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Conclusions. These are the first results for Australia that show a significant impact of pre-school attendance on later NAPLAN outcomes. Pre-school is Important: For Reading, Spelling and Numeracy, causal ATT effects of 17 to 20 points. After controlling for ability, estimated effects are reduced by 2 to 4 points. These causal estimates are substantial, with pre-school amounting to 30-40% of the learning impact of one year of schooling, 3 years later. Pre-school Teacher Qualifications and Specialisation are Important: Children whose pre-school teacher had a diploma or degree in Early Childhood Education or Child Care gained the most. These results contrast Early et. al (2007) who find no association between teacher qualification and outcomes in the pre-school year.

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