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English Phonetics and Phonology
English Phonetics and Phonology
Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that
Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that
The course will focus on
The course will focus on
Phoneme - a unit within a set of units as the basis of our speech
Phoneme - a unit within a set of units as the basis of our speech
Organs of speech
Organs of speech
Classification of Speech Sounds
Classification of Speech Sounds
General Articulatory Characters
General Articulatory Characters
Vowels
Vowels
Intonation
Intonation
Rhythm
Rhythm
Diagram of Cardinal Vowels
Diagram of Cardinal Vowels
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e:
Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e:
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his -e : verb endings and plurals:
Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his -e : verb endings and plurals:
Limerick
Limerick
was Man East, gave children feast; all much, conduct such, killed Man
was Man East, gave children feast; all much, conduct such, killed Man
/e/ and /
/e/ and /
Spelling /e/
Spelling /e/
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling /
Spelling /
Comparison
Comparison
/? / and /
/? / and /
Spelling /
Spelling /
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling /
Spelling /
Comparison
Comparison
/?/ and /
/?/ and /
Spelling /
Spelling /
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling /
Spelling /
-awe awe -oa oar, broad -ough ought, fought, brought -ou pour, court,
-awe awe -oa oar, broad -ough ought, fought, brought -ou pour, court,
Comparison
Comparison
/?/ and /u:/
/?/ and /u:/
Spelling /
Spelling /
Comparison
Comparison
Spelling /u:/
Spelling /u:/
-oeu manoeuvre -ough through -wo two -uc Tucson
-oeu manoeuvre -ough through -wo two -uc Tucson
Spelling /ju:/
Spelling /ju:/
Comparison
Comparison
/?:/ and /
/?:/ and /
Spelling /з:/
Spelling /з:/
Less common: -our courtesy, journal -ere were -olo colonel -yr myrtle
Less common: -our courtesy, journal -ere were -olo colonel -yr myrtle
Comparison
Comparison

Презентация: «English Phonetics and Phonology». Автор: ene. Файл: «English Phonetics and Phonology.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 2113 КБ.

English Phonetics and Phonology

содержание презентации «English Phonetics and Phonology.ppt»
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1 English Phonetics and Phonology

English Phonetics and Phonology

Eha M?ngel Tallinn University

2 Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that

Phonetics - a theory about speech sounds, describing the sounds that

we use in speaking Phonology - explains how phonemes function in language, the relationships among different phonemes

3 The course will focus on

The course will focus on

English sounds Intonation and rhythm Transcription

4 Phoneme - a unit within a set of units as the basis of our speech

Phoneme - a unit within a set of units as the basis of our speech

If we put one of these units in the place of one of the others, we can change the meaning of the word Allophone – different realisations of one and the same unit

5 Organs of speech

Organs of speech

6 Classification of Speech Sounds

Classification of Speech Sounds

Vowels Consonants

7 General Articulatory Characters

General Articulatory Characters

Relatively low position of the tongue More retracted articulation Relative absence of lip-rounding and protrusion Laxness

8 Vowels

Vowels

Monophthongs diphthongs 12 monophthongs: 7 short: ?, e, ?, ? , ?, ?, ? and 5 long: i: , ?: , ?: , з: , u: 7 diphthongs: 5 closing: e?, a?, ??, a?, ?? and 2 (3) centring: e?, ??, (??)

9 Intonation

Intonation

Stress Rise Fall Rise-fall Fall-rise

10 Rhythm

Rhythm

Tone unit Prominent syllable Tonic syllable Tone unit border mark // I hurried across and turned around the corner and started to walk I hurrried across// and turned around the corner// and started to walk

11 Diagram of Cardinal Vowels

Diagram of Cardinal Vowels

12 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian niit piik siil siin kiin English neat peak seal scene keen

13 Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e:

Spelling i: All –ee: heel, sleep, keen Most –ea: steal, meat, read -e:

be, me Less common: -i : machine, police -ie : field, piece -ei : receive -ey : key

14 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian tipp lipp pikk English tip lip pick

15 Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his -e : verb endings and plurals:

Spelling I Common: -i : if, film, his -e : verb endings and plurals:

started, dances Exceptions: -o : women -u : busy -a : village

16 Limerick

Limerick

There was an Old Man of the East, Who gave all his children a feast; But they all ate so much, And their conduct was such, That it killed that Old Man of the East.

17 was Man East, gave children feast; all much, conduct such, killed Man

was Man East, gave children feast; all much, conduct such, killed Man

East.

18 /e/ and /

/e/ and /

/

19 Spelling /e/

Spelling /e/

Common: -e end, bed, letter -ea dead, health, deaf, jealous Less common: -a any, ate, Thames, Pall Mall -ai said, against -ay says -ei leisure, heifer, Leicester -eo leopard, jeopardy -u bury

20 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian: test sett tennis English: test set tennis

21 Spelling /

Spelling /

Common -a add, apple, rat, Less common: -ai plaid, plait -al salmon

22 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian: m?nd k?tt p?kk English: man cat pack

23 /? / and /

/? / and /

: /

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE

MID-OPEN

OPEN

24 Spelling /

Spelling /

Common: -u up, begun, luck, republic, frustrate, Less common: -o onion, come, among, ton, won -ou enough, double, touch, southern -ee threepence -oe does -oo blood, flood -wo twopence

25 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian kapp samm kamm English cup some come

26 Spelling /

Spelling /

:/

Common: -ar art, park, star, argue, departure -a after, staff, father, class, gasp, answer Less common: -al calf, half, calve, halve, salve, calm, palm -ah Brahmin are are -au aunt, laugh, draught -ear heart, hearth -er clerk, sergeant, Derby, Berkeley

27 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian paat kaar maast English part car mast

28 /?/ and /

/?/ and /

:/

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE

MID-OPEN

OPEN

29 Spelling /

Spelling /

Common: -o ox, not, doll, shone, gone BUT: front, tongue,sponge etc. Less common: -a wash, swan, quarrel BUT: wax, swam -au sausage, cauliflower, Austria, Laurence -eau bureaucracy -ou cough, Gloucester, trough -ow knowledge -ach yacht

30 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian: mokk sokk oks nokk English: mock sock ox knock

31 Spelling /

Spelling /

:/

Common: -or or, form, cord, sort -al chalk, talk, Baltic, Malta BUT album,Albert, palm,calm -ar war, reward, quarter BUT:card,larder -au autumn, pause, launch - aw awful, lawn, jaw Less common: -augh daughter, taught -augha- Maugham -as Arkansas

32 -awe awe -oa oar, broad -ough ought, fought, brought -ou pour, court,

-awe awe -oa oar, broad -ough ought, fought, brought -ou pour, court,

source, four -wor sword

33 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian: tool pool moon English: tall Paul mourn

34 /?/ and /u:/

/?/ and /u:/

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE

MID-OPEN

OPEN

35 Spelling /

Spelling /

Common: -oo good, book, took, foot, stood,wool -u put, full, pull, Less common: -ou could, should, would -o woman, wolf, Wocester

36 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian pukk tukk kukk English book took cook

37 Spelling /u:/

Spelling /u:/

Common: -oo tool, roof, zoo, food, boot -u plume, rule, June, rude -ew flew, chew, Jew, grew -o do,move, Domesday, tomb, womb -ou group, rouble, sou -ue blue, true, sue -ui suit, bruise, juice, cruise, recruit -eu sleuth, rheumatism -oe shoe, canoe

38 -oeu manoeuvre -ough through -wo two -uc Tucson

-oeu manoeuvre -ough through -wo two -uc Tucson

39 Spelling /ju:/

Spelling /ju:/

-u unit, humour, perfume -ue cue, due, residue eu eucalyptus -ew few, curfew -eau beauty ewe ewe -ieu adieu -iew view yew yew

40 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian tuul tuum English tool tomb

41 /?:/ and /

/?:/ and /

FRONT CENTRAL BACK

CLOSE

MID-OPEN

OPEN

42 Spelling /з:/

Spelling /з:/

Common: -ur curly, fur, occur, urn -urr purr, ocurred BUT: occurrance -er permit, person, refer, Ernest -err err, referred -ir dirty, firm, sir, Irving -irr stirred, whirr -ear search, earth, rehearse, earn -eur amateur, Fleur -or word, work, worse, attorney

43 Less common: -our courtesy, journal -ere were -olo colonel -yr myrtle

Less common: -our courtesy, journal -ere were -olo colonel -yr myrtle

44 Comparison

Comparison

Estonian k??k s?? p??r English Kirk sir purr

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