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History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Topics
Topics
Course script Digitale Bibliothek Th
Course script Digitale Bibliothek Th
What you will learn:
What you will learn:
Requirements
Requirements
Readings
Readings
Readings
Readings
Time periods
Time periods
Germanic
Germanic
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat
English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat
English loan words in German
English loan words in German
Loan words in English
Loan words in English
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
IE reconstructed word forms
IE reconstructed word forms
English-German sound correspondences
English-German sound correspondences
Loan words from French
Loan words from French
Cognates: English-French
Cognates: English-French
Romance
Romance
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Sound correspondences in Romance
Sound correspondences in Romance
Indo-European
Indo-European
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Balto-Slavic
Balto-Slavic
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Cases in Indo-European
Cases in Indo-European
Celtic
Celtic
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Sanskrit
Sanskrit
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit
700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit
Second Germanic sound shift
Second Germanic sound shift
Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages
Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages
Sound correspondences in IE
Sound correspondences in IE
Sound correspondences across unrelated languages
Sound correspondences across unrelated languages
Sir William Jones
Sir William Jones
Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek
Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek
August Schleicher
August Schleicher
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Latin
Latin
Grimms law
Grimms law
Exceptions to Grimms law
Exceptions to Grimms law
Verners law
Verners law
Neogrammarian Hypothesis
Neogrammarian Hypothesis
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Evidence for the IE homeland
Evidence for the IE homeland
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Amerind hypothesis
Amerind hypothesis
Number of speakers
Number of speakers
Nostratic
Nostratic
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language

: History of the English Language. : Acer. : History of the English Language.ppt. zip-: 4002 .

History of the English Language

History of the English Language.ppt
1 History of the English Language

History of the English Language

WS 2005/6

2 Topics

Topics

Linguistic changes: grammar and lexicon Social and political events that influenced the development of the English language English varieties Mechanisms of language change

3 Course script Digitale Bibliothek Th

Course script Digitale Bibliothek Th

ringen Search: Diessel History of the English Language

4 What you will learn:

What you will learn:

Why the English spelling is so odd Why English does not have case marking Why English developed a rigid word order Why there are regular and irregular verbs forms Why many English words are similar to words in German Why many English words are similar to words in French Why questions require the use of ?do Why English has become a world language

5 Requirements

Requirements

Short exam for student who started last year.

1 5% 2 10% 3 5% 4 20% 5 60%

6 Readings

Readings

Barber, Charles. 2000. The English Language. A Historical Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Baugh, A.C. and T. Cable. 2002. A History of the English Language. London: Routledge. [fifth edition] Jucker, Andreas H. 2004. History of English and English Historical Linguistics. Stuttgart: Klett. Millward, C.M. 1996. A Biography of the English Language. Boston: Heinle. [second edition] The Cambridge History of the English Language. Vol. I-V. 1992. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

7 Readings

Readings

Aitchison, J. Language Change. Progress or Decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Trask, R.L. 1996. Historical Linguistics. London: Arnold. McMahon, A.M.S. 1995. Understanding Language Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hock, H.H. 1991. Principles of Historical Linguistics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. Croft, W. 2000. Explaining Language Change. An Evolutionary Approach. Harlow: Longman.

8 Time periods

Time periods

450-1100 Old English 1100-1500 Middle English 1500-1800 Early Modern English 1800-present Present Day English

9 Germanic

Germanic

Germanic West Germanic North Germanic East Germanic English Swedish Gothic Frisian Danish Vandal German Norwegian Burgundian Yiddish Icelandic Dutch Afrikaans

10 History of the English Language
11 History of the English Language
12 History of the English Language
13 English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat

English German Swedish sun Sonne sol house Haus hus cat Katze kat

apple Apfel ?pple father Vater fader hand Hand hand go gehen gar see sehen sar hear h?ren h?ra run rennen r?nnar dream tr?umen dr?mar

14 English loan words in German

English loan words in German

English German computer Computer email Email internet Internet jeans Jeans event Event laptop Laptop cool cool mountain bike Mountain Bike absolutely absolut

15 Loan words in English

Loan words in English

take Old Norse give Old Norse they Old Norse paper French story French force French wall Latin street Latin school Latin kindergarten German

16 English-German sound correspondences

English-German sound correspondences

English German time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn tame zahm tent Zelt to zu two zwei twins Zwillinge

17 English-German sound correspondences

English-German sound correspondences

that das there da through durch thirsty durstig think denken

18 English-German sound correspondences

English-German sound correspondences

pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl pepper Pfeffer pipe Pfeife plant Pflanze

19 English-German sound correspondences

English-German sound correspondences

hate hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schafen

20 IE reconstructed word forms

IE reconstructed word forms

*pe:s- foot *ed- eat *ghebh- give *aug- increase *wed- water

21 English-German sound correspondences

English-German sound correspondences

cheese child chin cheery church king

K?se Kind Kinn Kirsche Kirche K?nig

22 Loan words from French

Loan words from French

crime crime prison prison letter lettre justice justice contract contrat music musique demand demander pronounce prononcer propose proposer responsible responsable

23 Cognates: English-French

Cognates: English-French

one un, une two deux three trois four quatre five cinq six six seven sept eight huit nine neuf ten dix

24 Romance

Romance

French Catalan Italian Galician Spain Sardinian Portuguese Provencal Romanian Rhomansh

25 History of the English Language
26 Sound correspondences in Romance

Sound correspondences in Romance

Italian

Sardinian

Romansh

French

Spanish

Hundred Sky Stag Wax

TEnto Telo TErvo Tera

kEntu kElu kErbu kEra

tsjEnt tsil tsErf tsairaE

sa sjEl sER siR

Tjen Tjelo Tjerbo Tera

27 Indo-European

Indo-European

Germanic Greek Romance Iranian Slavic Indian Baltic Albanian Celtic Armenian

28 History of the English Language
29 History of the English Language
30 Balto-Slavic

Balto-Slavic

Balto-Slavic Baltic Slavic Latvian Lithuanian East Slavic West Slavic South Slavic Old Prussian Russian Polish Serbo-Croatian Russian Czech Slovene Belarusian Slovak Bulgarian Sorbian Macedonian

31 History of the English Language
32 Cases in Indo-European

Cases in Indo-European

IE

Sanskrit

German

English

Lithuanian

NOM VOC ACC GEN ABL DAT LOC INST

*wlk+os **wlk+e **wlk+om **wlk+osyo **wlk+od **wlk+oi **wlk+ei **wlk+o

vrkas vrka vrkam vrkasya vrkad vrkaya vrke vrka

der den des dem

he him his

vilkas vilke vilka vilko vilkui vilke vilku

33 Celtic

Celtic

Celtic Gaelic Irish Scottish Welsh Manx Cornish Breton

34 History of the English Language
35 History of the English Language
36 History of the English Language
37 History of the English Language
38 History of the English Language
39 History of the English Language
40 History of the English Language
41 Sanskrit

Sanskrit

42 History of the English Language
43 History of the English Language
44 History of the English Language
45 700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit

700 English 500 Armenian 400 Gothic 0 200 Latin 400 Classical Sanskrit

800 Greek 1000 Old Persian 1200 Hittite 1500 Vedic Sanskrit 3000 Proto Indo-European

46 Second Germanic sound shift

Second Germanic sound shift

time Zeit tongue Zunge ten zehn that das there da through durch pan Pfanne path Pfad pole Pfahl

hat hassen eat essen let lassen grip greifen deep tief sleep schlafen

47 Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages

Numerals in Indo-European and non-Indo-European languages

English

Gothic

Latin

Greek

Sanskrit

Chinese

Japanese

one two three four five six seven eight nine ten

ains twai Trija fidwor fimf saihs sibun ahtau niun taihun

unus duo tres quattuor quinque sex septem octo novembe decem

heis duo treis tettares pente heks hepta okto ennea deka

ekas dva trayas catvaras panca sat sapta asta nava dasa

i erh san su wu liu chi pa chiu shih

hitotsu futatsu mittsu yottsu itsutsu muttsu nanatsu yattsu kokonotsu to

48 Sound correspondences in IE

Sound correspondences in IE

English

Latin

Greek

Irish

fish father foot for six seven sweet salt new night nine

piscis pater ped pro sex septem suavis sal novus noct novem

ikhthys pater pod para hexa hepta hedys hal neos nykt (en)nea

iasg athair troigh do se seacht millis salann nua (in)nocht naoi

49 Sound correspondences across unrelated languages

Sound correspondences across unrelated languages

Arabic

Urdu

Turkish

Swahili

Malay

news time book service beggar

xabar waqt kitab xidmat faqir

xabar vaqt kitab xidmatgari faqir

haber vakit kitap hizmet fakir

habari wkati kitabu huduma fakiri

khabar waktu kitab khidmat fakir

50 Sir William Jones

Sir William Jones

51 Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek

Sound correspondences between Sanskrit, Latin and Greek

Sanskrit

Latin

Greek

asmi asi asti smas stha santi

sum es est sumus estis sunt

eini ei esti esmen este eisi

52 August Schleicher

August Schleicher

53 History of the English Language
54 Latin

Latin

Old English

Gothic

/p/ ? /f/ /t/ ? /?/ /k/ ? /x/h/ /b/ ? /p/ /d/ ? /t/ /g/ ? /k/

pedum piscis tres tu cordem centum turba crowd edo decem ager genus

fot fisc three [Tri] thou [TaU] heart hundred thorp village eat ten acre kin

fotus fiskis thrir thuU hairto hund itan taihun akrs kuni

IE

Old English

Gothic

/bh/ ? /b/ /dh/ ? /d/ /dh/ ? /d/

*bhero *dhura *ghostis

beran duru gasts

ba?ra da?r giest

55 Grimms law

Grimms law

*p t k ? f T x/h *b d g ? p t k *bh dh gh ? b d g

56 Exceptions to Grimms law

Exceptions to Grimms law

[p t k] [f T x] [b d g]

Sanskrit Old English v?rtate weorTan var?rta wearT vavrtim? wurdon vavrta:n? worden

57 Verners law

Verners law

[p t k] ? [f T x] / [stressed syllable] __ ? [b d g] / [unstressed syllable] __

58 Neogrammarian Hypothesis

Neogrammarian Hypothesis

Every sound change takes place according to laws that admit no exceptions. [Karl Brugmann]

59 History of the English Language
60 Evidence for the IE homeland

Evidence for the IE homeland

Common words for: cold winter snow honey wolf beech pine

No common words for: ocean palm elephant camel

61 History of the English Language
62 History of the English Language
63 History of the English Language
64 History of the English Language
65 History of the English Language
66 History of the English Language
67 History of the English Language
68 History of the English Language
69 History of the English Language
70 Amerind hypothesis

Amerind hypothesis

Eskimo Na Dene Amerind

71 Number of speakers

Number of speakers

Mandarin 907 English 456 Hindi 383 Spanish 362 Russian 293 Arabic 208 Bengali 189 Portuguese 177 Indonesian 148 Japanese 126 French 123 German 119

72 Nostratic

Nostratic

Indo-European Altaic Uralic Afro-Asiatic Kartvelian

73 History of the English Language
74 History of the English Language
History of the English Language
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