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Evaluation - Did it really work
Evaluation - Did it really work
Flying on one instrument
Flying on one instrument
Agenda
Agenda
How PR is practiced
How PR is practiced
Communications process
Communications process
Communication and evaluation
Communication and evaluation
Types of evaluation
Types of evaluation
What can be measured
What can be measured
What else
What else
Case studies
Case studies
PwC
PwC
PwC lessons
PwC lessons
DIMIA
DIMIA
Polestar
Polestar
Polestar  mid-2001
Polestar mid-2001
Polestar  early 2003
Polestar early 2003
Volvo  new car launch
Volvo new car launch
UK Launch program
UK Launch program
PR-led campaign
PR-led campaign
PR works
PR works
Evaluation
Evaluation
Evaluation  your future
Evaluation your future
References and Reading
References and Reading
Web sources
Web sources
Up and away
Up and away
Key thinking
Key thinking
Policy and resources
Policy and resources
CIPR policy 1
CIPR policy 1
CIPR policy 2
CIPR policy 2
CIPR policy 3
CIPR policy 3
CIPR policy 4
CIPR policy 4
CIPR policy 5
CIPR policy 5
The CIPR resources
The CIPR resources
Most Admired Companies
Most Admired Companies

: Evaluation - Did it really work. : Tom Watson. : Evaluation - Did it really work.ppt. zip-: 459 .

Evaluation - Did it really work

Evaluation - Did it really work.ppt
1 Evaluation - Did it really work

Evaluation - Did it really work

Effective public relations measurement and evaluation Presented by Dr Tom Watson, Associate Professor in Communication, Charles Sturt University

2 Flying on one instrument

Flying on one instrument

3 Agenda

Agenda

The communications process What is evaluation? Models of evaluation Brief case studies

4 How PR is practiced

How PR is practiced

Grunigs four models One-way Press agentry Informational Two-way Asymmetrical Symmetrical

5 Communications process

Communications process

Presentation ? Attention ? Comprehension ? Acceptance ? Retention ? Action - Outcome McGuire (1984)

6 Communication and evaluation

Communication and evaluation

Presentation Attention Comprehension Acceptance Retention Action

Output (L1) Out-growth (L2) Outcome (L3) Lindenmann 1993

7 Types of evaluation

Types of evaluation

Summative final impact Formative in progress assessment Should be integrated into all stages of programs

8 What can be measured

What can be measured

Success or failure of strategy Message distribution and reception Understanding, favourability and acceptance Trends

9 What else

What else

Internal Staff attitudes; value of newsletters, video, team briefings SWOT External Sponsorship impact Issues management and prediction Stakeholder attitudes

10 Case studies

Case studies

PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) accountants and biz advisers DIMIA Harmony Day Polestar major printing group Volvo - XC90 launch

11 PwC

PwC

Why arent we getting coverage? asked the bosses Merger of PW with C&L not seen as equal a takeover Change in approach

12 PwC lessons

PwC lessons

Charts and graphics improve story acceptance and favourable write-up CEO in interviews increases favourability voice of the organisation Benchmark coverage to find whos writing about what

13 DIMIA

DIMIA

Monitored media coverage of events Moved from celebrity to community basis More outside metros Increased participation

14 Polestar

Polestar

Europes biggest print group Going through major changes Monitored media coverage Able to see strategy and tactics working

15 Polestar  mid-2001

Polestar mid-2001

16 Polestar  early 2003

Polestar early 2003

17 Volvo  new car launch

Volvo new car launch

18 UK Launch program

UK Launch program

Competing against BMW and Mercedes Strategy was to have continuing campaign instead of launch blip Closely targeted 25 to 44, mid to high income, degree educated, adventurous Total of 609,000 people (1% of pop.)

19 PR-led campaign

PR-led campaign

Media relations drove enquiries to internet and dealers More interest than cars to sell; All ordered before sale date announced Advertising ran for one month and cancelled saving of c.$6m PR helped sell the required number of cars

20 PR works

PR works

21 Evaluation

Evaluation

Three methods of evaluation used: Responses to internet and then dealers Reach of coverage to target audience 96% of target group saw it once; 90% twice Sales

22 Evaluation  your future

Evaluation your future

Forget the Holy Grail, its about relationships (Hon & Grunig 1999) Most PR campaigns dont influence behaviour. (McCoy & Hargie 2003) Avoid dead-ends like management language for evaluation, e.g. ROI (Watson 2005)

23 References and Reading

References and Reading

Hon LC & Grunig JE (1999). Guidelines for measuring relationships in public relations. www.instituteforpr.com Lindenmann, W.K. (1993) An effectiveness yardstick to measure public relations success. Public Relations Quarterly, 38 (1) McCoy M & Hargie (2003) Implications of mass communication theory for asymmetric public relations evaluation. Journal of Communication Management 7 (4) McGuire, WJ 1984 Attitudes and Attitude Change in Lindzey, G. & Aronson, E. Ed. The Handbook of Social Psychology Vol.2 3rd Edn, Random House Walker, G (1997) Public relations practitioners use of research, measurement and evaluation, Australian Journal of Communication 24 (2) Watson T (2005) ROI or evidence-based PR: the language of public relations evaluation. PRism 3, http://praxis.massey.ac.nz/issue_3.html (forthcoming) Watson T & Noble P (2005) Evaluating PR, Kogan Page, London Watson T & Simmons P (2004) Public Relations Evaluation Survey of Australian Practitioners, ANZCA04, July 2004

24 Web sources

Web sources

www.instituteforpr.com www.carma.com.au

25 Up and away

Up and away

26 Key thinking

Key thinking

PR is concerned with ill-defined problems. It cannot be evaluated by a single method or metric because it does not deal with simple issues Likewise, business in general recognises that a simple, single financial measure does not give an accurate reflection of a companys true worth. Gregory & Watson 2006: 1

27 Policy and resources

Policy and resources

Research in the UK sponsored by CIPR Produced by Henley Management College Looked at practitioner and academic literature.

28 CIPR policy 1

CIPR policy 1

PR is part of the management task and is subject to the same disciplines, such as the need to set direction, allocate and manage resources, and monitor progress.

29 CIPR policy 2

CIPR policy 2

Measurement and evaluation are problematic in all areas of management. Complexity is a key factor and in business, it is difficult to separate out the effect of one area of management such as public relations.

30 CIPR policy 3

CIPR policy 3

However, the situation can be eased by better planning and objective setting where precise, measurable objectives allow for enlightened judgements of progress in campaigns and their management.

31 CIPR policy 4

CIPR policy 4

PR can be measured and evaluated in terms of: Contribution to social and economic development Contribution to management, leadership and organisational performance by aiding better decision-making and avoiding mistakes Being a process and part of programme development and implementation The contribution of individual practitioners

32 CIPR policy 5

CIPR policy 5

Available methods, research based, provide information that is good enough for decision making for PR programmes Existing methods are adequate for measuring the contribution of PR. Each method has limitations, so a raft of measures appropriate to particular situations needs to be employed.

33 The CIPR resources

The CIPR resources

Go to www.cipr.co.uk/research

34 Most Admired Companies

Most Admired Companies

A range of evaluation metrics were used between four and eight. Most frequent were informal and/or qualitative such as journalist feedback and discussions with stakeholders. Just checking everything is on track. Gregory, Morgan & Kelly 2005

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