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Evolution of Language
Evolution of Language
How does Language Change over Time
How does Language Change over Time
Cultural Evolution
Cultural Evolution
Biological Evolution
Biological Evolution
Natural Selection
Natural Selection
Successful Reproduction
Successful Reproduction
Does Language Evolution Matter
Does Language Evolution Matter
Evolution of all Life
Evolution of all Life
Primate Evolution
Primate Evolution
We are not descended from Chimpanzees
We are not descended from Chimpanzees
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
When did Language Evolve
How long has language been evolving for
How long has language been evolving for
What has evolved
What has evolved
Wild Chimpanzees
Wild Chimpanzees
Teaching Language to Chimpanzees
Teaching Language to Chimpanzees
Evolution of Language
Evolution of Language
What can Chimps Learn
What can Chimps Learn
Nim Chimpsky
Nim Chimpsky
Tracing Human Evolution
Tracing Human Evolution
Worldwide Spread of Humans
Worldwide Spread of Humans
Catastrophic Evolution
Catastrophic Evolution
Gradual Evolution
Gradual Evolution
What is Language for
What is Language for
Gossiping
Gossiping
Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming
Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming
Increasing Group Size
Increasing Group Size
Co-Evolution
Co-Evolution
Has Language Evolution Stopped
Has Language Evolution Stopped
The K.E. Family
The K.E. Family
K.E. Family Tree
K.E. Family Tree
FOXP2
FOXP2
Evolution of FOXP2
Evolution of FOXP2
FOXP2 Mutations
FOXP2 Mutations
Implications of FOXP2
Implications of FOXP2
The Future of the KE Family Gene
The Future of the KE Family Gene
Summary
Summary

Презентация: «Evolution of Language». Автор: . Файл: «Evolution of Language.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 181 КБ.

Evolution of Language

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1 Evolution of Language

Evolution of Language

Language and Communication Week 7 Mike Dowman

2 How does Language Change over Time

How does Language Change over Time

Each generation learns a slightly different language

L1

U1

L2

U2

L3

U3

L4

U4

L8

U7

L7

U6

L6

U5

L5

produce

learn

3 Cultural Evolution

Cultural Evolution

Many factors affect how language will change from generation to generation. What people talk about. Who talks to who how often. What psychological learning mechanism people have. Ideas about what sounds good, or who people want to sound like.

4 Biological Evolution

Biological Evolution

Biological evolution changes the type of languages that will evolve culturally.

L1

L2

L3

U3

L4

U4

L8

U7

L7

U6

L6

U5

L5

5 Natural Selection

Natural Selection

Biological evolution follows quite different rules to cultural evolution. It will occur whenever we have: Multiplication Variation Heredity Those genes that result in people reproducing will be selected for.

6 Successful Reproduction

Successful Reproduction

Survival Sexual success For almost all of our evolutionary history we’ve been hunter-gatherers. How does language help hunter gatherers? Does language ability affect social status? Does language play a role in ‘courtship’?

7 Does Language Evolution Matter

Does Language Evolution Matter

Language evolution isn’t important if we’re just interested in the way language is today. Evolution isn’t important for understanding the structure and functioning of animals and plants. ?The evolutionary perspective helps us to understand all aspects of language.

8 Evolution of all Life

Evolution of all Life

9 Primate Evolution

Primate Evolution

Wrong!

10 We are not descended from Chimpanzees

We are not descended from Chimpanzees

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

11 When did Language Evolve

When did Language Evolve

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

12 When did Language Evolve

When did Language Evolve

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

13 When did Language Evolve

When did Language Evolve

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

14 When did Language Evolve

When did Language Evolve

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

15 When did Language Evolve

When did Language Evolve

Australopithecus africanus Australopithecus robustus

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

Archaic Homo sapiens Neanderthal

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

16 How long has language been evolving for

How long has language been evolving for

chimp-human common ancestor

5 million years ago

Australopithecus afarensis

Homo habilis

Homo erectus

gorillas common chimpanzees bonobos Homo sapiens sapiens

17 What has evolved

What has evolved

Chimpanzees give clues to how we were 5 million years ago. How does modern chimpanzee language compare to human language? Do chimpanzees have all the cognitive prerequisites for language? (Even if they could speak, would they have anything to say?)

18 Wild Chimpanzees

Wild Chimpanzees

Communicate through gestures, facial expressions, tactile contact, and about 25 different vocal calls. Calls can express fear, puzzlement, annoyance, food enjoyment, rage or distress, excitement Can alert other chimps to a food source But much more like other animal communication systems than human languages

19 Teaching Language to Chimpanzees

Teaching Language to Chimpanzees

Chimpanzees can’t control their breathing or vocal apparatus So can’t mimic human speech Good manual control So several attempts to teach chimpanzees American sign language (ASL) ? Or to communicate by pointing to a board of board of symbols

20 Evolution of Language
21 What can Chimps Learn

What can Chimps Learn

Chimp trainers have claimed: Chimps can learn 250 ASL words Spontaneously make new lexical items Combine words into sentences Other observers see a lot of random hand movements, and only very poor imitation of ASL signs

22 Nim Chimpsky

Nim Chimpsky

Nim eat Nim eat Tickle me Nim play Me banana you banana me you give Banana me me me eat No or very little syntax Up to about 250 words maximum (using a symbol board) No turn taking or conversational rules Almost always talk about immediate wants

23 Tracing Human Evolution

Tracing Human Evolution

Problem: Language doesn’t fossilize No writing until 5,000 years ago So how can we track language evolution? Skulls and skeletons Crafted artefacts Societal organization Art

24 Worldwide Spread of Humans

Worldwide Spread of Humans

25 Catastrophic Evolution

Catastrophic Evolution

There’s nothing remotely like human language anywhere in the animal world. ?Suggests that there never was anything halfway between chimp and human language ?A single mutation caused a crucial connection to be made in the brain

26 Gradual Evolution

Gradual Evolution

Ugh

Food

Many buffalo there

We hunt

Ugh-Ugh

Don’t attack until I say

Let’s spend the winter here. It’s more sheltered and there are many animals to hunt

Let’s take the kill back to the others

Because out language skills got better we survived better. But it all happened slowly and gradually.

I have seen herds of antelope over the hill. I think we should move there.

27 What is Language for

What is Language for

Language helps us to pass on and develop technologies (how to make better spears). It helps us to coordinate activities (e.g. hunting). We can communicate knowledge about relevant aspects of the environment (e.g. there’s a big herd of buffalo behind the hill where we camped 5 days ago). Could we achieve any of this without language? Could we even think this without language?

28 Gossiping

Gossiping

2/3 of all conversation is about social relations. Both in developed countries and for hunter-gatherers. Does this kind of language use have any effect on our fitness? Does it help our survival rate? Does it increase our reproductive success?

29 Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming

Language Evolved as a Substitute for Grooming

Monkeys and Apes are very social Complex relationships Grooming is main form of social interaction

30 Increasing Group Size

Increasing Group Size

Largest group size for non-human primates is 50-55 (Chimps and Baboons). For modern hunter-gatherers is about 150. Primates spend up to 20% of their days grooming. Human’s would need to spend 40% of their time to cover such a large group. ? Language is ‘vocal grooming’

31 Co-Evolution

Co-Evolution

Language will adapt to humans through cultural evolution As soon as we acquire a tendency to mimic some form of language will appear

32 Has Language Evolution Stopped

Has Language Evolution Stopped

Is there genetic variation in language ability between different people? Are mutations still occurring? If either of these are true, language is still evolving.

33 The K.E. Family

The K.E. Family

16 of 30 members of K.E. family have a specific language impairment. Problems with morphology (have to learn past tense and plurals one by one – can’t learn rule of adding –ed / -s). Some other aspects of grammar not so affected. Mean IQ of impaired subjects 86 (range 71-111). Mean IQ of unaffected family members 104 (range 84 – 119).

34 K.E. Family Tree

K.E. Family Tree

F (74) – husband

F (46) – husband

M – wife

F (43) – husband

M (40) – wife

F (38) - husband

F (17) M (16) F (12) M (8)

M (20) F (18)

F (21) F (17) F (12) F (11) M (7)

M (10) F (7) F (5) F (2)?

M (17) M (15) M (14) F (12) M (10) M (8) F (7) M (6) F (6)

Red family members have impairment Black members have no impairment at all No spouses had language impairment

fraternal twins

35 FOXP2

FOXP2

In 2001a gene was found in all affected family members No non-affected family members had this gene Nor did any of 360 controls from the general population FOXP2 controls the expression of other genes Affects brain development (at embryo stage)

36 Evolution of FOXP2

Evolution of FOXP2

Grey boxes mark amino acid changing mutations 0 mutations in 75 million years for chimps 1 for mice 2 for humans in last 6 million years

75 Million years ago

37 FOXP2 Mutations

FOXP2 Mutations

FOXP2 mutations have been selected for in humans (are not due to random drift). Mutation probably happened 10,000 to 100,000 years ago. KE family mutation is different – in a completely different part of the gene. But may still give us some idea what the mutations were for.

38 Implications of FOXP2

Implications of FOXP2

Does FOXP2 really tell us anything about language evolution? Does FOXP2 code for morphology? Or does the mutation of FOXP2 disrupt whatever codes for morphology? Does FOXP2 suggest that something really language-specific evolved?

39 The Future of the KE Family Gene

The Future of the KE Family Gene

Will the KE family gene die out? Or will it keep spreading? If it spreads widely enough, a version of language without morphological rules might arise. We could be seeing the beginnings of a new stage in the evolution of language.

40 Summary

Summary

Language evolution raises a lot of questions: What evolved? When did it evolve? Why did it evolve? Key point – All explanations in linguistics must ultimately be grounded in terms of biological evolution by natural selection.

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