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IAT 410: Advanced Game Design
IAT 410: Advanced Game Design
Class Overview
Class Overview
What would you learn
What would you learn
Books
Books
Structure
Structure
Schedule
Schedule
Grading
Grading
IMPORTANT
IMPORTANT
Some games from previous classes
Some games from previous classes
Your Next assignments:
Your Next assignments:
Concept Document
Concept Document
How do you design a good game
How do you design a good game
Time for Game Trivia
Time for Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Game Trivia
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
Concept Document
MDA framework
MDA framework
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An Extreme Opposite Example: A Theatrical Play
An Extreme Opposite Example: A Theatrical Play
Games, on the Contrary
Games, on the Contrary
Obligatory Editorial
Obligatory Editorial
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
Games as Software
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
A Design Vocabulary
The MDA Framework
The MDA Framework
Definitions
Definitions
?
?
?
?
?
?
Three Views of Games
Three Views of Games
The Building Blocks: Formal Models
The Building Blocks: Formal Models
MDA is a Taxonomy for Models
MDA is a Taxonomy for Models
Properties of Good Models
Properties of Good Models
Part III: MDA in detail
Part III: MDA in detail
?
?
Understanding Aesthetics
Understanding Aesthetics
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Eight Kinds of Fun
Clarifying Our Aesthetics
Clarifying Our Aesthetics
Clarifying Our Aesthetics
Clarifying Our Aesthetics
Clarifying Our Goals
Clarifying Our Goals
What is an Aesthetic Model
What is an Aesthetic Model
Goal: Competition
Goal: Competition
Goal: Realistic Flight Simulation
Goal: Realistic Flight Simulation
Goal: Drama
Goal: Drama
Goal: Drama
Goal: Drama
Understanding Dynamics
Understanding Dynamics
Formalizing Game Dynamics
Formalizing Game Dynamics
Models of Game Dynamics
Models of Game Dynamics
Example: Random Variable
Example: Random Variable
Example: Feedback System
Example: Feedback System
Example: Operant Conditioning
Example: Operant Conditioning
Where Models Come From
Where Models Come From
Understanding Mechanics
Understanding Mechanics
Examples
Examples
Mechanics vs
Mechanics vs
Mechanics vs
Mechanics vs
Mechanics vs
Mechanics vs
Interaction Models
Interaction Models
Example: Time Pressure
Example: Time Pressure
Part IV: Tuning
Part IV: Tuning
Use of Sissy fight as an example game
Use of Sissy fight as an example game

: IAT 410: Advanced Game Design. : . : IAT 410: Advanced Game Design.ppt. zip-: 2165 .

IAT 410: Advanced Game Design

IAT 410: Advanced Game Design.ppt
1 IAT 410: Advanced Game Design

IAT 410: Advanced Game Design

Instructors: Magy Seif El-Nasr, Eric Yang Teaching Assistant: Ai Nakatani

2 Class Overview

Class Overview

Developing a game

Lab assignments

Blogs (individual assignment)

Learn by doing (design, develop, test, prototype cycle) Learn about tools Learn to Critique others work

3 What would you learn

What would you learn

Why games work, Game design principles (what?) Interaction models Balance Feedback Motivation Immersion Design and Development cycle (how?) Tools: rendering engines, game engines, prototyping tools

4 Books

Books

Tracy Fullertons Book: Game Design Workshop: Designing, Prototyping, and Playtesting. 2004

5 Structure

Structure

Lectures: more on how-tos rather than theory (that is IAT 312) Labs Lab tutorial Lab assignment Presentations Quick Be prepared Send us presentations before class (MUST)

6 Schedule

Schedule

Course webpage: http://www.sfu.ca/~magy/courses/IAT410-Fall07/index.html Tentative at: http://www.sfu.ca/~magy/courses/IAT410-Fall07/schedule.html This is where you go for DUES and UPDATES

7 Grading

Grading

Project Group of 5 (individual grade: weekly assessment, and attendance) 45% on deliverables 5% Concept presentation (individual) 15% paper prototype, testing doc, and presentation 15% prototype, testing doc, and presentation 10% final game, testing doc, and presentation 20% labs 30% critiques (on ur blogs) 5% weekly assessment

8 IMPORTANT

IMPORTANT

All deadline are to be submitted before the class, i.e. Monday midnight Send all assignments, presentations, and documentations by email to magy@sfu.ca with subject [IAT-410], all emails without this subject will be ignored. Note about LABS, no email necessary (check marked)

9 Some games from previous classes

Some games from previous classes

10 Your Next assignments:

Your Next assignments:

Setup blog for this class and email me the link (easy?) DUE Monday 9/10, 11:59p Game Concept Presented and Voted on DUE Monday 9/17, 11:59p Presented in labs, 9/18 No labs or lecture next week, get ready for the concept competition

11 Concept Document

Concept Document

How to present your game idea?

12 How do you design a good game

How do you design a good game

Do a lot of research Have a good team Test, test, test Prototypes (small, use all tools possible) You can use some of the frameworks around: MDA framework (this weeks labs) Game balance, fit to an old model (e.g. rock, paper, scissors) Read Tracys book (chapters 1-5) There are several other good books and papers I can recommend

13 Time for Game Trivia

Time for Game Trivia

Lets see if you know the games I play

14 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

15 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

16 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

17 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

18 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

19 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

20 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

21 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

22 Game Trivia

Game Trivia

23 Concept Document

Concept Document

Outside Resources: Fogg Conceptual Designs (handout)

24 Concept Document

Concept Document

Use the template supplied by Fogg 1. Title Page Title Visual to situate your game, genre Design Challenge: what is new about your game 2. Overview Genre, if one exists discuss aesthetics of your game (use MDA to refer to a list of aesthetics)

25 Concept Document

Concept Document

3. User Description Who is the audience? Age? Gamers? 4. Storyboard of experience : discuss gameplay What is the player doing? GamePlay point out the features of your game show the mechanics that will achieve the aesthetics you pointed out earlier Discuss underlying systems of your game

26 Concept Document

Concept Document

5. Prototyping: nothing there 6. Features/Functionality More details on the game system More details on the aesthetics More details on the mechanics of the game 7. Justification of the Design Is it based an already accepted system? Or new (can argue for originality)? Basically: why should we give you money to build this game?

27 Concept Document

Concept Document

8. User Testing: nothing there 9. Shortcomings List problems of the design List Risks 10. Expansion What are the alternative designs you are thinking of trying? 11. Next Steps 12. Summary

28 MDA framework

MDA framework

Slides are Marcs slides, used at GDC 2005 Marc is a great guy, look up his game Oasis (Warning: very very addictive), but a MUST play

29 ?

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The Designer-Player Relationship

Designer

Player

30 ?

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The Designer-Player Relationship

Designer

Player

Game

31 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

32 ?

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?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

33 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book Movie

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

34 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book Movie Painting

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

35 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book Movie Painting Chair

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

36 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book Movie Painting Chair Car

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

37 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Book Movie Painting Chair Car Pizza

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

38 ?

?

?

The Designer-Player Relationship

Creates

Consumes

Designer

Player

Game

The difference is the way that games are consumed.

39 An Extreme Opposite Example: A Theatrical Play

An Extreme Opposite Example: A Theatrical Play

The design team knows: Script Lighting Acoustics Seating Intermissions

40 Games, on the Contrary

Games, on the Contrary

The designer doesnt know: When will the player play? How often? For how long? Where? With Whom? And most importantly... What will happen during the game?

41 Obligatory Editorial

Obligatory Editorial

This lack of predictability is the essence of play. It should be embraced, not eschewed.

42 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

43 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

Process

44 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

Process

Requirements

45 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

Process

Requirements

Rules

46 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

Process

Requirements

Rules

Activity

47 Games as Software

Games as Software

Code

Process

Requirements

Rules

Activity

Fun

48 A Design Vocabulary

A Design Vocabulary

Code

Process

Requirements

Rules

Activity

Fun

49 A Design Vocabulary

A Design Vocabulary

Code

Mechanics

Process

Requirements

Rules

Activity

Fun

50 A Design Vocabulary

A Design Vocabulary

Mechanics

Process

Dynamics

Requirements

Game

Fun

51 A Design Vocabulary

A Design Vocabulary

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

52 The MDA Framework

The MDA Framework

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

53 Definitions

Definitions

Mechanics: The rules and concepts that formally specify the game-as-system. Dynamics: The run-time behavior of the game-as-system. Aesthetics: The desirable emotional responses evoked by the game dynamics.

54 ?

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?

The Designer/Player Relationship, Revisited

Designer

Player

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

55 ?

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The Players Perspective

Player

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

56 ?

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The Designers Perspective

Designer

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

57 Three Views of Games

Three Views of Games

But they are causally linked

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

58 The Building Blocks: Formal Models

The Building Blocks: Formal Models

No Grand Unified Theory Instead, lots of little models We can think of models as lenses Models can be formulas or abstractions Discovering new models is an ongoing process

59 MDA is a Taxonomy for Models

MDA is a Taxonomy for Models

Knowledge of Aesthetics Knowledge of Dynamics Knowledge of Mechanics Knowledge of the interactions between them

60 Properties of Good Models

Properties of Good Models

We want our models to be: Formal (well-defined) Abstract (widely applicable) Proven (known to work) On any given game, we expect to use several different abstractions, not one big one.

61 Part III: MDA in detail

Part III: MDA in detail

In this part, we discuss Aesthetics, Dynamics and Mechanics in detail.

62 ?

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The Designers Perspective

Designer

Mechanics

Dynamics

Aesthetics

63 Understanding Aesthetics

Understanding Aesthetics

We need to get past words like fun and gameplay. What kinds of fun are there? How will we know a particular kind of fun when we see it?

64 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

65 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as sense-pleasure

Sensation

66 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as make-believe

Sensation Fantasy

67 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as unfolding story

Sensation Fantasy Narrative

68 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as obstacle course

Sensation Fantasy Narrative Challenge

69 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as social framework

Sensation Fantasy Narrative Challenge Fellowship

70 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Sensation Fantasy Narrative Challenge Fellowship Discovery

Game as uncharted territory

71 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as self-discovery

Sensation Fantasy Narrative Challenge Fellowship Discovery Expression

72 Eight Kinds of Fun

Eight Kinds of Fun

Game as mindless pastime

Sensation Fantasy Narrative Challenge Fellowship Discovery Expression Submission

73 Clarifying Our Aesthetics

Clarifying Our Aesthetics

Charades is fun Quake is fun Final Fantasy is fun

74 Clarifying Our Aesthetics

Clarifying Our Aesthetics

Charades is Fellowship, Expression, Challenge Quake is Challenge, Sensation, Competition, Fantasy Final Fantasy is Fantasy, Narrative, Expression, Discovery, Challenge, Masochism

Each game pursues multiple aesthetics. Again, there is no Game Unified Theory.

75 Clarifying Our Goals

Clarifying Our Goals

As designers, we can choose certain aesthetics as goals for our game design. We need more than a one-word definition of our goals.

76 What is an Aesthetic Model

What is an Aesthetic Model

A rigorous definition of an aesthetic goal States criteria for success and failure Serves as an aesthetic compass

Some examples

77 Goal: Competition

Goal: Competition

Model: A game is competitive if players are emotionally invested in defeating each other. Success: Players are adversaries. Players want to win. Failure: A player feels that he cant win. A player cant measure his progress.

78 Goal: Realistic Flight Simulation

Goal: Realistic Flight Simulation

Model: Flight dynamics match user expectations. Success: Match a mathematical formula Pass our realism checklist Failure: Counter-intuitive system behavior.

79 Goal: Drama

Goal: Drama

Model: A game is dramatic if: Its central conflict creates dramatic tension. The dramatic tension builds towards a climax.

80 Goal: Drama

Goal: Drama

Success: A sense of uncertainty A sense of inevitability Tension increases towards a climax Failure: The conflicts outcome is obvious (no uncertainty) No sense of forward progress (no inevitability) Player doesnt care how the conflict resolves

On to Dynamics...

81 Understanding Dynamics

Understanding Dynamics

What about the games behavior can we predict before we go to playtest? How can we explain the behavior that we observe?

82 Formalizing Game Dynamics

Formalizing Game Dynamics

Input

Output

Rules

State

(Player)

(Graphics/Sound)

The State Machine Model

Examples: Chess, Quake

83 Models of Game Dynamics

Models of Game Dynamics

Again, no Grand Unified Theory Instead, a collection of many Dynamic Models. Dynamics models are analytical in nature.

Some examples

84 Example: Random Variable

Example: Random Variable

This is a model of 2d6:

85 Example: Feedback System

Example: Feedback System

A feedback system monitors and regulates its own state.

Room

Thermometer

Heater

Controller

Cooler

An Ideal Thermostat

Too Cold

Too Hot

86 Example: Operant Conditioning

Example: Operant Conditioning

The player is part of the system, too! Psychology gives us models to explain and predict the players behavior.

87 Where Models Come From

Where Models Come From

Analysis of existing games Other Fields: Math, Psychology, Engineering Our own experience

On to Mechanics...

88 Understanding Mechanics

Understanding Mechanics

Theres a vast library of common game mechanics.

89 Examples

Examples

Cards Shuffling, Trick-Taking, Bidding Shooters Ammunition, Spawn Points Golf Sand Traps, Water Hazards

90 Mechanics vs

Mechanics vs

Dynamics

Theres a grey area Some behaviors are direct consequences of rules. Others are indirect. Dynamics usually means the latter.

91 Mechanics vs

Mechanics vs

Dynamics

Theres a grey area Some behaviors are direct consequences of rules. Others are indirect. Dynamics usually means the latter. Dynamics and Mechanics are different views of games.

92 Mechanics vs

Mechanics vs

Dynamics

Theres a grey area Some behaviors are direct consequences of rules. Others are indirect. Dynamics usually means the latter. Dynamics and Mechanics are different views of games. Dynamics emerge from Mechanics.

93 Interaction Models

Interaction Models

How do specific dynamics emerge from specific mechanics? How do specific dynamics evoke specific aesthetics?

94 Example: Time Pressure

Example: Time Pressure

Time pressure is a dynamic. It can create dramatic tension. Various mechanics create time pressure: Simple time limit Pace monster Depleting resource

95 Part IV: Tuning

Part IV: Tuning

Tuning is an iterative process.

Analyze

Test

Revise

96 Use of Sissy fight as an example game

Use of Sissy fight as an example game

Play the game Reflect Fiddle with the mechanics to create an aesthetic Play test

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