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 Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and How can health inequalities be measured Difference and ratio measures Absolute and relative inequality Applied examples: difference and ratio Applied example: difference and ratio Ordered and non-ordered groups Two subgroups and more than two subgroups Simple measures of inequality: multiple subgroups Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Limitations of simple measures of inequality Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and

Презентация на тему: «Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and middle-income countries». Автор: BERGEN, Nicole. Файл: «Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and middle-income countries.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 431 КБ.

## Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and middle-income countries

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### Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and

middle-income countries

Lecture 4: Simple measures of health inequality

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### How can health inequalities be measured

Simple measures make pairwise comparisons of health between two subgroups, such as the most and least wealthy main type of measurement used in inequality monitoring intuitive and easily understood

3

### Difference and ratio measures

Difference shows the absolute inequality between two subgroups the mean value of a health indicator in one subgroup subtracted from the mean value of that health indicator in another subgroup Ratios show the relative inequality between two subgroups the mean value of a health indicator in one subgroup divided by the mean value of that health indicator in another subgroup When there are only two subgroups to compare, difference and ratio are the most straightforward ways to measure absolute and relative inequality

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### Absolute and relative inequality

Absolute inequality reflects the magnitude of difference in health between two subgroups Absolute measures retain the same unit of measure as the health indicator For example, if health service coverage were 100% and 90% in two subgroups of one population, and 20% and 10% in subgroups of another population, both cases would report absolute inequality of 10 percentage points Relative inequality measures show proportional differences in health among subgroups For example, the relative inequality in a population with health service coverage of 100% and 50% in two subgroups would equal 2 (100/50 = 2); the relative inequality in a population with health service coverage of 2% and 1% in two subgroups would also equal 2 (2/1 = 2)

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### Applied examples: difference and ratio

Table 1 Area-based inequality in antenatal care (at least four visits) in Colombia, DHS 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010

Survey year

Coverage in rural area (%)

Coverage in urban area (%)

Difference (urban – rural) (percentage points)

Ratio (urban / rural)

1995

53.8

82.4

28.6

1.5

2000

64.7

84.9

20.2

1.3

2005

73.1

87.1

14.0

1.2

2010

80.5

90.3

9.8

1.1

Table 2 Sex-based inequality in under-five mortality rates in Egypt, DHS 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2008

Survey year

Female (deaths per 1000 live births)

Male (deaths per 1000 live births)

Difference (male – female) (deaths per 1000 live births)

Ratio (male / female)

1995

98.9

92.1

–6.8

0.9

2000

69.3

68.6

–0.7

1.0

2005

46.3

52.1

5.8

1.1

2008

27.7

38.4

10.7

1.4

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### Applied example: difference and ratio

Table 3 Wealth-based inequality in births attended by skilled health personnel in the Philippines, DHS 1998, 2003 and 2008

1998

21.2

45.9

72.8

83.9

91.9

70.7

4.3

2003

25.1

51.4

72.4

84.4

92.3

67.2

3.7

2008

25.7

55.6

75.8

86.0

94.4

68.7

3.7

Survey year

Quintile 1 (poorest) (%)

Quintile 2 (%)

Quintile 3 (%)

Quintile 4 (%)

Quintile 5 (richest) (%)

Difference (quintile 5 – quintile 1) (percentage points)

Ratio (quintile 5 / quintile 1)

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### Ordered and non-ordered groups

Ordered groups have an inherent positioning and can be ranked For example, wealth, education level Non-ordered groups, by contrast, are not based on criteria that can be logically ranked For example, region, ethnicity, religion, place of residence

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### Two subgroups and more than two subgroups

Some equity stratifiers naturally generate two subgroups For example, sex, urban-rural place of residence Other equity stratifiers may comprise multiple subgroups For example, wealth quintiles, region Many equity stratifiers could be classified either way For example, urban-rural place of residence could be expanded to include large cities, small cities, towns, villages, countryside, etc. Simple measures are appropriate to make pairwise comparisons of two subgroups; complex measures may be useful when there are more than two subgroups

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### Simple measures of inequality: multiple subgroups

When there are multiple subgroups pairwise comparisons may be made between: Subgroups with highest and lowest values of a health indicator Specific pairs of subgroups, based on a selected reference subgroup or subgroups For example, comparing each region with the capital region For example, comparing each wealth quintile to the richest quintile

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

#1. Pairwise comparisons ignore all other subgroups that are not being compared

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

Survey year

Quintile 1 (poorest) (%)

Quintile 2 (%)

Quintile 3 (%)

Quintile 4 (%)

Quintile 5 (richest) (%)

Difference (quintile 5 – quintile 1) (percentage points)

2003

20.6

31.9

43.3

73.0

90.4

69.8

2008

24.2

50.0

64.8

81.7

94.6

70.4

Table 4 Wealth-based inequality in births attended by skilled health personnel in Ghana, DHS 2003 and 2008

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

Figure 1 Births attended by skilled health personnel in Ghana, by wealth quintile, DHS 2003 and 2008

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

#2. Pairwise comparisons do not take into consideration subgroup size

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

Table 5 Education-based inequality in contraceptive prevalence (modern methods) in the Philippines, DHS 1993 and 2008

Figure 2 Contraceptive prevalence (modern methods) in the Philippines, by education level, DHS 1993 and 2008

Survey year

None (%)

Primary (%)

Secondary or higher (%)

Difference (secondary or higher – none) (percentage points)

1993

7.2

21.5

28.0

20.8

2008

8.7

30.3

35.8

27.1

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

Figure 3 Proportion of women of reproductive age in the Philippines, by education level, DHS 1993 and 2008

Source: Data provided by: International Center for Health Equity, Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil.

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### Limitations of simple measures of inequality

Interpretation challenges due to population shifts: Example: more-educated subgroups may appear to be losing coverage of a health service over time, when in reality this could be the result of a population shift of uncovered persons from less-educated subgroups into more-educated subgroups Should report the relative size of the population subgroups alongside disaggregated mean values of the health indicator

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### Health inequality monitoring: with a special focus on low- and

middle-income countries Full text available online: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/85345/1/9789241548632_eng.pdf

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