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From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
Culture central to the contemporary City
Culture central to the contemporary City
Culture-led Regeneration
Culture-led Regeneration
New role for culture
New role for culture
property led approach
property led approach
Problems
Problems
Property-led development
Property-led development
Property-led Regeneration
Property-led Regeneration
The Creative City
The Creative City
Creative City
Creative City
From Cultural to Creative Industries
From Cultural to Creative Industries
Cultural industries as new economy
Cultural industries as new economy
Cultural to creative industries
Cultural to creative industries
Creativity goes mainstream
Creativity goes mainstream
Why are they growing
Why are they growing
Cultural consumption
Cultural consumption
On production side
On production side
Why Cities
Why Cities
Global economy about networks and flows  of capital, information,
Global economy about networks and flows of capital, information,
Produce and process knowledge and information; Harness R&D to new
Produce and process knowledge and information; Harness R&D to new
CI and cities
CI and cities
commodified cultural production (Scott)
commodified cultural production (Scott)
Why some cities not others
Why some cities not others
Why some cities not others
Why some cities not others
Art Worlds
Art Worlds
Independents
Independents
Independents
Independents
Independents
Independents
Leadbeater and Oakley
Leadbeater and Oakley
Creative Urban Ecology
Creative Urban Ecology
Scott
Scott
Scott
Scott
Scott
Scott
Creative City, Narratives of regeneration
Creative City, Narratives of regeneration
Creative Milieux (Peter Hall)
Creative Milieux (Peter Hall)
Hall: Cities and Civilisation
Hall: Cities and Civilisation
Alternative Cultures
Alternative Cultures
In from the margins
In from the margins
Urban Transformation
Urban Transformation
Re-Landscaping
Re-Landscaping
Manchester Case
Manchester Case
Historical background
Historical background
Manchester
Manchester
Museums and Art Galleries
Museums and Art Galleries
Theatres
Theatres
Classical Music
Classical Music
Sports Faculties
Sports Faculties
Statistics
Statistics
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
City Narrative
City Narrative
Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities
Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities
Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities
Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities
Manchester Music
Manchester Music
Uses and Abuses
Uses and Abuses
1. Creative Production and Space
1. Creative Production and Space
2: Beyond Cultural Policy
2: Beyond Cultural Policy
3 The Dark Side
3 The Dark Side
4 Urbanity and modernity
4 Urbanity and modernity
5 Floridas Creative Class
5 Floridas Creative Class
6 Creativity
6 Creativity
6 Creativity
6 Creativity
7 Threats
7 Threats
Final thought
Final thought

: From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the Creative City. : Pollock. : From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the Creative City.ppt. zip-: 511 .

From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the Creative City

From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the Creative City.ppt
1 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the

From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the

Creative City

Dr. Justin OConnor Manchester Institute for Popular Culture Manchester Metropolitan University

2 Culture central to the contemporary City

Culture central to the contemporary City

Culture-led regeneration The creative city Creative industries and the City

3 Culture-led Regeneration

Culture-led Regeneration

1980s, city governments: contracting industrial base, increasing globalisation erosion of the key traditional competitive functions of cities. culture as the new fix.

4 New role for culture

New role for culture

global image attraction of footloose capital highly mobile and highly skilled personnel cultural tourists culture also about real investment in the urban fabric.

5 property led approach

property led approach

subsidised visual and performing arts, museums and heritage new build and refurbishment of 19th and 20th century industrial structures anchored private sector investment into entertainment, leisure and shopping facilities; cafes and restaurants; new type of up-market accommodation, offices and apartments.

6 Problems

Problems

Regeneration viewed as physical regeneration at the expense of a more holistic vision. The big regeneration projects about culture and consumption Cultural consumption generates business, enhances property markets, has strong image effects, but has limits.

7 Property-led development

Property-led development

Tends to involve high capital investment often at the expense of the local Blandness, homogeneity Social exclusion (real and symbolic) Privatisation of public space City centre at expense of suburbs

8 Property-led Regeneration

Property-led Regeneration

Sustainability Extent of Local Impact economic and social Question of wider benefits to the city - content frequently art, of international quality whose culture, whose image? Used instrumentally with little feeling for the actual content. Emphasis on cultural consumption rather than Production Can be destructive of spaces of creation and production

9 The Creative City

The Creative City

Culture-led regeneration attempt to re-image the city giving it a greater global profile. Real creative vision involves much wider and deeper set of transformations. Re-imaging must involve renegotiation of local identity - not just marketing exercise.

10 Creative City

Creative City

About building partnerships, inspiring visions, leadership, accepting painful change About re-imagining the city, telling a different story about what it was and what it could become.

11 From Cultural to Creative Industries

From Cultural to Creative Industries

Adorno Culture Industry: culture as mass production for mass society. Political economists: Cultural Industries Different conditions of production and consumption: commodity and flow; public and private. Need for innovation and authenticity; Artists and intermediaries; Risky business dealing with unpredictability rationalising the irrational.

12 Cultural industries as new economy

Cultural industries as new economy

Fordism to Post - fordism mass production to flexible specialisation; National space to global/ local spaces New economy innovation, creativity, flexibility, reflexivity, responsiveness CIs not longer a remnant of the old but a template for the new

13 Cultural to creative industries

Cultural to creative industries

Creative industry DCMS 1998 mapping document DCMS: individual creativity and exploitation of intellectual property rights, creative industries to forefront of new economy. Key role of information and knowledge services within the new global system, services based on creativity and innovation.

14 Creativity goes mainstream

Creativity goes mainstream

Creativity moved beyond classical cultural industries Traditional attributes of (modernist) artistic production - innovation, intuition, out of the box thinking, rule breaking, rebellion now crucial part of new economy as a whole.

15 Why are they growing

Why are they growing

Education; leisure; disposable income New technologies of creation, distribution and consumption Consumption of cultural goods as part of lifestyle Cultural component of material goods Cultural component of service products Information and communication now meshed with symbolic

16 Cultural consumption

Cultural consumption

1960s: Expressive revolution: transformation of western culture Value shifts collective to individual; from restraint to self-expression; from duty to self-realisation. Creativity - reflexive construction of identity Risk; responsibility for life choices

17 On production side

On production side

Break the 9-5 Doing it for yourself Learning by doing (make it up as you go along) Fluid boundaries of work and play Portfolio careers Reason and Intuition A new habitus

18 Why Cities

Why Cities

Policy agenda was driven at this city level rather than by national governments. CIs held possibilities for de-industrialising cities where innovation, entrepreneurialism, and local vision were key. They could contribute to: Employment Image Sense of vibrancy and cultural richness Wider creativity and innovation Role of subsidised art and culture

19 Global economy about networks and flows  of capital, information,

Global economy about networks and flows of capital, information,

goods and services, people, ideas, images Cities key nodes and command centres in global networks.

Why Cities?

20 Produce and process knowledge and information; Harness R&D to new

Produce and process knowledge and information; Harness R&D to new

business opportunities; Generate new skills and entrepreneurial energy; Provide complex division of labour and institutional mix of dynamic post-industrial city.

Why Cities?

21 CI and cities

CI and cities

Creativity, innovation, competitiveness Flexible, responsive, user-driven Complex mix of large and small companies; Clusters and networks ideas, information, support, trust

22 commodified cultural production (Scott)

commodified cultural production (Scott)

high levels of human input: clusters of small companies operating on a project basis; dense flows of information, goods and services; benefits from economies of scale in skills sourcing and know-how; complex divisions of labour (driven especially by new ICT developments) tying people to places

23 Why some cities not others

Why some cities not others

24 Why some cities not others

Why some cities not others

Embeddedness Tacit knowledge Traditions Institutions Atmosphere Local identity Urbanity

25 Art Worlds

Art Worlds

Artistic milieus: artists Also intermediaries, impresarios, agents, gallery owners, lawyers, craftspeople, technicians, specialist material suppliers etc. cool places, atmosphere, buzz, scenes could not just be created - organic quality.

26 Independents

Independents

Freelancers and micro businesses part of a localised scene, active consumers, near to the street, insiders knowledge of the volatile and localised logic of cultural consumption Creative milieus: active consumers became active producers of cultural products; spaces, people, networks, exemplars, experiences, institutions part of the creative assets of a city

27 Independents

Independents

new sense of cultural identity and purpose, New mix of cultural and commercial knowledge New mix of emotional investment and calculation, of creativity and routinisation, of making money and making meaning operating in risky environment, using networks of trust and of information

28 Independents

Independents

New habitus Has to be learned - but tacit rather than formal learning. Tacit, embedded knowledge is also part of the creative assets of a city

29 Leadbeater and Oakley

Leadbeater and Oakley

They thrive on easy access to local, tacit know-how a style, a look, a sound which is not accessible globally. Thus the cultural industries based on local know-how and skills show how cities can negotiate a new accommodation with the global market, in which cultural producers sell into much larger markets but rely on a distinctive and defensible local base.

30 Creative Urban Ecology

Creative Urban Ecology

meanings adhere to the urban landscape - used as factors in the production of cultural commodities meanings re-assimilated into the urban landscape, acting as a source of inputs to new rounds of cultural production and commercialisation, and a further enrichment of the urban landscape

31 Scott

Scott

Cultural production and consumption transform the landscape of the city through its shopping malls, restaurants and caf?s, clubs, theatres, galleries, boutiques.

32 Scott

Scott

This revitalisation of the symbolic content of cities draws in city governments, link these transformations with ambitious public efforts of urban rehabilitation in the attempt to enhance local prestige, increase property values and attract new investments and jobs.

33 Scott

Scott

Their survival can be further assured where policy makers at production locals are able to work out effective systems for the provision of co-ordination and steering services directed to the amplification of these agglomeration economies.

34 Creative City, Narratives of regeneration

Creative City, Narratives of regeneration

Scott links specific support for CIs with a wider management of the urban ecology - the symbolic infrastructure of the city. Also a mobilisation of local urban identity - creative cities a narrative, usually by the city development agencies of local identity as a cultural resource.

35 Creative Milieux (Peter Hall)

Creative Milieux (Peter Hall)

chaotic, structurally unstable, many sided entities; undergoing social and economic transformation; usually wealthy but with abundance of creative talent drawn from social outsiders, often migrant currents; outsiders needing, like the cities themselves, to react against something, kick over the traces.

36 Hall: Cities and Civilisation

Hall: Cities and Civilisation

These creative cities were societies troubled about themselves; they were in a state of tension, of transition forward to new and unexplored modes of organisation societies in the throes of a transformation in social relationships, in values and in views about the world; creative cities and creative milieux are places of great social and intellectual turbulence: not comfortable places at all.

37 Alternative Cultures

Alternative Cultures

romanticism the rebellious outsider bohemia - the glamorous outcasts (Wilson) modernism and the avant-garde, struggle against the existing order of things. 1960s counter-culture, via popular culture entered into the mainstream of contemporary culture

38 In from the margins

In from the margins

50 and 60s popular culture - more positive and democratic spin to Adorno. Culture not the big corporate but the small independents. rationalising the irrational emphasised the role of independents in the production of culture Innovation from below, from rebel, the outsider, the rule breaker. 1980s - this culture in from the margins, finds place at the centre of culture, and of the city.

39 Urban Transformation

Urban Transformation

Emergence of alternative spaces (Zukin - SoHo) Movement of artists and cultural intermediaries resulted in the cultural re-valuation of a run down area of the city - from junk to cool. re-landscaping urban renewal not led by planners, but bottom up micro transformation based on cultural vision. symbolic not physical transformation of the city. Zukin - property developers beneficiaries of this re-landscaping

40 Re-Landscaping

Re-Landscaping

Wider sense of urban identity City as a theatre of identity Wider sense of what the city is, what it might be. Alternative spaces: - Spaces of imagination and new narrative of city,

41 Manchester Case

Manchester Case

Successful use of culture to transform image and urban landscape Transformation of an older identity, reworked through popular culture

42 Historical background

Historical background

Manchester shock city of industrialisation Challenge to Londons economic, political and cultural dominance Response to challenges plugged into global transformations 1930s in decline though still city of Empire 1960-80 - collapse

43 Manchester

Manchester

Culture-led Regeneration Olympic Bid: 1987, 1991 New Partnerships, New Visions IRA bomb 1996 New Opportunity, new networks

44 Museums and Art Galleries

Museums and Art Galleries

Museum of Science and Industry, Manchester Art Gallery, Manchester Museum, Urbis, Imperial War Museum North, Museum of Transport, Pump House Peoples History Museum, Manchester Jewish Museum,

Whitworth Art Gallery, Cornerhouse, Cube, Castlefield Gallery, Lowry Centre and a number of smaller attractions (over 10 public art galleries and over 19 private galleries)

45 Theatres

Theatres

13 theatres including the Royal Exchange Theatre, the Palace Theatre, the Opera House, Library Theatre and the new young people's theatre, The Contact

46 Classical Music

Classical Music

The Bridgewater Hall, Halle Orchestra, BBC Philharmonic, Manchester Camerata, Goldberg Ensemble, Phappha, Royal Northern College of Music, Chethams School of Music, Manchester Music Service, European Opera Centre.

47 Sports Faculties

Sports Faculties

The Manchester City Stadium, Velodrome, Aquatics Centre and facilities for tennis, hockey, athletics and squash.

48 Statistics

Statistics

?395 millions ( 561M) worth investments in the cultural infrastructure of the city since 1995 10,483,942 recorded visits were made to major cultural attractions in 2000/2001 22,585 people employed in the cultural sector in the city 4,553,000 visitors stayed overnight in Manchester in 1999, contributing 500M million to the economy

49 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
50 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
51 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
52 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
53 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
54 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
55 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
56 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
57 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
58 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
59 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
60 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
61 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
62 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
63 From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the
64 City Narrative

City Narrative

Original Modern City: reworked narrative of past and future (Peter Saville) Shift of emphasis from industrial to urbanistic innovation Drew on long standing narratives (first global city, entrepreneurial, open to change) Drew on popular culture as symbolic of wider vibrancy and creativity

65 Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities

Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities

It is this restless flux of the utopias of organised labour and the utopian dreams of urban fortunes, won through free trade and enterprise, that defines the parameters of local mancunian structure of feeling a culture that sees itself as connected up to a larger world and a larger set of possibilities, rather than simply an industrial city caught within a narrow labour metaphysic.

66 Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities

Taylor: A Tale of Two Cities

The dominant image of the Mancunian of the 1990s, of the street-wise scally (scallywag) doing business across the world or profiting from local initiatives in the entertainment business (the pop groups of the 1980s Madchester or the Olympic bid in 1992), we would argue is no overnight invention.

67 Manchester Music

Manchester Music

Sex Pistols 1976: Alternative Space Rave culture: Hacienda Madchester: Time Magazine and Olympics The Smiths: reworking the myth/ past slipping away/ ambiguity love and hate

68 Uses and Abuses

Uses and Abuses

Generated arts infrastructure Chains not small retailers Cultural Consumption rather than production CIs not supported Popular culture under threat from commercialisation (e.g. small venues) Selective use of popular culture: the excluded and the ignored literacy and education

69 1. Creative Production and Space

1. Creative Production and Space

CIs need space and place As much an issue of public policy as space for subsidised art Urban ecology increasingly threatened by culture-led regeneration Private spaces have a public function spaces of innovation and experiment Creative cities about hard economic choices

70 2: Beyond Cultural Policy

2: Beyond Cultural Policy

Support for creative production: Not artist centred range of key actors and skills About the non-human things organise us Systems about structures and autonomous processes Sometimes about economic muscle and regulation

71 3 The Dark Side

3 The Dark Side

Benign narrative of culture and economics Creative Milieus mobilised as economic policy. Creativity and culture about conflict, unpopular culture, the dark side: does not always sit well with policy makers.

72 4 Urbanity and modernity

4 Urbanity and modernity

creativity linked to the (urban) public sphere and to transformations of lifestyle and social structure. Creative Milieus involve cultural and political questions Can you have creativity and innovation (modernisation) without the more difficult modernity that goes with it?

73 5 Floridas Creative Class

5 Floridas Creative Class

Is it a class in any meaningful sense? Is it simply about new forms of consumption and gentrification? Does it benefit a new elite at the expense of the urban population as a whole? Does it benefit the city at the expense of the country?

74 6 Creativity

6 Creativity

Creativity based on modernism not traditional cultural values golden mean, middle way, balance, slow acquisition of skills, discipline etc. These values stripped away by discourse of creativity Endless innovation mirror of capitalism (all that is solid melts into air)

75 6 Creativity

6 Creativity

Creativity as absolute human right or ideology? What, could creativity be a bad thing?

76 7 Threats

7 Threats

Instrumentalisation of culture Collapse of culture into economic policy Homogenisation, globalisation and erosion of local production New work culture Modernity: danger and opportunity!

77 Final thought

Final thought

Cities are divisions of labour and an imaginative work How do these work with each other?

From Margin to Centre: The Role of Alternative Cultures in the Creative City
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