Без темы
<<  ICM San Antonio – IH-10 Corridor IEDM Powerpoint Presentation Template  >>
Identifying Fallacies
Identifying Fallacies
Ad Hominem
Ad Hominem
You Too Fallacy
You Too Fallacy
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Authority
Appeal to Belief
Appeal to Belief
Appeal to Common Practice
Appeal to Common Practice
Appeal to Emotion
Appeal to Emotion
Appeal to Fear
Appeal to Fear
Appeal to Flattery
Appeal to Flattery
Appeal to Novelty
Appeal to Novelty
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Ridicule
Appeal to Ridicule
Appeal to Spite
Appeal to Spite
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Tradition
Appeal to Peer Pressure
Appeal to Peer Pressure
Begging the Question
Begging the Question
Burden of Proof
Burden of Proof

Презентация на тему: «Identifying Fallacies». Автор: dotto. Файл: «Identifying Fallacies.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 1529 КБ.

Identifying Fallacies

содержание презентации «Identifying Fallacies.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Identifying Fallacies

Identifying Fallacies

FYE 101 Also see pp. 175-177 in the St. Martin’s Handbook

2 Ad Hominem

Ad Hominem

Person A makes claim X. Person B makes an attack on person A. Therefore A's claim is false. For example: Although Ms. Bell’s book on Joe DiMaggio was well researched, I doubt that an Australian historian can contribute much to our knowledge of an American baseball player.

3 You Too Fallacy

You Too Fallacy

Person A makes claim X. Person B asserts that A's actions or past claims are inconsistent with the truth of claim X. Therefore X is false. Example: Sunera: I think there should be a way for illegal immigrants to obtain citizenship. Barbara: But you just said the opposite last month, so you must be wrong now.

4 Appeal to Authority

Appeal to Authority

Person A is (claimed to be) an authority on subject S. Person A makes claim C about subject S. Therefore, C is true. Example: Obama is a Muslim who was born somewhere in Africa who wants to turn America into a Nazi-like state. [This author is a citizen of Shreveport]

5 Appeal to Belief

Appeal to Belief

Most people believe that a claim, X, is true. Therefore X is true. Example: Most people believe the United States is a Christian Nation. Therefore, the United States is a Christian Nation.

6 Appeal to Common Practice

Appeal to Common Practice

X is a common action. Therefore X is correct/moral/justified/reasonable, etc. Example: Most men view women as sex objects so there must not be anything wrong with it; I guess guys are just wired that way.

7 Appeal to Emotion

Appeal to Emotion

Favorable emotions are associated with X. Therefore, X is true. Example: Heaven is a beautiful place where one is reunited with departed love ones and lives an eternity of happiness. Therefore, heaven exists.

8 Appeal to Fear

Appeal to Fear

Y is presented (a claim that is intended to produce fear). Therefore claim X is true (a claim that is generally, but need not be, related to Y in some manner). Example: Do not “double dip” your chip in the salsa. You could contract AIDS that way. [An actual statement from a former staff member of Student Life at Centenary]

9 Appeal to Flattery

Appeal to Flattery

Person A is flattered by person B. Person B makes claim X. Therefore X is true. Example: Sam: Dr. Otto, you are the best teacher I have ever encountered. Dr. Otto. Thanks, Sam. Sam: Just between us, I think Dr. Mackie does not know anything in his discipline. Dr. Otto. Probably so! [Disclaimer: Actually this conversation never took place]

10 Appeal to Novelty

Appeal to Novelty

X is new. Therefore X is correct or better. Example: The Iphone 6 is the latest in technology. Therefore the Iphone 6 is the best cell phone on the market. I must have an Iphone 6 now!

11 Appeal to Pity

Appeal to Pity

P is presented, with the intent to create pity. Therefore claim C is true. Example: Sunera: Thomas is the worst of the candidates we have interviewed. Laura: But Thomas was nervous because he has been unemployed for several months and really needs the job to feed his family and feel like the head of the household again. Sunera: Well, on second thought, I guess Thomas would do ok in the position.

12 Appeal to Ridicule

Appeal to Ridicule

X, which is some form of ridicule is presented (typically directed at the claim). Therefore claim C is false. Example: Same-sex marriage? Not until the Bible is written to say “Adam and Steve” rather than “Adam and Eve” Ha-Ha!

13 Appeal to Spite

Appeal to Spite

Claim X is presented with the intent of generating spite. Therefore claim C is false (or true) Example: Sunera: I think John’s idea about our final exam in FYE is a good one. Clyde: Oh, is this the same John who I heard called you a *%$#@ biach at the KA house last weekend? Sunera: What??? Then John can take his idea and shove it!

14 Appeal to Tradition

Appeal to Tradition

X is old or traditional therefore X is correct or better. The “We have always done it that way” fallacy. Example: Shandra: What! No catfish in the cafeteria on Friday? We have always had “Catfish Friday” at Centenary!

15 Appeal to Peer Pressure

Appeal to Peer Pressure

Person P is pressured by his/her peers or threatened with rejection. Therefore person P's claim X is false. Example: Sunera: I think that persons of all religious convictions should be shown respect. Jackson: Well, Sunera, I guess you are not a God-fearing Christian like the rest of us. We sure will miss you here. Sunera: Ha-Ha! Only joking! I know they will all burn in Hell!! Yay!

16 Begging the Question

Begging the Question

Premises in which the truth of the conclusion is claimed or the truth of the conclusion is assumed (either directly or indirectly). Claim C (the conclusion) is true. Also known as a circular argument. Example: Sunera: How do you know God exists? Evan: Because the Bible says so. Sunera: But why should I believe the Bible? Evan: Because God wrote it.

17 Burden of Proof

Burden of Proof

Claim X is presented by side A and the burden of proof actually rests on side B. Side B claims that X is false because there is no proof for X. Example: Sunera: I believe in reincarnation. Tommy: But where is your proof? Sunera: Tommy, nobody has yet to prove that reincarnation does not occur!

«Identifying Fallacies»
http://900igr.net/prezentacija/anglijskij-jazyk/identifying-fallacies-68529.html
cсылка на страницу
Урок

Английский язык

29 тем
Слайды