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Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them
Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them
The Pantanal
The Pantanal
The Pantanal Contd
The Pantanal Contd
The Pantanal Contd
The Pantanal Contd
Major Human Activities that Threaten the Pantanal:
Major Human Activities that Threaten the Pantanal:
Sewage Pollution from Cuiaba:
Sewage Pollution from Cuiaba:
The Cerrado:
The Cerrado:
Effects of slash and burn agriculture in the Cerrado:
Effects of slash and burn agriculture in the Cerrado:
Mercury discharge from gold mining:
Mercury discharge from gold mining:
Hidrovia Project:
Hidrovia Project:
Hidrovia project Contd
Hidrovia project Contd
Hidrovia Project Contd
Hidrovia Project Contd
Hidrovia project Contd
Hidrovia project Contd
Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management
Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management
Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management Contd
Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management Contd
Conclusions:
Conclusions:

: Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them. : iclist. : Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them.ppt. zip-: 4040 .

Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them

Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them.ppt
1 Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them

Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them

By: Kazuto Senga

2 The Pantanal

The Pantanal

One of the largest seasonally flooded wetland in the world. Area = Approx.140,000 km? Connected to Paraguay, Cuiaba, and Negro Rivers.

Map depicting Wetland Area and River Systems of Mato Grosso, Brasil.

3 The Pantanal Contd

The Pantanal Contd

Seasonally Flooded Wetland (Dry Summer, Flooded Rest of Year). Consist of Many Circular Bodies of Water (each has unique chemical properties).

Photos: Aerial View of the Pantanal.

4 The Pantanal Contd

The Pantanal Contd

Most number of Floating Hydrophytes in the world. Common Hydrophytes: Salvinia Typically Low Nutrient Home for many species of fish and wildlife, as well as humans.

Photo: The Pantanal Wetland Pantanal, Brazil (by David Schaub 2002).

5 Major Human Activities that Threaten the Pantanal:

Major Human Activities that Threaten the Pantanal:

Sewage pollution from Cuiaba City Effects of slash and burn agriculture in the Cerrado Mercury discharge from gold mining Hidrovia Transportation Project

6 Sewage Pollution from Cuiaba:

Sewage Pollution from Cuiaba:

No Water Treatment Plant Wastes flow into Pantanal through Cuiaba River Causes Diseases: Cholera, Dengue Fever, Yellow Fever, etc. Pesticides (DDT) flows into Pantanal, causing health hazards for humans and animals, especially Birds.

7 The Cerrado:

The Cerrado:

Savanna vegetation in dryer regions of wetlands in S. America. Commonly used for agriculture. Slash & Burn Agriculture: Unwanted vegetation (trees and shrubs) cleared by burning, then grassland formed for cattle. Unfortunately, nutrients (mainly in burned vegetation ashes) used up by erosion, leaching, water runoff, winds. Land productive for only 3 ~ 4 years.

Photo: The Cerrado Brasilia National Park (by Kazuto Senga 2002).

8 Effects of slash and burn agriculture in the Cerrado:

Effects of slash and burn agriculture in the Cerrado:

Unproductive land become bare, which leads to: Erosion Increased Sedimentation in River & Streams. Interferes with Water Input & Output into WL. Also lowers nutrients.

Photo 1: Burning and converting the Cerrado Photo 2: Cerrado Grassland for Cattle Farming Tocantins, Brazil (by Kazuto Senga 2002).

9 Mercury discharge from gold mining:

Mercury discharge from gold mining:

Used Mercury leaches into soil and ground water. Mercury carried by runoff and vaporization into rivers & streams Heavy Metal Contamination in Wetlands Poisoning through bioaccumulation & food chain. Mercury Presence = 0.08 ~ 0.64 g/g in Rondonia World Health Organizations suggested limit = 0.43 g/kg/day Health Hazard for Fish, Wildlife & Humans Digging & Excavation ? Erosion ? Sedimentation in Rivers

10 Hidrovia Project:

Hidrovia Project:

Construction of a Highway and Waterway system In order to improve product transportation through Mato Grosso Province. Largest potential for wetland damage.

11 Hidrovia project Contd

Hidrovia project Contd

Highway System Will go through Pantanal to reach Cuiaba City Increased Erosion & Deforestation Interferes Animal Habitats and causes road kill.

Photo: Transamazonica Highway Santana do Araguaia, Brazil (by Kazuto Senga 2002).

12 Hidrovia Project Contd

Hidrovia Project Contd

Waterway System Deepening of canals on rivers and streams Designed to prevent drought and non-navigable water conditions.

Photo: Unused ferry boat during dry season and shallow water Palmas Tocantins, Brazil (by David Schaub 2002).

13 Hidrovia project Contd

Hidrovia project Contd

Seasonal flooding system will be heavily altered. Affect organisms adapted to seasonal floodings. Pantanal will be drained much faster ? longer drought period. Loss of Hydrophytes, Fish & Others. Create uncontrolled floods downstream. Cuiaba River may be flooded by Paraguay River.

Photos Above: Drought and Flooded Conditions of the Pantanal.

14 Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management

Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management

Government and Community Involvement Increase enforcement in the wetland areas. Prevent poaching, illegal gold mining, limit slash and burn agriculture. Educate the importance of wetlands. Potential for tourism, better fishing (fish farming), clean water, long-term benefits.

Photo: Hunting for Fish and Animals is a Crime Cangussu River, Brazil (by David Schaub 2002).

15 Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management Contd

Approaches for Human Activity & Wetland Management Contd

Construction of sewage treatment plant in Cuiaba Create a Pantanal National Park Government protection of wetlands from any construction and decrease human activity. Good for local communities through new economic opportunities, ie) tourism. Lower incentive to use excess natural resources.

Photos Above: Sample Pictures of Brasilian Wetlands

16 Conclusions:

Conclusions:

Much work needed in the Mato Grosso region to provide long-term solution for the protection of the Pantanal. Human involvement and teamwork is crucial for the possible solutions to work. Help from organizations and technological aid from other countries. (EMBRAPA) Pantanal will no longer function as a stable wetland environment, if we continue to ignore the potential environmental issues affecting it.

Environmental Issues Affecting the Pantanal: How to Solve Them
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