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Info & Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Info & Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Format & Schedule for the AP Human Geography Exam Consists of 2
Format & Schedule for the AP Human Geography Exam Consists of 2
3 Free Response Items: -You have to do all 3 for full credit -You have
3 Free Response Items: -You have to do all 3 for full credit -You have
You have about 25 min
You have about 25 min
Sample question: 1. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle
Sample question: 1. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle
Multiple Choice: You can have 7 skips without penalty  That is, if
Multiple Choice: You can have 7 skips without penalty That is, if
Chapters Topics % of
Chapters Topics % of
How many do I have to get right
How many do I have to get right
To summarize: If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it, SKIP IT
To summarize: If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it, SKIP IT
NOTES ON MAPS: --economic maps --physical maps --climate maps
NOTES ON MAPS: --economic maps --physical maps --climate maps
dispersed cartography agricultural physiological clustered (or a_
dispersed cartography agricultural physiological clustered (or a_
ID: NIMBY B.O.D. Hydrocarbons Particulates Biomass Fossil Fuels Most
ID: NIMBY B.O.D. Hydrocarbons Particulates Biomass Fossil Fuels Most
Not in My Backyard
Not in My Backyard
Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Map Projection
Map Projection
LIGHTNING REVIEW
LIGHTNING REVIEW
APHG RAPID REVIEW answers A Page: Unambiguous identification of place
APHG RAPID REVIEW answers A Page: Unambiguous identification of place
B page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution
B page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution
ANSW
ANSW
C page: A map that has been transformed into a type of graph where the
C page: A map that has been transformed into a type of graph where the
Page C: Map thats been transformed into a type of graph where the
Page C: Map thats been transformed into a type of graph where the
D Page: The spatial structure of the world economic system that
D Page: The spatial structure of the world economic system that
D: The spatial structure of the world economic system that includes
D: The spatial structure of the world economic system that includes
E Page Survey system that includes division of land into regular
E Page Survey system that includes division of land into regular
E: Survey system that includes division of land into regular pattern
E: Survey system that includes division of land into regular pattern
F Page: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin
F Page: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin
F: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin
F: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin
G page: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed
G page: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed
G: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use
G: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use
H Page: Total value of goods & services produced within a country on a
H Page: Total value of goods & services produced within a country on a
H: Total value of gods and services produced within a country on a
H: Total value of gods and services produced within a country on a
i Page: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by
i Page: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by
Pg i: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by
Pg i: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by
J Page: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada
J Page: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada
J: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada
J: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada
Page K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _ factor
Page K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _ factor
K:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _factor and/or
K:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _factor and/or
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region
Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region
Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind
Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind
Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind
Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind
Page N Political reasons for migrating falls under which type of push
Page N Political reasons for migrating falls under which type of push
Page N: Political reasons for migrating falls under cultural push
Page N: Political reasons for migrating falls under cultural push
Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most
Page P: Contagious Diffusion Cultural Ecology Culture Density
Page P: Contagious Diffusion Cultural Ecology Culture Density
Page P: (Rough
Page P: (Rough
Shatterbelt
Shatterbelt
Terms NOT in our book
Terms NOT in our book
1. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the
1. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the
ID each persons/event contribution: Rostow Hoyt Christaller Burgess
ID each persons/event contribution: Rostow Hoyt Christaller Burgess
Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter
Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter
These models show WHAT
These models show WHAT
What does this model show
What does this model show
Added terms: Special Economic Zone (SEZs): Open Cities Open
Added terms: Special Economic Zone (SEZs): Open Cities Open
Heartland (H
Heartland (H
enclave & exclave (see next slide): 1) enclave: an area surrounded by
enclave & exclave (see next slide): 1) enclave: an area surrounded by
Enclaves Exclaves
Enclaves Exclaves
Region outlines: Tell about each: Countries
Region outlines: Tell about each: Countries
Shapes of states
Shapes of states
Peninsulas
Peninsulas
European Rivers
European Rivers
Regions Ethnicities
Regions Ethnicities
Region
Region
Region
Region
Region
Region
Region
Region
ID the following (who, what, when, where
ID the following (who, what, when, where
Religions: Which relates to what religion, branch, or denomination
Religions: Which relates to what religion, branch, or denomination
NAME that symbol
NAME that symbol
Symbols of 14 religions Clockwise from N. Pole: Baha'i Buddhism
Symbols of 14 religions Clockwise from N. Pole: Baha'i Buddhism
Religious Symbols: Can you name these now
Religious Symbols: Can you name these now
ID religion
ID religion
Some good discussion
Some good discussion
Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African countries have so many
Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African countries have so many
Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
Colonial Powers in Africa
Colonial Powers in Africa

: Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM. : michaelisa. : Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM.ppt. zip-: 2129 .

Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM

Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM.ppt
1 Info & Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM

Info & Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM

2 Format & Schedule for the AP Human Geography Exam Consists of 2

Format & Schedule for the AP Human Geography Exam Consists of 2

sections: Section I: 60 minutes; 75 M-C ?s Counts 50% of total AP exam grade 48 seconds each BREAK.15 min. or so. Section II: 75 minutes; 3 Free Response items Counts 50% of final grade

3 3 Free Response Items: -You have to do all 3 for full credit -You have

3 Free Response Items: -You have to do all 3 for full credit -You have

75 total minutes to do these -PREWRITE (!!!!) with each -fancy form does NOT countcontent is most important -Do NOT just list -Do what it saysIF it says define, do that -If it says give an EX., do that Glance ahead at all 3 ?s WHICH 1 you know most about? Start with that one, leaving 2 pages for any you are skipping

4 You have about 25 min

You have about 25 min

to answer each free response question. Take 5 min. to plan & outline your answer. A formal essay is NOT required But it is NOT enough to just list facts. Illustrate your answers w/ GOOD geographic examples whenever possible Be sure that you number each of your answers, including individual parts like 1a) 1b) 1c), in the answer booklet as the questions are numbered on the next slide ? ?

5 Sample question: 1. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle

Sample question: 1. The modern state system is engaged in a struggle

between the forces of supranationalism & devolution. A) Define both terms & give a geographic example for each. B) With reference to the political & economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss three changes resulting from supranationalism. C) With reference to the political & economic geography of Europe, briefly discuss 3 changes resulting from devolution. BUTwrite in paragraphs

6 Multiple Choice: You can have 7 skips without penalty  That is, if

Multiple Choice: You can have 7 skips without penalty That is, if

you totally dont know some, leave up to seven blank & it wont hurt you. Choose the 7 you are least sure about. If you can narrow it to 2 or 3 of the choices, answer it! 1 pt. for each correct.lose .25 (1/4) for each wrong. Blanks = nothing NOTE: Guy who wrote the Barrons APHG Study Guide never taught APHGHis Free Response stuff is totally off baseso do not follow those instructions!! His Multiple Choice ?s are OK

7 Chapters Topics % of

Chapters Topics % of

s Ch. 1: Geog.: Nature & perspectives: 5-10 Ch. 2 + 3 Pop. Patterns/Migration 13-17 Ch/ 4-7 Cultural Patterns (cultural geog.) 13-17 Ch. 8 Polit. Geog. 13-17 Ch. 10 + 14 Agric. & rural land use 13-17 Ch. 9, 11, 14 Indus. + Econ Devel. 13-17 Ch. 12-13 Cities/urban land (services) 13-17

8 How many do I have to get right

How many do I have to get right

? The answer from an APHG guru

That's really hard to say - especially since another factor would be whether students skip the other questions or answer them incorrectly. Skipped questions have no penalty, but they lose 1/4 of the value of a right answer for each incorrect answer. So a student who answers 50 right and skips the other 25 will do much better that the students who answers all the questions and gets 50 right. Be sure to remind them to SKIP a question if they aren't sure or can't eliminate at least 1 or 2 answers. I just tell my kids to try to do better than the "average" kid taking the test - since over half will pass, if they are "average" or "above average" then they will get a 3, 4, or 5. It is POSSIBLE to get a 4 by answering every multiple choice question correctly and not getting any points on the free response. (However getting all 75 questions is highly unlikely!)

9 To summarize: If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it, SKIP IT

To summarize: If you TOTALLY do NOT know anything about it, SKIP IT

TRY to avoid skipping more than 7 BUTIf there are more than 7 you just DO NOT know, then skip more PRE-WRITE.BUT.for no more than 5 min. for each question Writing TOO MUCH is MUCH better than NOT including something that explains what you mean Clarify.explain.discussDO what it tells you to do!

10 NOTES ON MAPS: --economic maps --physical maps --climate maps

NOTES ON MAPS: --economic maps --physical maps --climate maps

--cartogram --legend --political maps --population maps 1) gives info about how to read the maps to get info from the map 2) show landforms of an area..the shape of the Earths surface 4) show places divided up by people, such as states (aka countries), cities, counties, etc.; usually show rivers, major lakes, oceans, etc., also 5) show climatic zones/areas within countries, continents, etc. 6) show natural resources in areas and/or ways that people make a living; legends may show mines, factories, power plants, etc. NOTE: the economy of a country is the way the money is earned, used, spent, controlled, issued, etc. 7) shows were more people livethat is they show how (heavily, thickly) or how sparsely (thinly) populated a place is 8) thematic map that shows political areas in relation to each other regarding some quality or quantity. Examples?

11 dispersed cartography agricultural physiological clustered (or a_

dispersed cartography agricultural physiological clustered (or a_

_?___) concentration arithmetic density 1) density which considers the # of farmers per unit of farmland...land being farmed. 2) total # of something within an area; used to compare the distribution of population in different countries. Ex.: In the United Kingdom has 241 people per sq. km. 3) the science or mapmaking in order to store reference material and/or communicate geographic info 4) the extent of feature's spread over space; used to describe changes in distribution 5) if objects in an area are close together they are said to be 6) a feature that is relatively far apart from others

12 ID: NIMBY B.O.D. Hydrocarbons Particulates Biomass Fossil Fuels Most

ID: NIMBY B.O.D. Hydrocarbons Particulates Biomass Fossil Fuels Most

of electricity for businesses comes from what fuel source? For homes?

13 Not in My Backyard

Not in My Backyard

BOD: biochemical oxygen demand: decomposing organic waste in wateruses up oxygen & not enough for normal animals & plants & can cause algae to grow too much Hydrocarbons: cause photochemical smog (dirty fog): --comes from fuels + paint solvents (removers) Particulates: solids in the air from soot and Biomass: -plant material, wood, animal wastes -LCD vs. MDC w/ biomass? Methane Fossil Fuels: coal, petroleum (oil), natural gas -Finite supply & is unevenly distributed Non-renewable energy: (can u make more?) Most of electricity for businesses comes from what fuel source? Coal For homes? Natural gas

14 Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
15 Map Projection

Map Projection

interrupted projection map: depicts continents as accurately as possible by leaving blank space in less important areas of the map like oceans. Below: Mercator: A cylindrical map Inset is more of a conical map ...area of focus (Greenland) accurate, but as it goes lower, loses accuracy

16 LIGHTNING REVIEW

LIGHTNING REVIEW

!!!!! A page: Unambiguous (?) identification of a place on the earths surface may use lat-long coordinates? Reference to a location in relation to surrounding places? Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs, language, and other cultural traits brought about by the contact with a dissimilar culture group? Racial segregation in South Africa? The areal (what do you think this means?) extent of a persons regularly visited places during a day? Activities tendency to concentrate in a location to share facilities and services for mutual benefit? Industry that includes the operation of farms, farm equipment, and farm commodities?

17 APHG RAPID REVIEW answers A Page: Unambiguous identification of place

APHG RAPID REVIEW answers A Page: Unambiguous identification of place

on earths surface may use lat-long coordinates? Absolute location Refer. to location in relation to surround. places? Relative location Changes in value systems, attitudes, customs, language, & other cult. traits thru contact w/ dissimilar culture group? Acculturation Racial segregation in South Africa? Apartheid The areal extent of persons regularly visited places during a day? Activity space Activities tendency to concentrate in a location to share facilities and services for mutual benefit? Agglomeration or clustering Industry that includes the operation of farms, farm equipment, and farm commodities? Agribusiness

18 B page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution

B page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution

__?__ About how long ago? __? __ The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water produce? South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore? The division of a region or country into smaller administrative units, usually along ethnic lines? Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside its center? An effort by realtors to convince whites living on the edges of the expanding black housing areas to sell their homes, usually at prices lower than fair market value then resell the houses to blacks at higher than market values? Banks identified areas within a city that they believed presented too high a risk of financial loss to receive mortgage loans usually related to the race of occupants? Lines that separate countries? A place where cargo is transferred from one form of transportation to another?

19 ANSW

ANSW

B Page: Another name for the Neolithic Revolution? __?__ About how long ago? __? __ 1st agric. Revolution The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water produce? aquaculture South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore? 4 dragons or 4 tigersor 4 Asian dragons/tigers Division of a region or country into smaller administrative units, usually along ethnic lines? Balkanization or Devolution Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside its center? Basic industries An effort by realtors to convince whites living on the edges of expanding black housing areas to sell their homes, usually at prices lower than fair market value then resell the houses to blacks at higher than market values? blockbusting Banks identified areas within a city that they believed presented too high a risk of financial loss to receive mortgage loans usually related to the race of occupants? redlining Lines that separate countries? Borders or boundaries A place where cargo is transferred from one form of transportation to another? Break of bulk point

20 C page: A map that has been transformed into a type of graph where the

C page: A map that has been transformed into a type of graph where the

administrative units have been enlarged or reduced in area to graphically reflect their numerical share in the topic presented? Maps which show distribution by area often by symbols or colors which fill an entire administrative unit? Forces that tend to disintegrate or push apart? Forces that tend to bind or pull together? A state that is principally composed of a city and a limited hinterland? __?__ Ex? A concept that says that an area will specialize in the production of items for which it has the greatest economic advantage over other areas? The joining together of large urban centers so that their edges create a continuous developed area? ___?___ Ex?

21 Page C: Map thats been transformed into a type of graph where the

Page C: Map thats been transformed into a type of graph where the

admin. units have been enlarged or reduced in area to graphically reflect their numerical share in the topic presented? Cartogram Maps which show distribution by area often by symbols or colors which fill an entire administrative unit? Choropleth Forces that tend to disintegrate? Centrifugal Forces that tend to bind together? Centripetal A state that is principally composed of a city and a limited hinterland? City-state Ex? old: Athens new: Singapore A concept that states than an area will specialize in the production of items for which it has the greatest economic advantage over other areas? Comparative advantage The joining together of large urban centers so that their edges create a continuous developed area? Conurbation or Megalopolis Ex? BosWash, ChiPitts, San-San; East-west in Japan from Tokyo to Kyushu; Ruhr region of Germany

22 D Page: The spatial structure of the world economic system that

D Page: The spatial structure of the world economic system that

includes unequal development one area w/ the greatest wealth and economic power & another area/region which lacks development? Also known as the Brandt line A recent shift in population from urban to rural areas? Number of births per 1000 population? Number of deaths per 1000 population? # of deaths of children less than age 1 per 1000 births? Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a percentage? Survey system used by the French with narrow but long sections? Made to give all access to a river. Survey system used by British colonies?

23 D: The spatial structure of the world economic system that includes

D: The spatial structure of the world economic system that includes

unequal development 1 area w/ the greatest wealth & econ. power& another area/region which lacks development? Also known as the Brandt line Core-periphery A recent shift in population from urban to rural areas? Counterurbanization Number of births per 1000 population? Crude birth rate Number of deaths per 1000 population? Crude death rate Number of deaths of children less than age 1 per 1000 births? Infant mortality rate Birth rate minus death rate, expressed as a %? Rate of natural increase Survey system used by the French? Long lot Survey system used in British colonies? Metes and bounds

24 E Page Survey system that includes division of land into regular

E Page Survey system that includes division of land into regular

pattern of squares or rectangles? Wherever a culture group has modified its environmental setting this is the result? Model that uses graphs of birth & death rates to illustrate historical trends of population? Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated economy? Relationship between the number of active workers in a country (age 15-64) & those younger & older than the worker group? Idea that spatial interaction will decline in intensity with increasing distance from the origin? The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio between basic employment and total employment? Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside its center? In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the relationship between land values & distance from city center?

25 E: Survey system that includes division of land into regular pattern

E: Survey system that includes division of land into regular pattern

of squares or rectangles? Township and range Wherever a culture group has modified its environmental setting this is the result? Cultural landscape Model that uses graphs of birth and death rates to illustrate historical trends of population? Demographic transition model Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated economy? Deindustrializtion (postindustrial economy) Relationship between the number of active workers in a country (15-64) & those younger & older than the worker group? Dependency ratio Concept that spatial interaction will decline in intensity with increasing distance from the origin? Distance decay The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio between basic employment and total employment? Multiplier effect Industries that provide goods and services to areas outside its center? Basic Industries In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the relationship between land values and distance from city center? Bid-rent curve (usually convex sharp decrease just inside city center, declines are lower in areas farther from the center as the curve flattens)

26 F Page: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin

F Page: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin

2 Diffusion Types? 3 Types of E________ diffusion? Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian regions where two crops are grown on the same land within the same year? # of years it take a population to double? The permanently inhabited portion of the earth? Urban development section outside of a city usually along transportation beltways that is now self-sufficient? A territory within & surrounded by a different state? A territory outside of its state or surrounded by another state?

27 F: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin

F: Spread of ideas or innovations from a point of origin

Diffusion 2 BasicTypes in ?#1? Expansion and Relocation 3 Types of Expansion diffusion? Contagious, stimulus, hierarchical Common agricultural practice in warmer Asian regions where 2 crops are grown on the same land w/in the same year? Double cropping Rate of natural increase divided into 70? Doubling time The permanently inhabited portion of the earth? Ecumene Urban development outside of a city usually along transportation beltways that is now self-sufficient? Edge city A territory within and surrounded by a different state? Enclave A territory outside of its state, separate from the main land area of the state? Exclave

28 G page: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed

G page: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed

for use of the water and sea bottom? Farming that requires a large expanse of land & unit per land area of production is low? A culture group that is usually small in area & number & very slow to change? Relocated capital city for desire to unify or promote growth? Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income inner city neighborhoods? Complex integrated computer programs for data management & display in map form & in layers? Rural or natural land sector around many European cities which limits urban growth?

29 G: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use

G: 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use

of the water and sea bottom? Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ) (may go to 350 nm if continental shelf) Farming that requires a large expanse of land and unit per land area of production is low? Extensive agriculture A culture group that is usually small in area and number and very slow to change? Folk culture A manufacturing activity that is free to locate where it wants to be? Footloose industry Relocated capital city for desire to unify or promote growth? Forward Capital (or forward thrust capital) Restoration of run-down dwelling in low-income inner city neighborhoods? Gentrification Complex integrated computer programs for data management and display in map form? GIS Rural or natural land sector around many European cities which limits urban growth? Greenbelt

30 H Page: Total value of goods & services produced within a country on a

H Page: Total value of goods & services produced within a country on a

yearly basis divided by population? UN ranking of countries based on four measures of development? ___?__ And what are these 4 measures? ___?___ Mechanisms that support business operations such as roads, railroads, communication systems, water, sewer? Part of the economy that is not reported to the government or taxed, often illegal? A country without any territory bordering an ocean? Language used for communication especially between peoples who speak different languages? Program to aid economic development without destruction of valuable natural resources? ?

31 H: Total value of gods and services produced within a country on a

H: Total value of gods and services produced within a country on a

yearly basis divided by population? GDP per capita UN ranking of countries based on four measures of development? Human Development Index (econ., politcal, demographic, social, ) Mechanisms that support business operations such as roads, railroads, communication systems, water, sewer? Infrastructure Part of the economy that is not reported to the government or taxed, often illegal? Informal sector (EX: drugs/drug trafficking) A country without any territory bordering an ocean? landlocked Language used for communication especially between peoples who speak different languages? Lingua franca Program to aid economic development without destruction of valuable natural resources? Sustainable development

32 i Page: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by

i Page: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by

encouraging exports and limiting imports? A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and adjacent counties that have at least 50% of their population in the metro area? A cohesive grouping of people who share a political unit? Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a river or mountain range? Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions are a few examples? Economic dependency in former colonies despite gaining political independence? Number of people divided by the land area? Manufacturing in US owned border factories in Mexico? Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher elevations in the summer and valleys in winter? ?

33 Pg i: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by

Pg i: Economic system that promoted accumulation of wealth by

encouraging exports and limiting imports? Mercantilism A city with more than 50,000 inhabitants and adjacent counties that have at least 50% of their pop. in the metro area? Metro. statis. area A cohesive grouping of people who share a political unit? Nation-state Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a river or mountain range? Natural boundary Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions are a few examples? Natural hazards Econ. depend. in former colonies despite gaining polit. independence? Neocolonialism Number of people divided by the land area? Population density Manufac. in US owned border factories in Mex.? Maquiladoras Semi nomadic herders who take flocks to higher elevations in the summer and valleys in winter? Transhumance

34 J Page: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada

J Page: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada

Particular business functions that are completed outside the organization (hired out)? Large business firms based in developed countries that have established factories in other countries? Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural grasslands? Number of people per unit area of arable or cultivable land? Large scale commercial agricultural operations typically found in LDCs? View that humans have choices in the way they interact with their physical settings; the antithesis of environmental determinism? Largest city in a country that is more than double the size of the next largest city? Answers ?

35 J: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada

J: 1993 Trade pact between Mexico, US and Canada

NAFTA Particular business functions are completed outside the organization? Outsourcing Large business firms based in developed countries that have established factories in other countries? Transnational corp.s (aka multinational) Grazing of sheep and cattle on natural grasslands? Pastoralism Number of people per unit area of arable or cultivable land? Physiological density Large scale commercial agricultural operations typically found in LDCs? Plantation View that humans have choices in the way they interact with their physical settings; the antithesis of environmental determinism? Possibilism Largest city in a country that is more than double the size of the next largest city? Primate city

36 Page K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _ factor

Page K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _ factor

age K: In relation to migration, slavery would be a ____ factor and/or ____ migration. In migration, a good climate would be what kind of factor? A physical feature, such as a body of water, which hinders migration is an example of ___?___ 1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale? A system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map is The name given to a portion of Earths surface is known as The International Date Line is measured at _?_degrees. Is it latitude or longitude? Number of movements from Place A to Place C is reduced by the existence of Place B which is closer to A? Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another country? EX would be CyprusTaiwanKashmir A type of map where lines connect places with equal data values (such as elevation, temperature)? Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial waters when two countries are closer than 400 nm? ?

37 K:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _factor and/or

K:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _factor and/or

:: In relation to migration, slavery would be a _____factor and/or ____ migration. Pull.forced In migration, a good climate would be what kind of factor? Pull/voluntary A physical feature, such as a body of water, which hinders migration is an example of ____? Intervening obstacle 1:24,000 is an example of what kind of scale? Fractional (ratio) A system for transferring locations from a globe to a flat map is __? projection The name given to a portion of Earths surface is known as a___? toponym The International Date Line is measured at 180 degrees. Is it latitude or longitude? longitude Number of movements from Place A to Place C is reduced by the existence of Place B which is closer to A? intervening opportunity Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another country? Irredentism A type of map where lines connect places with equal data values (such as elevation, temperature)? Isoline maps Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial waters when two countries are closer than 400 nm? Medial line principle

38 Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region

Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region

Diffusion of AIDS is an EX: of which type of diffusion? Culture combines what 3 fundamental elements? A cultural groups 3 main values/beliefs? The idea that deals the reduction in time it takes for something or someone to reach another place? The world's 5 largest concentrations of people in order? The number of people per area of arable land? Why did Europe & N. America go from Stage 1 to Stage 2? Why did Africa, Latin Amer., & Asia go from Stg 1 to Stg 2? The process of legally adding land area to a city in the US is ____. The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is the ____. The largest type of urbanized area is _____

39 Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region

Page L: What are the other 2 acceptable terms for a formal region

Homogeneous & uniform Diffusion of AIDS is an EX: of which type of diffusion? relocation 3 fundamental elements of culture? Values, material artifacts, political institutions A cultural groups 3 main values/beliefs? Language, religion, ethnicity The idea that deals the reduction in time it takes for something or someone to reach another place? Space/time compression The world's 5 largest concentrations of people in order? E.Asia, S.Asia, W.Europe, SE Asia, NE North Amer. The number of people per area of arable land? Physiological density Why did Eur. & N. Amer. go from Stage 1 to Stage 2? Industrial revolu. Why Africa, Latin Am., & Asia from Stg 1 to Stg 2? Medical rev. The process of legally adding land area to a city in the US is ____. annexation The city plus its contiguous built-up suburbs is the ____. Urbanized area The largest type of urbanized area is _____ . megalopolis

40 Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind

Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind

of region? The currently approximate world annual natural increase rate? 2 areas of the world with the highest TFRs? Area of the world w/ lowest TFRs? Why did Malthus predictions not come true? Neo-Malthusians say what? The most important pull factor for migrants to North America ? The most important obstacle to emigration from Eastern Europe during the past 50 years? Who are the boat people? (from where to where & when?) 3 periods of large increase in UN membership?

41 Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind

Page M: The circulation area of a newspaper is an example of what kind

of region? Functional Currently approximate world annual NIR? 1.4% 2 areas of the world with the highest TFRs? Africa & the Middle East (W. Asia) Area of the world w/ lowest TFRs? N-W Europe Why did Malthus predictions not come true? Growth of technology (Indus. Rev.) increased food production & let to lower pop. in areas of increasing pop. (MDCs) Neo-Malthusians say what? Struggle will be for more than just food; are enough resources, just not distributed evenly The most important pull factor for migrants to North America ? Econ opportunity The most important obstacle to emigration from Eastern Europe during the past 50-60 years? Communism (USSR, E. Europe, China, N. Korea) Who are the boat people? (from where to where & when?) Vietnam; late 70s- early 80s 3 periods of large increase in UN membership? Late 1940s (after WWII); 60s-70s (Africa/Asia out of colonialism); 90s (fall of communism)

42 Page N Political reasons for migrating falls under which type of push

Page N Political reasons for migrating falls under which type of push

factor? A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910. Hes most likely from which country? China, Mexico, Poland, Sweden Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s & 1970s came from where? Most migrants to the USA since the 1980s have come from where ? Main reason migration to the USA decline during the 1920s? What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help undocumented Mexicans immigrate? The largest interregional migration in the USA of African-Americans was the ____ in ___ & it moved ____ to ____ In a ____ government, power is located centrally, & decisions come from the central govt. In a ____ government, power is more diffused among regions and/or ethnicities 5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council?

43 Page N: Political reasons for migrating falls under cultural push

Page N: Political reasons for migrating falls under cultural push

factors A man and his family migrate to the USA in 1910. He is most likely from which of these 4? Poland Most migrants to the USA during the 1960s & 1970s came from where? Asia (India, China, Vietnam) Most migrants to the United States since the 1980s have come from where ? Latin America, especially Mexico Main reason migration to the USA decline during the 1920s? Quota laws of 1921 & 1924 limiting ethnicity of migrants What are 2 terms for someone who is paid to help undocumented Mexicans immigrate? Pollero, coyote The largest interregional migration in the USA of African-Americans was the ____ in ___ & it moved ____ to ____ Great Migration1920s-30s; south to north In a ____ government, power is located centrally, & decisions come from the central govt. unitary In a __government, power is more diffused among regions and/or ethnicities federal 5 Permanent members of the UN Security Council? USA, Russia, China, France, UK

44 Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most

Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most

common) type of intraregional migration worldwide? 2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major world religions? 3. In 1st half of the 20th century: which below helped make it easier (facilitated) the transportation of beef to global markets? canning refrigerated ships airplanes hi-speed railways 4. Name 2 countries which have a majority population of Shiite Muslims. 5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority Eastern Orthodoxy. 6. Which industry below will locate closer to raw materials? soft-drink bottler brewers nickel smelting baking auto mfg.

45 Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most

Page O: 1. In 19th & most of 20th century: most prominent (most

common) type of intraregional migration worldwide? Rural to urban 2. World region that is the hearth for 3 of major world religions? SW Asia or Mid-East 3. In 1st half of the 20th century: which below helped make it easier (facilitated) the transportation of beef to global markets? canning refrigerated ships airplanes hi-speed railways 4. Name 2 countries which have a majority population of Shiite Muslims. Iran & Iraq 5. Name at least 3 countries which are majority Eastern Orthodoxy. Greece, Russ., Ukraine, Georgia, 6. Which industry below will locate closer to raw materials? soft-drink bottler brewers nickel smelting baking auto mfg.

46 Page P: Contagious Diffusion Cultural Ecology Culture Density

Page P: Contagious Diffusion Cultural Ecology Culture Density

Diffusion Distance Decay 3 main cultural values 1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population; process that causes expansion diffusion or the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process (gets bigger as it rolls along). 2. The geographic study of human-environment relationships; relationship between culture & environment; Important to geographers in constructing regions 3. The body of customary beliefs. material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from the Latin word cultus; 3 main parts: language, religion, & ethnicity 4. The frequency with which something occurs in space; feature being measured could be people, houses, cars, volcanoes, or etcetera. (anything) measured in sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres, or other unit of area. 5. The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time; (b/c of communication technology, new ideas in one place diffuse quickly to others) 6. Ppl in more than one region may improve & modify an idea at the same time but in different ways 7. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/ increasing distance & eventually disappears.

47 Page P: (Rough

Page P: (Rough

..need to edit!!!)( 1. Rapid, widespread diffusion of a characteristic throughout the population; process that causes expansion diffusion or the spread of a feature from one place to another in a snowballing process (gets bigger as it rolls along). Contagious Diffusion 2. The geographic study of human-environment relationships; relationship between culture & environment; Important to geographers in constructing regions Cultural Ecology 3. The body of customary beliefs. material traits, and social forms that together constitute the distinct tradition of a group of ppl, from the Latin word cultus; Culture 4. main parts: language, religion, & ethnicity 3 main cultural values 4. The frequency with which something occurs in space; feature being measured could be people, houses, cars, volcanoes, or etcetera. (anything) measured in sq. km., sq. mi., hectares, acres, or other unit of area. Density 5. The process by which a characteristic spreads across space from one place to another over time; (b/c of communication technology, new ideas in one place diffuse quickly to others) Diffusion Ppl in more than one region may improve & modify an idea at the same time but in different ways 6. Phenomenon in which contact diminished w/ increasing distance & eventually disappears. Distance Decay

48 Shatterbelt

Shatterbelt

Shatter belt - "a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive rivals." Area hit often with outside conflicts and stresses It has also played the role of a cold war buffer zone. EX: Southeast Asia: borders the "giants" of India and China. One country of the realm, Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm. Another EX: Eastern Europe: often invaded, cultural differences

49 Terms NOT in our book

Terms NOT in our book

1. two-pronged, from 2 + fork: to cause to divide into 2 branches or parts, to divide into 2 branches or parts you can ____ rivers, states, regions, govts. bifurcate 2. Spread of birth control: diffusion of fertility control 3. Boundary that follows a geological feature, such as a river or mountain range? Natural boundary 4. Floods, hurricanes, cyclones, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions are a few examples? Natural hazards 5. Area of land under foreign control that is claimed by another country? Irredentism 6. 200 nautical miles from a coastal state that can be claimed for use of the water and sea bottom? Exclusive Economic zone (EEZ) (may go to 350 nm if continental shelf) 7. Provision of UNCLOS that allows for division of territorial waters when two countries are closer than 400 nm? medial line principle 8. Shift from manufacturing jobs to a service dominated economy? Deindustrializtion (postindustrial economy 9. The measure of the increase in total jobs based on the ratio between basic employment and total employment? Multiplier effect 10. Streets & roads in urban areas that wanderare NOT grid patterns, like older pre-colonial cities dentritic

50 1. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the

1. In an urban setting, the highest land values are found near the

city center (or CBD). What is the expression of the relationship between land values and distance from city center? Bid-rent curve (usually convex sharp cost decrease just inside city center, declines are lower in areas farther from the center as the curve flattens) 2. A concept that states than an area will specialize in the production of items for which it has the greatest economic advantage over other areas? Comparative advantage 3. Another name for the Neolithic Revolution? __?__ About how long ago? __? __ 1st agric. Revolution 4. The practice of raising& harvesting fish & other water produce? aquaculture 5. South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Singapore? 4 dragons or 4 tigersor 4 Asian dragons/tigers 6. Division of a region or country into smaller administrative units, usually along ethnic lines? Devolution ...or Balkanization

51 ID each persons/event contribution: Rostow Hoyt Christaller Burgess

ID each persons/event contribution: Rostow Hoyt Christaller Burgess

Ravenstein Hecateus: Von Thunen Mackinder & Spykman Malthus Zelinsky: Harris & Ullman Carter/Begin/Sadat: Samuel Slater Karl Marx & F. Engels Dalai Lama: Siddhartha: Joseph Smith: Plessy vs. Ferguson Jakob Ammam: Aristotle:

52 Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter

Rostow (model) 5 things needed for inter

trade: Christaller: Central place theory Ravenstein (11 laws of migration: who migrates & why) Von Thunen (model) agric. & distance to city (transpor./land cost) Malthus food = arithme. & people = geomet/exponential Zelinsky: (Demog.trans/migra:2s migrate 1s stay 2s to 3 & 4) Nicholas Appert: canning 1801 Carter/Begin/Sadat: Camp David Accords (Sinai to Egy.) S. Slater brought textiles to US (late about 1800) in New Engl. Karl Marx & F. Engels developed communist theory Dalai Lama: Tibetan religious leader (former state also Siddhartha: Indian prince who became The Buddhathru middle way Joseph Smith: Founder of Mormonism Plessy vs. Ferguson US court case: separation of races Jakob Ammam: Moravian leader, led grp to US; Amish Aristotle: wrld. = round 3 pieces of evidence Hecateus: Gk. 1st geography bk Hoyt (ch. 13) developed sector model lo/hi class areas Burgess: developed concentric model for urban areas MacKinder & Spykman: M: Heartland Theory S: Rimland Theory Hoyt: Sector urban model Harris & Ullman: Multiple Nuclei Urban model.

53 These models show WHAT

These models show WHAT

Which is which model?

54 What does this model show

What does this model show

What point is it trying to make?

55 Added terms: Special Economic Zone (SEZs): Open Cities Open

Added terms: Special Economic Zone (SEZs): Open Cities Open

Coastal Zones areas that encourage international investment & trade despite political differences BEST EX: ChinaShanghai EEZ (exclusive econ. Zone): UNCLOS Entrepot: City that is primarily just a port area w/o econ. Activity of its own; Singapore WAS this way about 40 yrs. agobut has changed to industry, etc., as an Asian Tiger Shatter belt: area(s) caught between 2 more powerful groups who oppose each other. Can be cultural (like linguistic) or political (democratic vs. communistic) -- "a region caught between stronger colliding external cultural-political forces, under persistent stress, & often fragmented by aggressive rivals. EX: E. Europe played the role of a cold war buffer zone. Also: SE Asia borders the "giants" of India & China. One country in that area, Myanmar, borders both. To the east, the island State of Indonesia controls the western half of the island of New Guinea, yet the whole island is included in the pacific realm

56 Heartland (H

Heartland (H

MacKinder) vs. Rimland (N. Spykman) Theory of Geopolitics:

1904, Halford Mackinder published a theory RE: political strength in Eurasiaanalyzed the strengths & weaknesses of the regions Concluded the Russian Core & areas east of the core had potential to become a world power. 1919: revised his theory to include E. Europe & the theory became known as Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Basically stated: - Who rules East Europe commands the heartland. - Who rules heartland commands the World Island (Eurasia & Africa) - Who rules the World Island commands the World. 1942, Nicholas Spykman: countered Mackinder's Heartland Theory. Spykman stated that Eurasia's Rimland, the coastal areas or buffer zone, is the key to controlling the World Island, not the heartland. Spykman's book, "America's Strategy in World Politics" was published during World War II dealt w/ political & military strength of the USA at that time. Today we look at the Rimland in terms of its economic strength & potential, but the book dealt w/ primarily military intervention, control & conquest of the Old World.

57 enclave & exclave (see next slide): 1) enclave: an area surrounded by

enclave & exclave (see next slide): 1) enclave: an area surrounded by

an area that does not rule it. EXs: Vatican City; Lesotho; Gambia (actually a penne-enclave b/c it has a small outlet to the sea): 2) exclaves: parts of a national territory separated from the main body of the country EXs: Alaska; Kaliningrad (part of Russia but on Baltic Sea); former E. Pakistan, separated from W. Pakistan

58 Enclaves Exclaves

Enclaves Exclaves

59 Region outlines: Tell about each: Countries

Region outlines: Tell about each: Countries

Where Ethnicities? Neighbors? Religions? Languages?

60 Shapes of states

Shapes of states

Name each? Geomorphology

61 Peninsulas

Peninsulas

Bodies of water? Islands? States? Regions? Religions? Ethnicities

62 European Rivers

European Rivers

63 Regions Ethnicities

Regions Ethnicities

Religions?

64 Region

Region

ID countries? Religions?

65 Region

Region

ID countries? Religions?

66 Region

Region

ID countries? Religions?

67 Region

Region

ID countries? Religions?

68 ID the following (who, what, when, where

ID the following (who, what, when, where

): NATO 16. SEZs UN 17. EEZ Warsaw Pact 18. Benelux CMSAs OPEC EU COMECON BRP CDR NIR TFR IMR CBR GDP/GNP CBD

69 Religions: Which relates to what religion, branch, or denomination

Religions: Which relates to what religion, branch, or denomination

Ramadan Eight-fold Path Caste system 4 Noble Truths 5 Pillars Main in Greece & Russia Gurus Imam Patriarch Deities: Shiva, Brahma, Vishnu Krishna (hero) Makah (Mecca) White cows are sacred (2) Hajj Swastika Lotus is a symbol (2) Mandela Kabbah Bible Torah Vedas Quran (Koran)

70 NAME that symbol

NAME that symbol

71 Symbols of 14 religions Clockwise from N. Pole: Baha'i Buddhism

Symbols of 14 religions Clockwise from N. Pole: Baha'i Buddhism

Christianity Confucianism Hinduism Islam Jainism Judaism Shinto Sikhism Taoism Wicca Zoroastrianism Druidism

72 Religious Symbols: Can you name these now

Religious Symbols: Can you name these now

73 ID religion

ID religion

74 Some good discussion

Some good discussion

s: Explain demographic transition model. Which of the sections of the demographic transition model countries are most likely to migrate & WHY? Explain the differences between the major aspects of folk culture & popular culture *In order of less specific to most specific, organize each of these terms in regards to languagesand give Englishs category for each: a) branch b) family c) group d) subgroup

75 Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African countries have so many

Explain in detail why Sub-Saharan African countries have so many

problems with development. Discuss the evolution of the modern concept of the state. 3. A) Women & development: What is the GDI and how does it affect the development level of a state? B) What are some of the negative aspects of globalization on women in LDCs? C) What are some of the positive aspects in LDCs?

76 Info and Tips on AP Human Geography EXAM
77 Colonial Powers in Africa

Colonial Powers in Africa

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