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Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
Rationale for Study
Rationale for Study
Purpose of Study
Purpose of Study
Research Questions
Research Questions
Academic Literacy
Academic Literacy
Large urban school district in Southern CA
Large urban school district in Southern CA
Teacher Selection
Teacher Selection
Teacher Selection
Teacher Selection
Overview of the PD
Overview of the PD
Overview of the Classroom Observations
Overview of the Classroom Observations
Overview of the Classroom Observations
Overview of the Classroom Observations
A Portrait of an Effective Teacher
A Portrait of an Effective Teacher
Findings for each area
Findings for each area
Effective Schema Building
Effective Schema Building
T: .what kind of map is this
T: .what kind of map is this
Effective Comprehensive Input
Effective Comprehensive Input
Comprehensible Input
Comprehensible Input
Comprehensible Input
Comprehensible Input
Clarifies Instructions What tools will we be using
Clarifies Instructions What tools will we be using
Emphasizes distinct features of concepts and provides examples Used
Emphasizes distinct features of concepts and provides examples Used
Explicit Teaching
Explicit Teaching
Writing Leveled Questions to Prepare for a Socratic Seminar
Writing Leveled Questions to Prepare for a Socratic Seminar
Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
Critical Thinking Question Stems
Critical Thinking Question Stems
Modeling with the Titanic
Modeling with the Titanic
Opportunities for Practice
Opportunities for Practice
Students are given time to explain their ideas
Students are given time to explain their ideas
Opportunities for Practice
Opportunities for Practice
Summary of findings
Summary of findings
Limitations of current study
Limitations of current study
Conclusion
Conclusion
References
References

: Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of Classroom Practices. : Appalachian State. : Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of Classroom Practices.ppt. zip-: 5545 .

Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of Classroom Practices

Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of Classroom Practices.ppt
1 Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of

Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of

Classroom Practices

Shanan Fitts, PhD, Appalachian State University Erica Bowers, EdD, University of California, Fullerton SE TESOL 2009 Atlanta, GA

2 Rationale for Study

Rationale for Study

Increased testing mandates for ELLs English learners struggle with text-level comprehension (August & Shanahan, 2006) Long-term English learners (Freeman & Freeman, 2009) Teachers of English language learners report feeling ill-prepared (Coley & Coleman, 2004). Increased focus on the concept of academic English in PD and instructional programs Teaching advanced literacy is complicated (Fillmore & Snow, 2000)

2

3 Purpose of Study

Purpose of Study

Observe upper elementary teachers to see what strategies they used to build their students proficiency in academic English Observe classes with high percentages of ELLs

4 Research Questions

Research Questions

What kinds of classroom teaching practices are upper elementary teachers using to help students develop advanced proficiency with comprehending and using academic English? Which kinds of strategies do teachers report to be effective? Are these reported strategies observed in the classroom? Which strategies appeared to be effectively implemented? Of those strategies observed, which needed further practice, explanation, or development?

5 Academic Literacy

Academic Literacy

Students must be able to develop: Vocabulary Syntax Discourse genres & Registers Identities (Bailey, 2007; Gee, 1996; Gottlieb, 2006)

6 Large urban school district in Southern CA

Large urban school district in Southern CA

Classrooms leveled according to student test performance 4- Excel or Enriched 1- Literacy 3- no special designation All had students identified as ELL Normal & Literacy classrooms higher % of ELLs at beginning & intermediate levels

7 Teacher Selection

Teacher Selection

Original pool of 108 survey participants 28 teachers consented to participate observations 8 agreed to observations

8 Teacher Selection

Teacher Selection

1

4

1

2

High Self-Report on Survey of Strategies Used => 3.0/4.0

Low Self-Report on Survey of Strategies Used =<3.0/4.0

High Test Scores (=>65% proficient or advanced on CST in ELA)

Lower Test Scores (=<49% proficient or advanced on CST in ELA)

9 Overview of the PD

Overview of the PD

Year 4 of district PD for Language Arts (SB 1066) A Focused Approach (Dutro& Moran, 2003; EL Achieve) Form & Function Brick words topic specific Mortar words grammatical forms & general vocabulary Use of sentence stems Frontloading (preteaching) Opportunities for sts to practice language

10 Overview of the Classroom Observations

Overview of the Classroom Observations

Researcher-developed protocol Two researchers observed each lesson 4-6 lessons observed in each room Four broad areas: Schema building Comprehensible input Explicit Teaching of Concepts and Skills Providing Opportunities for Practice

11 Overview of the Classroom Observations

Overview of the Classroom Observations

0-3 Rating scale 0 = Not Observed 1= Shows ineffective implementation; limited understanding of strategies. Done w/out considering sts needs 2= Partial implementation. Meeting some sts. needs & trying to take some sts. needs/prior knowledge into consideration 3= Effective implementation of strategy. Meets the needs of the student.

12 A Portrait of an Effective Teacher

A Portrait of an Effective Teacher

Higher level of student engagement Higher teacher engagement Differentiation Applying strategies thoughtfully Responding to needs of sts Aware of strengths & weaknesses Look to teaching not blaming sts

13 Findings for each area

Findings for each area

14 Effective Schema Building

Effective Schema Building

Activate prior knowledge (students personal experiences) Link past to prior content learning Use of graphic organizers or semantic webs to assess & elicit prior knowledge Preview or teaching vocabulary

15 T: .what kind of map is this

T: .what kind of map is this

SS: Bridge map. T: the line on this bridge map is going to represent means. Where have you heard ped or pod before? Hands down, I want to give you time to think. (2 sec) Okay share with your table. SS: i-pod T: not a brand name (T uses selector spinner on overhead to select students from tables to share.) St: pedicure. (T writes on the circle map and asks st what the word means). (Other sts offer words and informal definitions.) T: okay we have lots of words that have ped in them (names words and underlines the ped part of the word). I want you to think on your ownwhat do all of these words have in common (no wait time for thinking here) talk to your table. Stthey all have ped. T: we already know that they all have pedI want you to think about the meaning of the words. What do all of the meanings have in common?

16 Effective Comprehensive Input

Effective Comprehensive Input

Emphasizes distinctive features of new concepts Provides examples and/or non-examples to illustrate new skills/concepts/strategies Breaks down skills /strategies/concepts into smaller/simpler components Provides clear input about the concept or content Clarifies instructions Wait time Leveled questions or tasks

17 Comprehensible Input

Comprehensible Input

Teachers emphasize key concepts & vocab Repetition Choral response Visuals Teachers are animated: Gestures, expression, engaged teaching Teachers chunk & scaffold: Reading around the room

18 Comprehensible Input

Comprehensible Input

http://www.sikhspectrum.com/092002/images/gold_panning.jpg

19 Clarifies Instructions What tools will we be using

Clarifies Instructions What tools will we be using

(the pick and the shovel) Wrote the different mining techniques that they had discussed on the board Rephrases to clarify: What is the same about those pictures? What is one similarity?

20 Emphasizes distinct features of concepts and provides examples Used

Emphasizes distinct features of concepts and provides examples Used

hands-on activity to emphasize some of the difficulties encountered in gold mining Used visuals to teach about mining techniques and about gold. Has visuals on the PP and hands out visuals for each method of mining Are the pictures I just passed out modern or from 1848?whats different about this picture? Used choral repetition to emphasize some key vocab and concepts. For example, everyone say ore. Thats a noun; its not the same as o-r You swirl it around in the water and then what did we say, is gold heavier or lighter than the water? SS: Heavier! Key words and idea are underlined or in italics in the PowerPoint.

21 Explicit Teaching

Explicit Teaching

Models processes and skills, strategies, or concepts Strategy Instruction Use of Expository Text Instruct academic language Explicitly teaches vocabulary

22 Writing Leveled Questions to Prepare for a Socratic Seminar

Writing Leveled Questions to Prepare for a Socratic Seminar

23 Effective Strategies for Developing Academic English: A Study of
24 Critical Thinking Question Stems

Critical Thinking Question Stems

How did ____ feel about ____? What was ______ probably like? How is _____ different from ____? Why couldnt ____ do ________? Why did _______ do ________? Why was ______________? How did ____________? What caused the __________ to ______? What will ____ do next? What probably would have happened if __________?

25 Modeling with the Titanic

Modeling with the Titanic

I have these stems that are gonna help me. A good idea is to find a fact and go from there. Heres an interesting fact: The Titanic was thought to be the worlds first unsinkable ship. Im gonna go with this first stem. How did the passengers feel about being on an unsinkable ship? (Sts. discuss this question with tables and with the class). Okay, so first Im going to find an interesting fact; something that makes me think. Heres one (T underlines the fact on the overhead)the fact that only 700 people got on life boats, but the life boats were suppose to be for 1178 peoplethat makes me think that makes me confused so Im gonna ask: what caused the boat to carry only 700 people

26 Opportunities for Practice

Opportunities for Practice

Students orally elaborate concepts Variety of grouping strategies Students use content language Teachers integrate more than one language skill Writing in content areas Students practice academic language

27 Students are given time to explain their ideas

Students are given time to explain their ideas

Lesson on colonial America: Ss had opportunities to tell something they learned about life in colonial times during the previous days activity. Scholars, if I didnt call on you, please turn to your neighbor and tell them what you were going to say. e.g. S: traveling wasnt for fun in colonial times. T: what do you mean? S: well they didnt go on vacations or cruises. T: so when they traveled it was because they had to and not for fun. Good point.

28 Opportunities for Practice

Opportunities for Practice

Half of the teachers we observed provided very few structured opportunities for students to practice and apply academic language

29 Summary of findings

Summary of findings

Used graphic organizers effectively

Used leveled questions & sentence stems

Used explicit teaching but also allowed for student construction of knowledge

Used a variety of grouping strategies to scaffold student participation

Gave students opportunities to elaborate or clarify ideas and oral output

Teachers that rated higher

Teachers that rated lower

Used some graphic organizers, but with a lot of teacher talk

Followed scripted curriculum; not always aware of Ss needs, interest, or level of comprehension.

Relied mostly on whole class teaching with less structured use of grouping strategies

Used I-R-E which allowed for shorter responses from students

30 Limitations of current study

Limitations of current study

Limited number of observations in each teachers class All observations conducted at end of the year within one month Unable to collect detailed data on student output Using CST scores to measure efficacy of teacher when classes are leveled

31 Conclusion

Conclusion

All teachers were using strategies learned in PD Some following script Others incorporating these into their approach and responding to Ss needs Each area reinforces the others Connecting theory to practice: Some teachers seemed to understand why particular strategies were important and were able to communicate that to students Variation in teachers ability to incorporate and apply strategies Teachers applied GATE training Limitations of scripted curricula What is our definition of effective? Is effective just a matter of getting the S achievement on standardized tests?

32 References

References

August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.) (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the national literacy panel on language-minority children and youth. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Bailey, A. L. (Ed.). (2007). The language demands of school: Putting academic English to the test. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Coley, R. J. & Coleman, A. B. (2004). The fourth-grade reading classroom: Policy information report . Princeton, NJ; Educational Testing Service. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 485193) Dutro, S. & Moran, C. (2003) Rethinking English language instruction: An architectural approach. In G. Garcia (Ed.), English language learners: Reaching the highest level of English literacy. Newark: IRA. E. L. Achieve. (n.d.). Focused approach - Overview presentation. Retrieved July 29, 2009, from http://www.elachieve.org/ Freeman, D. E., & Freeman, Y. S. (2009). Academic language for English language learners and struggling readers: How to help students succeed across the content areas. Gee, J. P. (1996). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses (2nd ed.). London: Taylor & Francis. Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English Language Learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building background knowledge for academic achievement. Alexandria,VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

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