
Word Phrase Sentence 1. _ _
Word Phrase Sentence 1. _ _
Percent correct in Gating Experiment for Chicago “busses with the
Percent correct in Gating Experiment for Chicago “busses with the
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Age distribution of F2 of /
Divergence in North American Dialects
Divergence in North American Dialects
Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas
Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas
Three suggested parallels of linguistic and biological evolution
Three suggested parallels of linguistic and biological evolution
The Canadian Shift
The Canadian Shift
Probability matching
Probability matching
Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a
Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a
Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the
Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the
/?h/
/?h/
An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /
An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /
Northern Cities Shift
Northern Cities Shift
Model of divergence
Model of divergence
A model of requirements for divergence
A model of requirements for divergence
Micro-evolution
Micro-evolution
Bidirectional micro-evolution
Bidirectional micro-evolution
a1, a2
a1, a2
a1, a2
a1, a2
a1, a2
a1, a2
) ) )
) ) )
Natural selection (
Natural selection (
Beak evolution
Beak evolution
Cheney and Seyfarth on the role of social intelligence
Cheney and Seyfarth on the role of social intelligence
Social factors as adaptive forces in linguistic behavior
Social factors as adaptive forces in linguistic behavior
?
?
“Acts of identity”
“Acts of identity”
Social correlates of four measures of the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]
Social correlates of four measures of the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]
A consideration on large-scale social factors
A consideration on large-scale social factors
A large scale phenomenon
A large scale phenomenon
The U.S. at night
The U.S. at night
The Inland North
The Inland North
Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election
Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election
The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in
The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in
Presidential elections in which the Northern States [NY, MI, WI, IA,
Presidential elections in which the Northern States [NY, MI, WI, IA,
Democratic vs
Democratic vs
County vote for Kerry 2004 by county vote and dialect
County vote for Kerry 2004 by county vote and dialect
Regression analyses of county percent vote for Kerry in 2004 by
Regression analyses of county percent vote for Kerry in 2004 by
County vote for Obama 2008 by county vote and dialect
County vote for Obama 2008 by county vote and dialect
Regression analysis of 2008 Obama vote by county
Regression analysis of 2008 Obama vote by county
short o fronting short a raising oh lowering
short o fronting short a raising oh lowering
The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176
The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176
short o back of center tense a before nasals; lax a, e in that aw
short o back of center tense a before nasals; lax a, e in that aw
Dialect area of listeners
Dialect area of listeners
Cities assigned to Detroit and Indianapolis speakers by student
Cities assigned to Detroit and Indianapolis speakers by student
Political opinions ascribed to an Inland North (Detroit) and Midland
Political opinions ascribed to an Inland North (Detroit) and Midland
Ideological, political and linguistic developments, 1817-2008
Ideological, political and linguistic developments, 1817-2008
IN /e/
IN /e/

Презентация на тему: «Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language». Автор: William Labov. Файл: «Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 3215 КБ.

Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language

содержание презентации «Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of Language.ppt»
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1 Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of

Conditions for Divergence and Convergence in the Micro-Evolution of

Language

William Labov, University of Pennsylvania

Penn Linguistics Colloquium March 27, 2009

2 No scientific theory is worth anything unless it enables us to predict

No scientific theory is worth anything unless it enables us to predict

something which is actually going on

. J.B.S. Haldane, cited by P. & R. Grant

3 When two groups are separated so that communication between them is

When two groups are separated so that communication between them is

reduced, then divergence is expected, and any degree of convergence requires an explanation. When two groups are in continuous communication, linguistic convergence is expected and any degree of divergence requires an explanation.

4 Growing divergence in North American English

Growing divergence in North American English

Recent studies of linguistic change in progress in North American English show increasing diversity on a regional scale, along with some degree of local convergence.

5 The dialects of North American English

The dialects of North American English

6 Divergence in North American Dialects

Divergence in North American Dialects

7 Word Phrase Sentence 1. _ _

Word Phrase Sentence 1. _ _

ord Phrase Sentence 1. _________ ________________ ___________________________ 2. _________ ________________ ___________________________ 3. _________ ________________ ___________________________ 4. _________ ________________ ___________________________ 5. _________ ________________ ___________________________ 6. _________ ________________ ___________________________

The Northern Cities Shift: from the Project on Cross-Dialectal Comprehension: Gating Experiment 2

8 Percent correct in Gating Experiment for Chicago “busses with the

Percent correct in Gating Experiment for Chicago “busses with the

antennas on top”

9 Age distribution of F2 of /

Age distribution of F2 of /

/ in the North

10 Age distribution of F2 of /

Age distribution of F2 of /

/ in the Midland

11 Age distribution of F2 of /

Age distribution of F2 of /

/ in the North and the Midland

North

Midland

age coefficient = - 2.05 p = .026

age coefficient = 1.39 p = .033

12 Divergence in North American Dialects

Divergence in North American Dialects

13 Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas

Relationships among America’s Most Populous Metropolitan Areas

14 Three suggested parallels of linguistic and biological evolution

Three suggested parallels of linguistic and biological evolution

Probability matching (Gallistel 1990) ? the mechanism of chain shifting Microevolution (P. & R. Grant 1993) ? the mechanism of divergence Animal communication systems (Cheyney & Seyfarth 200 ? the social motivation of linguistic change

15 The Canadian Shift

The Canadian Shift

16 Probability matching

Probability matching

17 Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a

Mean number of out of 33 ducks in front of experimenter 1 as a

function of time and rate of throwing food (Gallistel 1990)

Experimenter 1: every 5 seconds every 10 seconds Experimenter 2: every 5 seconds every 5 seconds

18 Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the

Phonemes co-existing in a language tend naturally to optimize the

possibilities that are available from the speech organs; they tend to be as distant from their neighbors as possible while remaining easy to articulate and easy to perceive. . . Martinet 1955:62 (tr. WL), attributed to de Groot TCLP 1931:121

Martinet on maximal dispersion

19 /?h/

/?h/

/o/

/oh/

A stable distribution of English low vowels: an outlier not recognized as a member of the /o/ distribution.

20 An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /

An unstable distribution of English low vowels: /

h/ shifted up and front so that the /o/ outlier affects the central tendency of /o/

/?h/

/o/

/oh/

21 Northern Cities Shift

Northern Cities Shift

Southern Shift

Opposing chain shifts in North America

22 Model of divergence

Model of divergence

The divergence of neighboring dialects requires alternating states of bidirectional changes followed by unidirectional changes in the form of mergers or chain shifts

23 A model of requirements for divergence

A model of requirements for divergence

24 Micro-evolution

Micro-evolution

The fluctuations of bidirectional changes resemble the micro-evolution of finch beaks in the Grants' study of the Galapagos, although no correlate of fitness or natural selection has yet been identified for the linguistic changes

25 Bidirectional micro-evolution

Bidirectional micro-evolution

The population of medium ground finches, Geospiza fortis, experienced size-selective mortality during a drought in 1976-77; large birds with deep beaks survived better than small birds. During another drought, 1984-1986, the population experienced selection in the opposite direction on beak traits. Changes in food supply were the apparent causes of selection on beak traits in both episodes. --Grant, Peter R. and B. Rosemary Grant 1994. Predicting microevolutionary responses to directional selection on heritable variation. Evolution 49:241-251.

26 a1, a2

a1, a2

The initiation of divergence

Equally likely resolution of an unstable linguistic situation

27 a1, a2

a1, a2

The initiation of divergence

Nasal system: tense all /?/ before nasals

General tensing and raising of all /?/-> /?h/

Reversible

Inconsistent mixture of short-a tensing patterns

28 a1, a2

a1, a2

The initiation of divergence

Northern Cities Shift blocked

Northern Cities Shift

Nasal system: tense all /?/ before nasals

General tensing and raising of all /?/-> /?h/

Inconsistent mixture of short-a tensing patterns

29 ) ) )

) ) )

/o/ ~ /oh/

The development of divergence

Northern Cities Shift

Canadian Shift

Irreversible

Inland North: front /o/

Back vowel shift

Irreversible

Low back merger

Increase phonetic distance

Eastern seaboard: raise /oh/

Pittsburgh chain shift

South: add upglide

Irreversible

Reversible

Back upglide chain shift

Skewed opposition depending on length

30 Natural selection (

Natural selection (

)

To summarize, the co-existence of finch species is facilitated by divergence in beak morphology and song. Beaks diverge under natural selection, but why songs diverge is less clear. Cultural drift, a process of random change in culturally transmitted (learned) traits, is probably involved, and sexual selection may be learned as well.

What Darwin's Finches Can Teach Us about the Evolutionary Origin and Regulation of Biodiversity B. Rosemary Grant and Peter R. Grant, Bioscience, Vol. 53, No. 10 (Oct., 2003), pp. 965-975

31 Beak evolution

Beak evolution

Evolution of beak depth of Geospiza fortis for survivors of 1976 drought, for 1976 offspring and 1978 offspring. --B. & P. Grant 2003.

32 Cheney and Seyfarth on the role of social intelligence

Cheney and Seyfarth on the role of social intelligence

Baboons’ adaptive specialization is their social intelligence; their technological skills are underwhelming. . .Although innovation, tool use, and technological invention may have played a crucial role in the evolution of ape and human brains, these skills were probably built upon mental computations that had their origins and foundations in social interactions. --Cheney and Seyfarth 2007:283.

33 Social factors as adaptive forces in linguistic behavior

Social factors as adaptive forces in linguistic behavior

. .

Biological terminology Sociolinguistic terminology

Territoriality Local identity Dominance and submission Style shifting and accommodation Sexual selection The social construction of gender

34 ?

?

?

Gender and social category determination of five elements of the Northern City Shift in a Detroit suburban high school

Source: Eckert 2000

35 “Acts of identity”

“Acts of identity”

The individual creates his systems of verbal behavior so as to resemble those common to the group or groups with which he wishes from time to time to be identified, to the extent that: (a) he is able to identify those groups (b) his motives are sufficiently clear-cut and powerful (c) his opportunities for learning are adequate (d) his ability to learn -- that is, to changes his habits where necessary -- is unimpaired. --R. Le Page & A. Tabouret-Keller, Acts of Identity (1985)

36 Social correlates of four measures of the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]

Social correlates of four measures of the Northern Cities Shift [N=71]

Age Female Years of 25 yrs Gender Education AE1 34* 8.6* EAEQ 34* 26* EOD 112*** H.S. -68* UOD 37 -16*

37 A consideration on large-scale social factors

A consideration on large-scale social factors

African-Americans in Memphis appear to be moving toward forms which symbolize involvement in the Southern community and its associated heritage. . . While social unity was a part of the communities of practice explored by Eckert, I would expand her framework to suggest that these shared practices do not necessarily require individuals’ social cohesion but merely require shared historical experience and a strongly circumscribing environment that places speakers in a similar social position relative to the external social world. ----Fridland 2000

38 A large scale phenomenon

A large scale phenomenon

The Northern Cities Shift is found throughout the Inland North, an area of 88,000 square miles. A population of over 34,000,000 speakers of American English are participating in this shift.

39 The U.S. at night

The U.S. at night

40 The Inland North

The Inland North

U.S. at Night

Flint

Detroit

Grand Rapids

Milwaukee

Syracuse

Chicago

Rochester

Buffalo

Cleveland

Kenoshat

Joliet

Toledo

Omaha

Columbus

St. Louis

CIncinnati

Indianapolis

Kansas City

41 Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election

Red States and Blue States in U.S. 2004 Presidential election

42 The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in

The Northern dialect region mapped on to Red States and Blue States in

U.S. 2004 Presidential election

43 Presidential elections in which the Northern States [NY, MI, WI, IA,

Presidential elections in which the Northern States [NY, MI, WI, IA,

MN] have been opposed to the Southern States [TX, AK, LA, MI, AL, GA, FL, SC, NC, KY,TN, VA]

44 Democratic vs

Democratic vs

Republican vote for counties surveyed by dialect in presidential election of 2004.

Inland North Midland New North England Kerry majority 20 15 8 12 Bush majority 6 7 13 2

45 County vote for Kerry 2004 by county vote and dialect

County vote for Kerry 2004 by county vote and dialect

Kerry

Bush

46 Regression analyses of county percent vote for Kerry in 2004 by

Regression analyses of county percent vote for Kerry in 2004 by

dialect groups with and without total votes as independent variable. Residual group: Midland

47 County vote for Obama 2008 by county vote and dialect

County vote for Obama 2008 by county vote and dialect

48 Regression analysis of 2008 Obama vote by county

Regression analysis of 2008 Obama vote by county

Variable

Coefficient

prob

Constant

57.25

? 0.0001

Inland North

3.21

0.056

Mid-Atlantic

7.75

0.021

New England

4.44

0.071

r2 = .065

49 short o fronting short a raising oh lowering

short o fronting short a raising oh lowering

The--the way I got hired for this one job was really weird, ‘cause I went in for a . . . secretarial position is what I went in for, and they had hired. . .ah-- somebody else that didn’t know anything, but it was a buyer’s daughter, so then she got the job. And uh--they called me because I had done shipping and receiving as far as--the paper work, and they had asked me if I‘d help out ‘cause their--shipper had just had a heart attack and she wasn’ comin’ back for a while.

Passage 1 in Experiment 1 (from Sabrina K., 37, Detroit MI, TS 176)

50 The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176

The Northern Cities Shift of Sabrina K., 37 [1994], Detroit MI, TS 176

Short-i

Short-u

Short-a

Short-e

Long open o

Short-o

51 short o back of center tense a before nasals; lax a, e in that aw

short o back of center tense a before nasals; lax a, e in that aw

fronting ^ fronting

I read, a-n-nd like most women, I like to go shopping and play card games with family and friends and that kind of thing, nothing really exciting. We used to go camping quite a bit on the weekends, but our lives have shifted enough that we don’t do that much right now, but uh that’s what we do.

Passage 2 in Experiment 1 (from Mimi P., 45 [2000], Indianapolis IN, TS 775)

52 Dialect area of listeners

Dialect area of listeners

N

Inland North

9

Chicago 9

North (outside of IN)

1

Transitional (Ft. Wayne)

3

Midland

58

Indianapolis 4

Indiana 50

Other Midland 4

Mid-Atlantic

6

Canada

1

South

4

West

6

Mixed

2

90

Dialect areas in which U. of Indiana subjects were raised [4-13 yrs of age]

53 Cities assigned to Detroit and Indianapolis speakers by student

Cities assigned to Detroit and Indianapolis speakers by student

listeners at Indiana University [N=90]

54 Political opinions ascribed to an Inland North (Detroit) and Midland

Political opinions ascribed to an Inland North (Detroit) and Midland

(Indianapolis) speaker by students at U. of Indiana, Bloomington [N=90]

No significant difference in judgments of intelligence, trustworthiness, education; Midland speaker judged more friendly (p < .00001)

55 Ideological, political and linguistic developments, 1817-2008

Ideological, political and linguistic developments, 1817-2008

Party of racial equality

Yankee ideology

Yankee settlement

No’n Cities Shift

Expansion in western NY

1817-1825

1825-50 Raising of short-a

Evangelical movement

Westward expansion

Perfectionism

1830-1860

Opposition to racial inequality

1856 Republican

1860-1956

1967 Fronting of /o/ first reported

1960-1995

1960 Democratic

Switch of political allegiance

1986 Backing of /?/ first reported

2000-2008

Blue States /Red States redefined

56 IN /e/

IN /e/

Means of 14 vowels in peripheral/nonperipheral phonological space. IN = Inland North

IN /?/

IN /?/

IN /o/

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