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How to make good audio recordings in the field
How to make good audio recordings in the field
How to decide on what I need
How to decide on what I need
S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig
S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig
S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig
S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig
Goals (purpose) Recorders Microphones (incl
Goals (purpose) Recorders Microphones (incl
Analysis
Analysis
Why field recordings
Why field recordings
Special in Endangered Language Documentation Context
Special in Endangered Language Documentation Context
Example 1
Example 1
Field situation
Field situation
Equipment
Equipment
Recorders
Recorders
Barely acceptable to acceptable
Barely acceptable to acceptable
Good to Very Good
Good to Very Good
DAT-Recorders
DAT-Recorders
solid state recorders
solid state recorders
A good solution for the field
A good solution for the field
Not bad, but …
Not bad, but …
smaller siblings
smaller siblings
Saving Raw Data
Saving Raw Data
MD and Hi-MD
MD and Hi-MD
Microphones
Microphones
Microphone types
Microphone types
Frequency response
Frequency response
Microphone stands
Microphone stands
21 / 02 / 06
21 / 02 / 06
Mono or Stereo
Mono or Stereo
Mono
Mono
windshields
windshields
Don’t ignore…
Don’t ignore…
Field conditions
Field conditions
The 7 enemies of your equipment
The 7 enemies of your equipment
Some Rules 1 (Time)
Some Rules 1 (Time)
Some Rules 2 (Equipment)
Some Rules 2 (Equipment)
Some Rules 3 (Supply)
Some Rules 3 (Supply)
Some Rules 4 (Field Situation)
Some Rules 4 (Field Situation)
Recording environment
Recording environment
Speaker
Speaker
Some Rules 5 (After Recording)
Some Rules 5 (After Recording)
References:
References:
Good luck with your recordings
Good luck with your recordings

Презентация: «How to make good audio recordings in the field». Автор: BelaLugosi. Файл: «How to make good audio recordings in the field.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 7681 КБ.

How to make good audio recordings in the field

содержание презентации «How to make good audio recordings in the field.ppt»
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1 How to make good audio recordings in the field

How to make good audio recordings in the field

held January 2006 at the LSA meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico Sven Grawunder Max Planck Institute for evolutionary Anthropology, Dep. of Linguistics, Leipzig, Germany

2 How to decide on what I need

How to decide on what I need

What is good?

Everybody will tell you: “It depends on… What do you want to do? What for? What is the field (recording) situation like? What can You handle? How big is your budget?

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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3 S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

3

4 S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

4

5 Goals (purpose) Recorders Microphones (incl

Goals (purpose) Recorders Microphones (incl

wind shield) Setups Field situation (recording environment)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

5

6 Analysis

Analysis

Transcription Annotation Human hearing (20-18000Hz)

Pitch Intensity Formant estimation VOT Voice Quality Common practice in acoustic phonetic analysis (40-12000Hz)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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7 Why field recordings

Why field recordings

language documentation (variety of linguistic genres, incl. musical genres) conversational analyses oral history

specific elecitation of paradigms for a decent number of speakers (morphosyntax, phonology, phonetics) Wordlists Narrative interview Short stories

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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8 Special in Endangered Language Documentation Context

Special in Endangered Language Documentation Context

multiple speakers (varieties) multiple tasks for multiple purposes multipurpose recordings demonstration of the language in use demonstration of a paradigm basis for transcription and annotation basis for acoustic analysis

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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9 Example 1

Example 1

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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10 Field situation

Field situation

Ambient noises (people, animals, natural sources, vehicles, machines etc.) Climate (temperature range, humidity) Long Distances (Transport) Energy supply Interacting in foreign languages (working language, contact language, elicited language)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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11 Equipment

Equipment

12 Recorders

Recorders

Analog/Digital (costs, formats, media) Digital Formats (16bit PCM, 22.05kHz, 44.1kHz, 48kHz) Quality (signal-to-noise ratio) Power Supply (accumulator / battery) Metering (details, delay, channel split) Media (costs, durability, long-lasting)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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13 Barely acceptable to acceptable

Barely acceptable to acceptable

Barely acceptable (but not recommendable) Micro cassettes via Dictaphone

Acceptable (but not recommendable) IPod PC/Mac Laptop internal soundcard dv-camera tone (ext. mic)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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14 Good to Very Good

Good to Very Good

Good (but not recommendable) Tape recorders (analogue, DCC) (Hi-)MD recorders

Very good DAT-Recorder Solid State Recorder

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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15 DAT-Recorders

DAT-Recorders

Fostex PD 4 MK II

Sony TCD-D100

TASCAM DA-P1

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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16 solid state recorders

solid state recorders

But: Power supply via Accu Price

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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17 A good solution for the field

A good solution for the field

e.g. Marantz PMD 660 Battery powered Individual Channel metering Mono recording possible 44.1 & 48 kHz / 16bit Speakers + Line Out Professional XLR Input

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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18 Not bad, but …

Not bad, but …

It needs E-net connection for direct USB-copying to PC/MAC ? card reader Bad circuit insulation: phantom power current influences the recording ?Never run out of batteries? shielded cables, self powered mics Actual presets are invisible

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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19 smaller siblings

smaller siblings

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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20 Saving Raw Data

Saving Raw Data

To your computer Via Card-Reader or Directly via USB-cable (Electricity needed!!!)

Another solution: Direct Copying to a “mobile photo hard drive”

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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21 MD and Hi-MD

MD and Hi-MD

ATRAC ?opaque format ATRAC?WAV : Don’t betray yourself MD-WAV?MD-PC: Beware losing your data Still Open Software “needed”

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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22 Microphones

Microphones

Frequency range Frequency response directionality powering

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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23 Microphone types

Microphone types

built-in mics only in case of emergency!!! bad quality machine noise omni directional Dynamic mics mic-mouth distance crucial Self-powered electrets (condenser) mics Rather than phantom powered condenser mics

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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24 Frequency response

Frequency response

Frequency range

Directionality Omnidirectional (cartoid charcteristic) Directional (hyperbolic characteristic)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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25 Microphone stands

Microphone stands

On a tripod or stand? On the table? In your hand? On the speaker? Head mounted mic?

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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26 21 / 02 / 06

21 / 02 / 06

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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27 Mono or Stereo

Mono or Stereo

??

Mono Elicitation (One-to-one) 1 Speaker (+ close standing interviewer)

Stereo More than 1 Speaker Moving Speakers Music

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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28 Mono

Mono

Stereo

Shure Beta 53 B

AKG C100 S

Sony ECM-MS957

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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29 windshields

windshields

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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30 Don’t ignore…

Don’t ignore…

Phantom power (48 Hz) Electric circuit (55-60 Hz) Cable (kinks and adapters) Cable shielding (microphone cable, NOT monitor cable) Connections (jacks, plugs etc.)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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31 Field conditions

Field conditions

32 The 7 enemies of your equipment

The 7 enemies of your equipment

Dust Heat Humidity / Water Cold Hard shaking/sudden motion/vibration Thieves Yourself

Insolate your devices! Watch the cables! Keep the equipment dry! Protect your devices!!! Watch or let watch! Take save backups with you!!!

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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33 Some Rules 1 (Time)

Some Rules 1 (Time)

Have a time buffer ? Expect that the recording (setup) takes twice as long as in the lab Practice the record setup (microphone settings, cable ports/jacks, recorder settings) Check “Recording Onset Time” (especially for Tape-Recorders of all types: MC, DAT, DCC)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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34 Some Rules 2 (Equipment)

Some Rules 2 (Equipment)

Get to know your equipment before you go to the field You don’t want to play with settings in a real situation Consider that the field session may be a ‘stressful’ situation You need to focus on your subject (plus Monitoring, Metering, Prompting paradigms, Making notes, …)

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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35 Some Rules 3 (Supply)

Some Rules 3 (Supply)

Make sure that you never run out of Power (Batteries)! Accumulators Solar panel for recharging? Make sure that you never run out of storage (Cassetes, Cards, etc.)! Consider a ratio of 5:1

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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36 Some Rules 4 (Field Situation)

Some Rules 4 (Field Situation)

Get aware of the recording environment The more “natural” the more “distorted” – Lower sometimes your expectations Nonetheless try to control the recording environment

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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37 Recording environment

Recording environment

Choose a possibly quiet location Close doors and windows Cover large reverberant surfaces Ask for turning off lights, refrigerators, fans, air conditioning etc. Remove anything that ticks, buzzes, bangs, rattles, squeaks, hisses, or otherwise makes itself heard

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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38 Speaker

Speaker

Find the appropriate Microphone – Mouth distance (Headworn M. / Static M.) Watch hands and feet Ask for reiterations

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

38

39 Some Rules 5 (After Recording)

Some Rules 5 (After Recording)

Control your data again – listen through your recordings Make notes (on settings, solutions, etc.) Don’t lower the quality requirements for digitization

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

39

40 References:

References:

EMELD: http://emeld.org/school/toolroom/ DOBES: http://www.mpi.nl/DOBES Oral history: http://www.historicalvoices.org/oralhistory/ http://bartus.org/akustyk/signal_aquisition.pdf Radio feature literature

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

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41 Good luck with your recordings

Good luck with your recordings

!!

S. Grawunder MPI EVA Leipzig

41

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