<<  English Tenses HISTORY OF ENGLISH  >>
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Stonehenge Around 1900 B.C., Stonehenge was built
Stonehenge Around 1900 B.C., Stonehenge was built
These people moved huge stones from miles away, raised them to a
These people moved huge stones from miles away, raised them to a
Stonehenge
Stonehenge
Celtic People
Celtic People
In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic
In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic
The Celtic language survives today in the language spoken by the
The Celtic language survives today in the language spoken by the
Dictionary skills: reputedly
Dictionary skills: reputedly
In 43 A.D., an army of 40,000 Roman soldiers invaded Celtic Britain
In 43 A.D., an army of 40,000 Roman soldiers invaded Celtic Britain
The Romans
The Romans
BBC History of BritainTime Line Research: http://www
BBC History of BritainTime Line Research: http://www
Hadrians Wall
Hadrians Wall
Roman Soldier
Roman Soldier
The Romans
The Romans
Italy and England on a map of Europe
Italy and England on a map of Europe
End of Roman Rule 410 A.D
End of Roman Rule 410 A.D
Scandinavia
Scandinavia
After 400 years of Roman protection, the Celts were civilized and
After 400 years of Roman protection, the Celts were civilized and
The Jutes Come to Britain
The Jutes Come to Britain
Why did the Jutes want to stay
Why did the Jutes want to stay
This ocean current warms Britain by 5-8C
This ocean current warms Britain by 5-8C
The Angles and Saxons
The Angles and Saxons
Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion
Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion
The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke
The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke
The Celts, renamed Wealas (foreigners), were driven west by the Angles
The Celts, renamed Wealas (foreigners), were driven west by the Angles
By the middle of the 6th century, the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were
By the middle of the 6th century, the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were
King Alfred the Great was a scholar, statesman, and general who ruled
King Alfred the Great was a scholar, statesman, and general who ruled
Saxons, etc
Saxons, etc
King Alfred was also a great general
King Alfred was also a great general
The Vikings
The Vikings
Internet  Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
Internet Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider
In the century following 878 A.D., the Viking invaders kept coming
In the century following 878 A.D., the Viking invaders kept coming
The following story is told about King Canute (Cnut)
The following story is told about King Canute (Cnut)
The Vikings gradually stopped speaking Danish or Norse and learned
The Vikings gradually stopped speaking Danish or Norse and learned
French Vikings, the Normans
French Vikings, the Normans
Meanwhile, England  1066
Meanwhile, England 1066
1066, the Battle of Hastings William, Duke of Normandy, and his Norman
1066, the Battle of Hastings William, Duke of Normandy, and his Norman
Norman Fortifications
Norman Fortifications
The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from
The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
Normans (Northmen)
Normans (Northmen)
For 200 hundred years after 1066, French was the language in the
For 200 hundred years after 1066, French was the language in the
History of the English Language
History of the English Language
How English Became Classy Again
How English Became Classy Again
English Became Classy
English Became Classy
The Anglo-Normans spoke English, but more than 10,000 of their French
The Anglo-Normans spoke English, but more than 10,000 of their French
Geoffrey Chaucer
Geoffrey Chaucer
The Pardoners Tale (an excerpt, Geoffrey Chaucer)
The Pardoners Tale (an excerpt, Geoffrey Chaucer)
Translation into modern English: Three foolish men set out to kill
Translation into modern English: Three foolish men set out to kill
Interesting Facts about modern English Our language has over 600,000
Interesting Facts about modern English Our language has over 600,000
We use Germanic words when we talk about everyday, essential things of
We use Germanic words when we talk about everyday, essential things of
About three fifths of our vocabulary came originally from Latin and
About three fifths of our vocabulary came originally from Latin and
The Language Family Tree
The Language Family Tree
Indo-E
Indo-E
Works Cited
Works Cited
Works Cited
Works Cited

: History of the English Language. : 1. : History of the English Language.ppt. zip-: 2128 .

History of the English Language

History of the English Language.ppt
1 History of the English Language

History of the English Language

2 History of the English Language

History of the English Language

A language develops and changes slowly over centuries. We do not know when the English language started.

3 Stonehenge

Stonehenge

4 Stonehenge Around 1900 B.C., Stonehenge was built

Stonehenge Around 1900 B.C., Stonehenge was built

Since the people who built this huge stone circle did not leave a written record, we do not know what language they spoke. These huge stone circles align with the sun during solstices. (BBC, British History, timelines) Dictionary skills: Solstice, B.C., anno Domini

5 These people moved huge stones from miles away, raised them to a

These people moved huge stones from miles away, raised them to a

vertical position, and placed huge cap stones on top. Stonehenge stands today as an awesome accomplishment and could not have been done without a language. (BBC, British History, timelines)

6 Stonehenge

Stonehenge

Cap stone

7 Celtic People

Celtic People

The Celts immigrated to England in the 5th century B.C. and drove out the Stonehenge people. Since the Celts wandered over areas from Spain to Russia and Britain, the Celtic language was spoken over a vast area of the European continent. (BBC, British History, timelines) Pronunciation guide: Celt (hard c - k)

8 In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic

In Celtic culture, the Druids were the priestly class in Celtic

polytheism. (BBC, British History, timelines)

Dictionary skills: polytheism

9 The Celtic language survives today in the language spoken by the

The Celtic language survives today in the language spoken by the

Scotch Gaelic, Irish, Welsh, and Breton. Celtic names are used for many places in Britain. One British town has this Celtic name: Lian \ vire \ pooll \ guin \ gill \ go \ ger \ u \ queem \ drop \ ooll \ llandus\ illo \ gogo \ goch!

10 Dictionary skills: reputedly

Dictionary skills: reputedly

11 In 43 A.D., an army of 40,000 Roman soldiers invaded Celtic Britain

In 43 A.D., an army of 40,000 Roman soldiers invaded Celtic Britain

and made it part of the Roman Empire. In the 400 years the Romans ruled Britain, they introduced Christianity, Latin, built roads, established Roman laws, and protected the Celts from the fierce Picts and Scots on the north side of Hadrians Wall. Research skills:

The Romans

12 The Romans

The Romans

Internet research skills: Who was Julius Caesar? Who was Claudius? Who was Boudica (also spelled Boudicca)? Who was Hadrian?

13 BBC History of BritainTime Line Research: http://www

BBC History of BritainTime Line Research: http://www

bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index.shtml

14 Hadrians Wall

Hadrians Wall

Hadrians Wall was built across the narrow part of England to keep the Pics and Scots from invading the south.

Hadrians Wall

15 Roman Soldier

Roman Soldier

Romans spoke Latin. * Roman soldiers were exellent engineers and built roads to link Rome with all the Roman Empire.

*Research: Why is it important to the English language that Romans spoke Latin? (BBC, British History, timelines)

16 The Romans

The Romans

The Romans (Italy)

Romans soldiers came from the area we call Italy today. The city of Rome is still the capital of Italy. After serving in the army, many soldiers married Celtic women and stayed in England.

Rome

17 Italy and England on a map of Europe

Italy and England on a map of Europe

England

Italy

18 End of Roman Rule 410 A.D

End of Roman Rule 410 A.D

The Romans started pulling soldiers from Britain in 410 A.D. after 400 years of Roman rule. Rome, the capital of the Roman Empire, was under attacks from barbaric tribes. The Celts were left without the protection of the Roman army and with no weapons to defend themselves. (BBC, British History, timelines)

19 Scandinavia

Scandinavia

Scandinavia

After the Romans left, the Picts and Scots came south into England.

Bands of Vikings came south from Scandinavia.

20 After 400 years of Roman protection, the Celts were civilized and

After 400 years of Roman protection, the Celts were civilized and

accustomed to Roman laws. (Bryson 46-47) Since the Celts had Roman protection for 400 years, they were defenseless against the Pict, Scot, and Viking raiders. (BBC, British History, timelines)

21 The Jutes Come to Britain

The Jutes Come to Britain

Vortigern, a Celtic chieftain, asked the Jutes, a Germanic tribe, to come to Britain and fight the Picts and Scots. In return, Vortigern promised that Jutes could have the isle of Thanet. The Jutes defeated the Picts and Scots, but when they finished fighting, the Jutes stayed in Kent. (BBC, British History, timelines)

22 Why did the Jutes want to stay

Why did the Jutes want to stay

Britain is a beautiful island and located in the path of the Gulf Stream waters. This huge river of warm water provides a warmer climate than one would expect at that latitude and excellent grazing and farm land. (BBC Weather Centre)

23 This ocean current warms Britain by 5-8C

This ocean current warms Britain by 5-8C

This current moves north from the Gulf of Mexico at the equator. This air is still warm and moist when it reaches Britain. Winds from the sea often bring rain. (BBC Weather Centre)

24 The Angles and Saxons

The Angles and Saxons

The Germanic Angle and Saxon tribes also invaded Britain and drove the Celts far to the west. King Arthur and his knights resisted the German invaders. (Bryson, 49) Some Celts fled across the English channel and settled in Brittany where a form of the Celtic language can be heard today. (Bryson, 49) Research Castles of Wales (http://www.castlewales.com/home.html)

25 Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion

Jute, Angle, and Saxon Invasion

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/who_were_the_anglo-saxons/#resources-photos

26 The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke

The Jutes, Angles, and Saxons tribes spoke German although each spoke

a different dialect. (Bryson, 47) Dictionary skills: dialect

27 The Celts, renamed Wealas (foreigners), were driven west by the Angles

The Celts, renamed Wealas (foreigners), were driven west by the Angles

and Saxons, settled in Wales. The present day heir to the English throne, Prince Charles, is titled the Prince of Wales. Welch is a form of the Celtic language.

28 By the middle of the 6th century, the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were

By the middle of the 6th century, the Jutes, Angles, and Saxons were

settled on the land they had taken from the Celts. Historians decided that the Angles dialect was the origin of our language, Angle ish, English. Our language could be called Saxon-ish because of a Saxon king, Alfred the Great. Research: Saxon, English, Alfred the Great (bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_viking/sound)

29 King Alfred the Great was a scholar, statesman, and general who ruled

King Alfred the Great was a scholar, statesman, and general who ruled

the West Saxons from 871 to 899 A.D. He had the most important Latin books translated into the Saxon dialect and collected folk tales and history. King Alfreds love of reading, writing, and language preserved our language during the Dark Ages . Research: King Alfred the Great (http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alfred_the_great.shtml)

30 Saxons, etc

Saxons, etc

* *Etc. (et cetera) and so forth (L) Latin

The language known as Old English was spoken 450 A.D. 1150 A.D. Most surviving Old English documents are in West Saxon dialect. Beowulf is one of these. Library search: Beowulf

31 King Alfred was also a great general

King Alfred was also a great general

Small bands of Viking raiders had been raiding, burning, and looting English towns for a century. Then, they brought large armies to seize the land. (Bryson, 52) Alfred dealt them a smashing defeat in 878 A.D. King Alfred is the only English king with the title the Great. (bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures)

32 The Vikings

The Vikings

Vikings came from Scandinavia and Denmark. There were many places on the British island to beach their boats and raid the English countryside.

33 Internet  Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider

Internet Interactive game: Be a Viking Raider

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/vikings/who_were_the_vikings/ Decide your strategy: How large will your ship be? Who will you include in the crew?

34 In the century following 878 A.D., the Viking invaders kept coming

In the century following 878 A.D., the Viking invaders kept coming

Finally, in 1016, a Danish Viking named Canute (Cnut) was crowned King of England. Cnut ruled Denmark and Norway. He was wise and humble king. bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/what_happened_to_the_anglo-saxons/

35 The following story is told about King Canute (Cnut)

The following story is told about King Canute (Cnut)

Once, King Canute took all his flattering courtiers down to the sea. He asked, Am I so powerful that I can stop the tide from coming in? They answered, Oh, yes! So, he commanded the tide to stay out. Of course, they all got their feet wet. Dictionary skills: flattering, courtiers

36 The Vikings gradually stopped speaking Danish or Norse and learned

The Vikings gradually stopped speaking Danish or Norse and learned

English. However, they gave us such words as: they, their, them, are, skirt, sky, skin, scrub, whisk, and names ending in son. bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/vikings/what_happened_to_the_vikings/

37 French Vikings, the Normans

French Vikings, the Normans

Scandinavian Viking bands invaded the northern coast of France, settled there, and learned French. They forced the French king to name their leader the Duke of Normandy and to give them the province of Normandy (Northman lands). They were called Normans (Northmen).

38 Meanwhile, England  1066

Meanwhile, England 1066

Edward the Confessor, a descendant of King Canute, had no heir to claim the throne of England. Two Norman nobles, Harold of England and William, Duke of Normandy, said the throne had been promised to them. Upon the death of the king, Harold had himself crowned.

39 1066, the Battle of Hastings William, Duke of Normandy, and his Norman

1066, the Battle of Hastings William, Duke of Normandy, and his Norman

army crossed the English Channel, invaded England, and attacked army of newly crowned King Harold of England. Harold was killed when an arrow entered his visor and pierced his eye. William the Conqueror became King of England.

40 Norman Fortifications

Norman Fortifications

41 The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from

The Normans built towers and castles in a style quite different from

the old Celtic hill forts.

42 History of the English Language
43 Normans (Northmen)

Normans (Northmen)

The Normans nobles spoke French with a Viking accent. The peasants spoke the English of the German Saxon tribe.

44 For 200 hundred years after 1066, French was the language in the

For 200 hundred years after 1066, French was the language in the

government, church, education, and the arts. English was spoken, but only by the lower classes. Modern English has inherited two different words for the same item. For example, the peasant who milked the beast called it a cow (Engl.), but the Norman lord who ate it called it beef (FR.).

45 History of the English Language
46 How English Became Classy Again

How English Became Classy Again

In 1204, the Anglo-Normans and the French king fought once more for possession of Normandy. The Anglo-Normans lost the battle and their possessions in Normandy to the French king.

47 English Became Classy

English Became Classy

The King of France added insult to the English kings loss of Normandy. He said, The King of England cant fight or speak French well. The English king was angry! He ordered all his subjects to speak English. English was the official speech of England.

48 The Anglo-Normans spoke English, but more than 10,000 of their French

The Anglo-Normans spoke English, but more than 10,000 of their French

words remained in the English vocabulary. Old English + Norman French = a new combination called Middle English.

49 Geoffrey Chaucer

Geoffrey Chaucer

The most famous writer of Middle English (1150 1500) is Geoffrey Chaucer. The next slide has an excerpt of a Chaucer poem. What does it say? Dictionary skills: excerpt (Classroom Chart, no source cited)

50 The Pardoners Tale (an excerpt, Geoffrey Chaucer)

The Pardoners Tale (an excerpt, Geoffrey Chaucer)

Now, sires, quod he, if that ye be so leef To fynds Deeth, turne up this croked wey, For in that grove I lafte hym, by my fey, Under a tree, and there he wole abyde; Noght for youre boost he wole him no thyng hyde. Se ye that ook? Right there ye shal hym fynde. (Translate.) (Classroom Chart, no source cited)

51 Translation into modern English: Three foolish men set out to kill

Translation into modern English: Three foolish men set out to kill

Death. A mysterious old man in a long black cloak helps in the search for Death. Who was the mysterious old man? What do you predict happened when the foolish men found Death?

52 Interesting Facts about modern English Our language has over 600,000

Interesting Facts about modern English Our language has over 600,000

words. Words from German origins are those we use most frequently because these are about us and our immediate world. (Bryson Words from Latin and Greek form most of the words in the English dictionary.

53 We use Germanic words when we talk about everyday, essential things of

We use Germanic words when we talk about everyday, essential things of

life, such as the parts of the human body, the sun, moon, and stars, and home. German words are the most frequently used, but words from German make up only one fifth of our total vocabulary words. .

54 About three fifths of our vocabulary came originally from Latin and

About three fifths of our vocabulary came originally from Latin and

Greek usually passing through French on the way. The rest of the English word stock is borrowed from dozens of other languages. (Glencoe Writers Choice Grammar and Composition Grade 6, 542-556)

55 The Language Family Tree

The Language Family Tree

The Indo-European languages are called a language family because they are believed to be the descendants of a parent language spoken in Central Europe in the late Stone Age. There are no written records; but similar words in many languages have made it possible to reconstruct the possible original forms. On the next slide there are some common Indo-European words. (Classroom chart, no origin)

56 Indo-E

Indo-E

Sanskrit

Russian Modern

Greek

Latin

Germ Early

Engl. Modern

Puhter

Pita

..

Pater

Pater

Fadar

Father

Treies

Trayah

Tree

Treis

Tres

Threis

Three

Kmtom

Satam

Staw

E-katon

Centum

Hund

Hundred

Ed-

Admi

Yest

Edo

Edo

Ita

Eat

Yugom

Yugam

Yarmo

Dzugon

Jugum

Juk

Yoke

Bhero

Bharami

Fero

Fero

Baira

Bear (verb)

(Classroom Chart, no source cited)

57 Works Cited

Works Cited

Amory, , Tucking, and Cartwright. The First 1,000 Words in German. Edc Publishers, 1988. Print. Bryson, Bill. Mother Tongue, English & How It Got That Way. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000. Print. Classroom Chart. History of the English Language. No source cited. "Glencoe Writer's Choice Grammar and Composition Grade 6." Ed. Columbus, OH: Macmillan/McGraw-Hill Glencoe, 2009. Print. "Holt Elements Of Language Grade 6." Ed. Robert R. Hoyt. Austin, TX: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 2004. Print. BBC, British History, Timeline, Interactive Games. Web. 3 May 2010. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/interactive/timelines/british/index.shtml>. BBC, Britain Weather. The Gulf Stream, Web. July 2009. http://www.bbc.co.uk/climate/impact/gulf_stream.shtml Thomas, Jeffery L. Castles of Wales. Web. 2009. http://www.castlewales.com/home.html

58 Works Cited

Works Cited

BBC Primary History http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/who_were_the_anglo-saxons/#resources-photos Nov. 5, 2009 BBC Sound of the Saxons http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/trail/conquest/after_viking/sound_saxons_01.shtml BBC Historic Figures http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/historic_figures/alfred_the_great.shtml BBC What Happened to the Anglo-Saxons? http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/anglo_saxons/what_happened_to_the_anglo-saxons/ BBc What Happened to the Vikings? http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/vikings/what_happened_to_the_vikings/

History of the English Language
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/history-of-the-english-language-81233.html
c

14

29
900igr.net > > > History of the English Language