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: Elevator Training 2003. : RB. : Elevator Training 2003.ppt. zip-: 6895 .

Elevator Training 2003

Elevator Training 2003.ppt
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Content:

Elevator terminology and components

Types of elevators

Safety features

Types of Emergencies

Rescue methods

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Please note:

*Remember, all elevators are not built the same.

*Elevators installed at different time periods conform to different requirements or codes.

*Elevator features and operation may vary from one elevator to another.

*Get to know the elevators in the buildings that you respond to during pre-fire inspections.

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Counterweight

A tracked weight that is suspended from cables and moves within its own set of guide rails along the hoistway walls.

This counterweight will be equal to the dead weight of the car plus about 40% of the rated load.

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Counter weight

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Counter weight

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Counter weight

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Hoistway

The shaft that encompasses the elevator car.

Generally serving all floors of the building.

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Hoistway

In high-rise buildings hoistways may be banked. With specific hoistways serving only the lower floors and others serving only middle or upper floors while traveling in a blind hoistway until reaching the floors that it serves. A blind hoistway has no doors on the floors that it does not serve.

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Elevator car

A heavy steel frame surrounding a cage of metal and wood panels. The top of the car frame is called the crosshead. Cabled elevators are usually suspended from the crosshead.

The bottom of the frame is usually referred to as the safety plank.

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Cross head

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Safety plank

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Elevator car

The elevator car door travels through the hoistway with the car.

A toe guard is present at the bottom of some cars. This guard protects the passengers from being exposed to the open hoistway under the car if the doors are opened when it is not at the landing. The guard is between 21 and 48 long.

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Toe guard

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Elevator door

These doors can sometimes opened on the inside by hand, except where anti-egress devices are installed.

This will also break the electrical interlock which will cut the power to the car.

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Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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Anti-egress lock

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Hoistway doors

Horizontal operating hoistway doors are generally hung from the top on rollers that run in a track, with the bottom of the door running in a slot.

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Interlock opening mechanism

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Hoistway doors

Forcing these doors at the middle or at the bottom will cause damage to the doors and their mounting hardware. The doors can also be knocked out of their track and fall into the hoistway.

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Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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Hoistway door interlock

The hoistway door locking mechanism provides a means to mechanically lock each hoistway door. They are also interconnected electrically to prevent operation of the elevator if any of the elevators hoistway doors are open.

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Hoistway door interlock

Hoistway door interlock

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Interlock for freight elevator

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Hoistway emergency door keys

Carried on trucks and the squad, permit the unlocking of the hoistway door interlock.

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Escutcheon tube

The keyhole on the upper portion of a hoistway door that accepts a hoistway emergency door key and permits unlocking of the hoistway door locking mechanism.

These keyholes are usually located at the bottom and top floors, but may also be on other selected floors or all floors.

You may find a lock covering these keyholes on some new elevator installations. Locate these keys during pre-fires.

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Escutcheon tube

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Escutcheon tube

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Car top operating station

Provided on some cars for operating the car from the car top. To be used by the elevator technician when servicing the car.

This station should only be operated under the direct supervision of the elevator technician.

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Operating station

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Photo-electric and infrared sensors

A sensor between the hoistway and car doors that detects objects in their path and prevents the doors from closing.

Photo-electric eyes were problematic and are being phased out.

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Infra-red sensor

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Roller guides

A set of three wheels that roll against the guide rails.

Usually mounted to the safety plank and crosshead. They keep the car in contact with the guide rails and prevent sway.

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Roller guides on Cross head

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Roller guides on Safety plank

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Safeties

Emergency braking mechanism that stops the car by wedging into the guide rails when over speeding has occurred.

It is activated by the speed governor sensing over speeding of the elevator car.

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Safeties

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Safeties

Governor rope

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Hoisting cables (or ropes)

Used on traction type elevators, usually attached to the crosshead and extending up into the machine room looping over the sheave on the motor and then down to the counter weights.

Hoisting cable are generally 3 to 6 in number. They are steel with a hemp core to keep them pliable and lubricated.

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Hoisting cables (or ropes)

These cables are usually 1/2or 5/8 in diameter. The 1/2cables have a breaking strength of 14,500lbs and the 5/8 23,000lbs each.

However, at 900 degrees the wire steel rope contains only about 13% of its original tensile strength.

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Nickel Babbitt

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Hoisting cables

Wedge clamp

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Counter weight

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Sheave

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Guide rails

Tracks in the form of a T that run the length of the hoistway, that guide the elevator car.

Usually mounted to the sides of the hoistway, at the middle of the elevator car.

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Guide rail

Guide rail

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Governor sheave

Provided to detect over speeding of the car.

Usually a cable is attached to the safeties on the under side of the car, called the governor rope. This rope runs down through a pulley at the bottom of the shaft and back up to the machine room and around the governor sheave.

When over-speeding is detected, the governor grips the cable which applies the safeties that wedge against the guide rails and stops the car.

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Governor sheave

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Governor rope

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Governor rope

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Car emergency exit

Usually located at the top of the elevator cars, sometimes on the side, other times not present.

Top exits open from outside the car.

Side exits are extremely dangerous to use and are no longer being installed. Existing side exits have been disabled by being permanently bolted shut.

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Top emergency exit

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Top emergency exit

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Machine room For electric traction type

Usually located above the hoistway in a penthouse or two floors above the highest floor it serves, but may be in the basement if overhead space is unavailable.

Generally containing hoisting machines, controllers, generator, speed governor and the main electrical disconnects to the elevators.

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Elevator car number

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Elevator car number

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Elevator car number

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Fire phone

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Intercom

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Machine room For hydraulic plunger type

Usually located in the basement or first floor, but could be anywhere.

Generally containing the electric motors, pumps, oil reservoirs, controllers and electrical disconnect to the elevators.

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Phase I

A mode of operation activated by a smoke detector located in an elevator lobby, elevator machine room, elevator hoistway or by a keyed recall switch.

This activation returns all cars to the main egress lobby or an alternated designated landing, opens the elevator doors and removes the cars from service.

If the car is on independent service, the elevator will revert to Phase I recall in about 60 seconds.

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Phase I

The keyed recall switch has an On, Off and sometimes a Bypass position. The key is removable in the On and Off positions only.

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Phase I

On - Puts elevators into phase I recall.

Off - Puts elevator back into normal service.

Bypass Put elevator back into service regardless of whether the smoke detectors are reset. The key must be kept in switch when it is in the bypass position.

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Phase I

Note: The bypass feature is being replaced with a reset feature for elevators installed or altered under ASME A17.1a, 2002.

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Phase I keyed switch

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Phase I keyed switch in alarm room

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Phase II

A mode of operation activated by the firefighters independent service key switch inside the elevator.

This can only be activated when a phase I recall of the elevators is in effect and with the elevator at the lobby or designated floor with the doors open.

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Phase II

The Phase II keyed switch in the car has an Off, On and sometimes a Hold position.

The Hold position allows fire personnel to remove the key and search a floor while the elevator car is waiting with the doors open.

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Phase II

Off - Puts elevator back into phase I control, unless elevator is not in phase I, then the elevator will stay at that location with doors open until it is put into phase II again, returned to lobby and then switched to the off position.

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Phase II

On - Puts the elevator into firefighters independent service.

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Types of elevators

Hydraulic

Electric traction

Drum

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Hydraulic

Found in two types:

Plunger type and Roped hydraulic

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Hydraulic Roped hydraulic

This type is similar to the electric traction type but uses a hydraulic machine for power.

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Hydraulic Roped hydraulic

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Hydraulic - Plunger type

This type is the most common and consists of an elevator car mounted on top of a long hydraulic piston. The piston is generally not telescopic, so there must be a hole in the ground as long as the distance the elevator travels.

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Hydraulic Plunger type

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Electric - Traction type

This is the most common type of elevator for high-rise buildings. It consists of a driving sheave, over which the hoisting ropes pass coming from the elevator crosshead and going to the counter weights.

Electric traction type elevators can be used in buildings of any height.

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Electric - Traction type

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- Controller

Machine room -

- DC motor with sheave

- Speed governor

- Guide rails

- Counter weights

Hoistway doors -

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Drum type

Drum Consists of a large drum in the machine room around which hoisting cables and counter weights ropes are wound. Not used in tall buildings because of the large drum size that would be necessary.

This is an old type of elevator and obsolete. The machine room for this type of elevator could be located on the first floor next to the shaft, in the basement or overhead.

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Drum type

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Drum with hoisting cables

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Safety features

Safeties a stopping mechanism for an over speeding car.

Interlocks Cuts power to the car if this electrical/mechanical interconnection is broken.

Anti-egress Allows car doors to open only 4 inches unless car is near landing.

Emergency stop switch The red switch inside some cars that cuts off the power to the car except for the lights, alarm and communication system.

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Safety features

Seismic switch - A motion sensing device on some elevators installations. If it is activated the elevator will move away from the counter weights to the next landing with its doors open and inoperable.

This device overrides phase I and phase II operation unless phase II operation is already in effect.

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Safety features

If this device has been activated it can mean that an unsafe structural condition exists.

This device is located in the machine room.

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Safety features

Seismic valve for hydraulic elevators - A valve located in the pit close to the jack that is designed to hold pressure if the hydraulic line is broken due to seismic activity.

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Seismic valve

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Elevator emergencies

In many cases an elevator technician can correct a problem faster than we can initiate a rescue.

Elevator technicians are on call 24hrs a day and can usually respond within an hour.

When dispatched on a elevator emergency, verify that an elevator technician has been notified.

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Types of emergencies

Person trapped in elevator car

The 3 most common reasons:

Power failure Malfunction of control components Activation of safety equipment

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- Power failure

If its going to be short term, its best not to attempt a rescue. Explain the situation to the occupant. Calm and reassure them and let them know that they are not in danger and steps are being taken to remove them safely.

If emergency power is available, it can be used.

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- Power failure

Some newer elevators will return to the lobby one at a time where the doors will open automatically.

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- Power failure

If there is no emergency power, then shut off the power to that elevator in the machine room.

This will prevent any unexpected movement of traction type elevators when the power is restored.

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- Malfunction of control components

Shut off the power to the elevator in the machine room.

This will prevent any unexpected movement of the car when the power is restored.

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- Malfunction of control components

However, if you have a true emergency, try a Phase I recall or turning the power off and on to see if the system will restart correctly.

*Remember, do not restart an elevator without consulting an elevator technician.

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- Malfunction of control components

If this does not work leave the power to the elevator off in the machine room.

Whenever you turn the power off to an elevator, leave a member with a radio and fire phone (if available), to guard the switch.

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- Activation of safety equipment.

If one of the elevators safety devices has been activated, it is often indicating a serious malfunction in the hoistway or operating machinery.

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- Activation of safety equipment.

In this situation you should wait for an elevator technician. Leave the power on to the elevator. This will help the technician in determining the problem. However, if you have to perform a rescue, turn off the main power to the elevator in the machine room.

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Remember:

Let your presence be known to the trapped occupant when you arrive. Calm and reassure the them and let them know that there is no danger and steps are being taken to remove them safely.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

Locate the stalled car by observing the floor indicator in the lobby or voice contact with occupant.

Ask them which direction they were going and which floor they stopped at last.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

Try sending a member to the last floor that the car came from to shake and physically make sure the hoistway doors are fully closed and that the interlock switch is making contact. All of the hoistway doors must be closed for the car to operate.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

If that does not work you can try calling the car to the floor above or below its location in the opposite direction it was traveling.

Sometimes its necessary to try this on several floors to get the call to register.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

*Remember, always shut off the power to the elevator in the machine room before attempting passenger removal and leave a member with a radio (and fire phone if available) guarding the switch.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

*And after a rescue has been performed leave the power off and a member onscene to inform the elevator technician what measures were taken to remove the occupant.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

If these attempts to correct the problem fail, shut off the main power to the elevator in the machine room and station a member with a radio (and a fire phone if available). Remember to maintain a 4 clearance around the switching equipment with the radio.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

If the occupant has activated the emergency stop switch, instruct them to turn it off. This will help to calm them.

If the hoistway door has an escutcheon tube, insert the appropriate key and release the hoistway door interlock, and open the doors.

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Inside hoistway

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

If the hoistway door at this floor does not have an escutcheon tube, you may have to go to the top floor and work your way down.

Open the hoistway doors at the top floor, then lay down and look down into the hoistway holding a pike pole.

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

Position the end of the pike pole on the hoistway door interlock mechanism on the floor below. Open the interlock and have a member on that floor open the hoistway doors.

Repeat this procedure until you have opened the hoistway doors at the level of the stalled car.

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Interlock

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

*Remember, be sure to close or guard all hoistway doors at each floor on the way down. Never leave an open hoistway unattended.

Now you may be able to open the elevator doors by hand by exerting 30 to 50 pounds of force, except where anti-egress devices are installed.

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Person trapped in elevator car

On newer installations, if the car is stalled within 18 of the landing zone, usually the hoistway doors will open if the car doors open. If not, the car doors will only open 4 due to the anti-egress mechanism.

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Person trapped in elevator car

In this case you may be able to release the mechanism from the outside.

If this isnt possible, you may have to force the doors with a port-a-power or rabbit tool toward the top of the doors.

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Anti-egress lock

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Rescue methods

Person trapped in elevator car

If you use a rabbit tool to force the hoistway or elevator doors and anti-egress is present, you may need to use cribbing. Anti-egress allows the doors to open 4, while the spreading capability of the rabbit tool is only 3 1/2.

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Rescue methods

Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent car.

-Bring the adjacent car to the floor nearest the stalled car and open its doors.

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Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent car.

-Set the main power switch in the machine room for both cars to the off position.

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Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent car.

-Extend a pike pole through the opening between the car and hoistway doors to the interlock roller of the stalled car.

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Rescue methods

Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent car.

-Activate the interlock mechanism while a member opens the hoistway doors.

-Rescuer enter elevator and remove one occupant at a time.

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Opening the hoistway doors from an adjacent car.

*Guard any opening to the hoistway that exists.

*Be careful not to extend the pike pole into the hoistway of an elevator still in service.

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Rescue methods

Car more than 3 from landing.

*It is inadvisable to remove passengers through the elevator doors if it is more than 3 above the landing, because of the possible danger of falling into the hoistway.

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Car more than 3 from landing.

*It is also inadvisable to remove passengers through the elevator doors if the car is more than 3 below the landing because of the limited size of the access opening for rescue.

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

*Do not use top emergency exits in unenclosed hoistways. Also, some elevators do not have these exits.

*The preferred method is to have an elevator technician move the car to a landing level.

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

*The following should only be performed if a real emergency exists.

-Set the main power switch in the machine room to off and station a member to guard the switch with a radio (and a fire phone if available).

-If there are elevators in adjoining shafts, set their power switches to off also.

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-Open the hoistway doors at the nearest landing level above the stalled car. The opening of the hoistway doors can be accomplished as described previously.

-A ladder with non-skid feet should be lowered and securely positioned to the car top. The ladder should be long enough to have at least 3 rungs above the landing.

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Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-One member of the rescue team wearing a safety belt and properly tied off to a secure line descends to the top of the car.

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Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-A second ladder should be lowered through the emergency top exit, long enough to extend at least 3 rungs above the car top.

-A second rescuer should descend to the car top wearing a safety belt and a secured line.

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-The second rescuer should carry a second safety belt for the victim.

-One rescuer should enter the stalled car and set the emergency stop switch to off (if available), while the other stays on the car top.

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Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-A third member should be at the landing used to gain access.

-The occupants should then be assisted up the ladder from the car wearing the safety belt, one at a time.

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Complements of The American Society of Mechanical Engineers

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Rescue methods

Removal of occupants through the top emergency exit.

-Remember, do not restore power to the stalled car. Have a member stand by to inform the elevator technician the measures that were taken to perform the rescue.

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Elevators

The information covered in this presentation are some, but not all of the methods of elevator rescue. For more in-depth information on elevator function and methods of elevator rescue, refer to: PF&R Training Bulletin #19, Elevators and Elevator Emergencies. ASME A17.4, Guide for Emergency Personnel. The Chief Elevator Inspector, Oregon Dept. of Consumer and Business Services.

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