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Chapter 18  Hip-Hop and Rap
Chapter 18 Hip-Hop and Rap
Spoken Word
Spoken Word
Hip-Hop Culture and East Coast Rap
Hip-Hop Culture and East Coast Rap
Break Dancing Techniques
Break Dancing Techniques
The Language of the Hip-Hop Disc Jockey
The Language of the Hip-Hop Disc Jockey
Mixing  Fading down one recording as another increases in volume
Mixing Fading down one recording as another increases in volume
Disc jockeys turntable work and toasted, or rapped vocals recorded
Disc jockeys turntable work and toasted, or rapped vocals recorded
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
Grandmaster Flash
Grandmaster Flash
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
Run-DMC
Run-DMC
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
Public Enemy
Public Enemy
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
West Coast Rap
West Coast Rap
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
Latino Rap
Latino Rap
Listening Guide
Listening Guide
Discussion Question
Discussion Question

: Hip-Hop and Rap. : Kathie. : Hip-Hop and Rap.ppt. zip-: 57 .

Hip-Hop and Rap

Hip-Hop and Rap.ppt
1 Chapter 18  Hip-Hop and Rap

Chapter 18 Hip-Hop and Rap

Manipulating sound with just your hand is like a miracle. The basic root of scratching is that the turntable is a musical instrument. Youre figuring out all these time signatures and rhythms and patterns and notes. DJ Q-Bert

McGraw-Hill/Irwin

Copyright 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

2 Spoken Word

Spoken Word

Importance of spoken poetry in Africa and by African Americans: Griot singers Spirituals with two levels of meaning in text, called signifying Harlem Renaissance writers use of ghetto language Spoken sections in country blues and other music during the twenties and after The Last Poets, 1970 in New York used patter-spoken lyrics in support of civil rights and African polyrhythmic drumming as accompaniment Jamaican disc jockeys use of patter-talk called toasting

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3 Hip-Hop Culture and East Coast Rap

Hip-Hop Culture and East Coast Rap

Popularity of competitive break dancing in New Yorks South Bronx, Queens, and Brooklyn Disc jockeys provided music for dancers on street corners DJ Kool Herc, from Jamaica, added the use of two turntables and sound manipulation used in Jamaica for New York dancers Jamaican style of toasting or patter talking to recordings added to DJs style Afrika Bambaataa, another early hip-hop disc jockey and toaster organized neighbors into the Zulu nation and further developed turntable techniques Tagging, developed into elaborate urban graffiti art form

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4 Break Dancing Techniques

Break Dancing Techniques

B-boy/B-girl A breakdancer Electric boogie Controlled movements that begin at one appendage and gradually shift to other parts of the body in a wavelike motion Locking A move in which appendages relax and then jerk back into position Moonwalk A mimelike motion in which the dancer stays in one place while moving as if walking Popping A move in which appendages jerk as if put out of joint Robot A style in which individual body parts move while the rest of the body is stationary Spins The dancer places his or her head, back, or hand on the ground and spins around like a top Up-rocking Martial-arts-like motions

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5 The Language of the Hip-Hop Disc Jockey

The Language of the Hip-Hop Disc Jockey

Backspinning Turning or spinning the record back to the desired place Beat box- A Vox percussion box with keys that play the sounds of bass and snare drums as well as high-hat, castanets, and timbales Beat juggling Re arranging the beat with fast changes from one record to another Breakdown A DJs slowing down a drum pattern by stopping the record between beats and playing beats from a second record between them Cutting Segueing one recording into another using a varispeed control to maintain a constant beat pattern through the change Double backing Playing two copies of the same record at the same time, but with one slightly ahead of the other Dub reggae Hip-hop to a DJs music Loop A short drum pattern that is repeated over and over Merry-go-round Cutting from the favorite section of one recording to a favorite section of another

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6 Mixing  Fading down one recording as another increases in volume

Mixing Fading down one recording as another increases in volume

level Ready-made music Recordings on the records manipulated by disc jockeys Sampling Taking selected sections from previously recorded records and repeating and mixing those sections to create a background sound to accompany new vocals Scratching Changing the records rotation from forward to backward repeatedly to create a rhythmic pulse Turntablist A DJ form whom a deck of turntables is played like a musical instrument Varispeed control A phonograph control that allows disc jockeys to vary the speed (and hence the pitch) at which a recording is played

The Language of the Hip-Hop DJ, continued

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7 Disc jockeys turntable work and toasted, or rapped vocals recorded

Disc jockeys turntable work and toasted, or rapped vocals recorded

and circulated around New York Sylvia Robinson, owner of Sugar Hill Records, heard rappers live at a party and asked them to let her record them in a studio Rappers Delight released by the rappers calling themselves the Sugar Hill Gang, first hip-hop pop-chart hit Sampling, permissions problems and sharing of royalties Bass player and producer for Good Times by Chic given partial writers credit for Rappers Delight because their music was copied, although it was rerecorded by new musicians, for Rappers Delight background

The Language of the Hip-Hop DJ, continued

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8 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

Rappers Delight by the Sugar Hill Gang Tempo: 108 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: Constant repetition of a 4-bar pattern with lyrics rapped over it Features: The instrumental backing was copied from the instruments used in Chics recording of Good Times The three members of the Sugar Hill Gang, Wonder Mike, Big Bank Hank, and Master Gee take turns rapping The backbeat is hand clapped Lyrics: All three rappers take turns assuming larger-than-life descriptions of their sexual abilities and magnetism Charts: Pop, #36, R&B, #4, British hits, #3

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9 Grandmaster Flash

Grandmaster Flash

Born Joseph Saddler (Jan. 1, 1958- ) Perfected many turntable techniques copied by turntablists to follow him including: Scratching Backspinning Cutting Use of varispeed control

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10 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

The Message by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five, featuring Melle Mel and Duke Bootee (1982) Tempo: 102 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: 18-bar instrumental introduction, then 8 bats of vocals repeat a phrase that returns at the end of each of five refrains. The refrains and verses vary in length Features: Even beat subdivisions Strong backbeat Vocals are sometimes spoken within the 4-beat patterns, but sometimes are syncopated around it Ascending and descending electronic sounds begin at bar 3 and repeat through the vocal verses Melle Mel is the principal rapper, but Duke Bootee and others are added at the final verse as a dialogue that adds a real-life setting Lyrics: Mel presents a collage of urban decay and degradation. The refrain reiterates his struggle to keep his sanity and integrity in such dehumanizing conditions Charts: Pop, #62, R&B, #4, British hits, #8

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11 Run-DMC

Run-DMC

Run-DMC did much to popularize rap to widespread white audiences during the mid-eighties Its Like That introduced style hard-core rap that stressed hard realities of life Hard-core rap opened the door for gangsta rap on the West Coast Walk This Way (1986) rapped to Aerosmiths song popular with general listeners

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12 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

Its Like That by Run-DMC (1983) Tempo: 126 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: 13-bar instrumental introduction, 8-bar verses and 28-bar instrumentals. The verses end with the title text Features: Two rappers, Joseph Rev Run Simmons and Darryl DMC McDaniels trade off rapping lines in verses The background is created by drum machines and occasional synthesized accents and other sounds, including Jason Jam Master Jay Mizells work as a DJ Even beat subdivisions Strong backbeat by drum machine Vocals syncopate rhythms around the steady drum sound and often stress the half- beats after the main beats, not unlike the hesitation beats in ska Lyrics: The rappers focus on the theme of unbending reality, particularly hard, economic reality Charts: R&B, #1

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13 Public Enemy

Public Enemy

Formed in 1982 with original members Chuck D and Flavor Flav, signed to Def Jam in 1986 Other members were brought on to perform with them Began touring opening for Beastie Boys Used lyrics to report problems in African American neighborhoods and therefore called the CNN (Cable News Network) for African Americans Remarks at concerts included emotional attacks on unfair treatment

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14 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

911 Is a Joke by Public Enemy (1990) Tempo: 104 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: 8 and 16 bar phrases with some extensions Features: Even beat subdivisions Strong backbeat in drums Bass, guitar, and horn (or synthesized horn sound) sections play funk polyrhythms Production includes much mixing and overdubbing, creating a very full background Call-and-response vocals used in extensions to refrains Fade out ending Lyrics: The singer claims he had called the emergency number 911 a long time ago, and no one has responded, indicating that the support teams are not there for those in African American neighborhoods Charts: Pop, #34, R&B, #15

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15 West Coast Rap

West Coast Rap

Ice-T, Tracy Morrow, heard Rappers Delight while in the army, returned to L.A. and began rapping and using turntables Gangsta rap began in L.A., where gangs were a constant problem Tupac Shakur shot to death (1996), murder never solved N.W.A. (Niggas with Attitude) in late eighties Dr. Dre, Andre Young, founded Death Row Records and recorded: Snoop Doggy Dogg Eminem, Marshall Mathers

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16 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

Straight Outta Compton by N.W.A. (1988) Tempo: 104 beats per minute, 4 beats per bar Form: The recording is introduced by an unaccompanied spoken statement followed by 4-bars of instrumental sound, then three long sections of rapped vocals and instrumental interludes of varying lengths Features: Steady beat and strong backbeats on drum machine A 2-bar drone and turntable scratches accompany the drum machine Three rappers take turns doing the vocals: Ice Cube, MC Ren, and then Eazy-E Straight Outta Compton repeated during interludes Lyrics: The rappers glory in their willingness, as gang members, to kill or mistreat anyone who gets in their way, particularly fellow African Americans

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17 Latino Rap

Latino Rap

Spanish-speaking Puerto Ricans, Cubans, and others in New York Mexicans, Chicanos, Cubans, and others in L.A. Break dancing, turntable music, and rapping popular Kid Frost, Arturo Molina Jr., among many L.A. Latino rappers Generally used Latin music for backgrounds and Spanglish as a language

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18 Listening Guide

Listening Guide

La Raza by Kid Frost (1990) Tempo: No real contrasting sections, the form is based on the repetition of a 1-bar riff. After a 3-bar introduction, the vocals and instrumentals form 8-bar sections, but the riff remains constant Features: Backbeat in drums Both even and uneven beat subdivisions used, even in drums and uneven in vocals and saxophones Distinctive electric bass guitar riff Guitar plays a 2-bar pattern across repetitions of the 1-bar riff 2 saxophones play the same melody one beat apart, creating a reverberation or echo effect A xylophone improvises in the background of the last part of the recording The instrumental background is based on a sample from Viva Tirado-Part1 (1970) by El Chicano Lyrics: English, Spanish, and Gypsy patois used to express pride in La Raza (the race)

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19 Discussion Question

Discussion Question

Rap music often tends to have a racial identity. To what degree does that reject the idea of racial integration as an ideal?

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