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Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, working
Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, working
Group Development Outline
Group Development Outline
Group Cohesion
Group Cohesion
Cohesion & Performance
Cohesion & Performance
Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity
Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity
Group Development
Group Development
Theories of Cohesion
Theories of Cohesion
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development
Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development
Group Cohesion: An Alternative Explanation
Group Cohesion: An Alternative Explanation
Social Identities
Social Identities
Social Identity & Group Cohesion
Social Identity & Group Cohesion
Model of Group Socialization
Model of Group Socialization
Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change
Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change
Dyadic Group Development
Dyadic Group Development
Social Penetration Theory
Social Penetration Theory
The Self as a Multilayered Onion
The Self as a Multilayered Onion
Self Disclosure
Self Disclosure
Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)
Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)
Breadth and Depth of a Typical Onion
Breadth and Depth of a Typical Onion
Social Penetration Theory
Social Penetration Theory
Another View on Dyadic Relationships
Another View on Dyadic Relationships
Relational Dialectics
Relational Dialectics
Group Development Activity
Group Development Activity

Презентация на тему: «Информация про корабля на флешку». Автор: Linda Crane. Файл: «Информация про корабля на флешку.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 322 КБ.

Информация про корабля на флешку

содержание презентации «Информация про корабля на флешку.ppt»
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1 Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, working

Coming together is a beginning, staying together is progress, working

together is success. Henry Ford

2 Group Development Outline

Group Development Outline

Group Development and Group Cohesion Tuckman’s Basic Group Development Model An Alternative Explanation for Developing Group Cohesion Social Identity Theory Model of Group Socialization Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change Dyadic Group Development Social penetration theory Relational dialectics

3 Group Cohesion

Group Cohesion

The strength of the bonds linking the group members to the group, the unity of the group, the feeling of attraction for specific group members and the group itself, and the degree to which the group members coordinate their efforts to achieve goals. (Forsyth, 1999) “A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives” (Carron, 1982)

4 Cohesion & Performance

Cohesion & Performance

5 Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity

Relationship Between Cohesiveness and Productivity

6 Group Development

Group Development

Group development How groups develop over time as members interact, learn about each other, structure relationships and roles Sequential stage theories Group development proceeds through a fixed series of stages

7 Theories of Cohesion

Theories of Cohesion

Research generally suggests that there are five stages to the development of group cohesion. Tuckman (1965), defined these as Orientation (Forming) Conflict (Storming) Structure (Norming) Work (Performing) Dissolution (Adjourning)

8 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development

Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development

Performing

Norming

Adjourning

Storming

Return to Independence

Forming

Dependence/ interdependence

Independence

9 Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development

Tuckman’s Five-Stage Theory of Group Development

Forming

Storming

Norming

Performing

Individual Issues

“How do I fit in?”

“What’s my role here?”

“What do the others expect me to do?”

“How can I best perform my role?”

Group Issues

“Why are we here?”

“Why are we fighting over who’s in charge and who does what?”

“Can we agree on roles and work as a team?”

“Can we do the job properly?”

10 Group Cohesion: An Alternative Explanation

Group Cohesion: An Alternative Explanation

Group cohesion may be caused by the processes of social identity and self categorization (Hogg)

11 Social Identities

Social Identities

People have an innate and strong tendency to mentally organize things and people into categories; ingroups and outgroups To the extent that we associate ourselves with groups (i.e. self-categorization), we have social identities To the extent that we identify with groups that are valued (e.g., powerful, prestigious, high status, popular), we’ll feel good about ourselves. Social identities (via our group memberships) are important aspects of how we define ourselves Accentuation of ingroup similarities and outgroup differences leads to depersonalization of members as individuals take on the identity of the group

12 Social Identity & Group Cohesion

Social Identity & Group Cohesion

Group cohesion can be explained by social attraction whereby members are attracted to the group entity (ideas and beliefs) rather than its individual members. Popular members of a group are those who epitomize the groups beliefs and norms This idea of shared beliefs and values generates a higher degree of unity and sense of “we-ness”

13 Model of Group Socialization

Model of Group Socialization

Group Socialization Process of mutual adjustment between the group and its members Model of Group Socialization Investigation phase Socialization phase Maintenance phase Resocialization phase Remembrance phase

14 Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change

Factors Affecting Impact of Membership Change

Fixed/stable vs. not fixed/unstable Reason for member change Frequency/predictability of member change Size of change relative to group size Centrality of departing members

15 Dyadic Group Development

Dyadic Group Development

Models of two-person group development Dyadic group development theories Social penetration theory Relational dialectics

16 Social Penetration Theory

Social Penetration Theory

Social penetration theory Relationships develop as people engage in reciprocal self-disclosure

17 The Self as a Multilayered Onion

The Self as a Multilayered Onion

Levels of self 1. Public self 2. Semi-private self – limited set of people know 3. Inner Core a. Private domain b. Values, self-concept, deeply felt emotions Relational intimacy is tied to how much other person knows of these levels

18 Self Disclosure

Self Disclosure

Definition: The disclosure of personal information not available to all. Self-disclosure has breadth (range) and depth (how revealing) and develops over time Everyone has different level of comfort some disclose info. freely and often some hold personal info. very close What is acceptable / unacceptable? Expectation of reciprocity

19 Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)

Social penetration theory (Altman & Taylor, 1973)

20 Breadth and Depth of a Typical Onion

Breadth and Depth of a Typical Onion

21 Social Penetration Theory

Social Penetration Theory

4 Stages: Orientation stage Exchange of superficial (public) information about self Exploratory affective stage More information is exchanged but it’s still not very personal Affective stage Close friendships develop and some intimate details are shared; some barriers remain Stable exchange stage Highly intimate; able to predict each other’s actions and responses

22 Another View on Dyadic Relationships

Another View on Dyadic Relationships

Relational dialectics Dyadic relationships change in response to opposing, yet related, forces Dyadic partners experience internal, conflicting pulls causing relationships to be in a constant state of flux, known as dialectical tension. The pressures of these tensions occur in a wavelike or cyclical fashion over time. Relational Dialectics introduces the concept that the closer individuals become to one another, the more conflict will arise to pull them apart.

23 Relational Dialectics

Relational Dialectics

3 relationship dialectics Openness/closedness dialectic ‘I want to be close/I need my own space’ Novelty/predictability dialectic ‘I like the familiar rhythms/we need to do something new and different’ Autonomy/connection dialectic ‘I like sharing with you/I don’t want to share this with you’

24 Group Development Activity

Group Development Activity

Trace the development of a group you once belonged to (consider, for example, a class you took last semester). Make note of the extent to which the group experienced (a) an orientation stage, (b) conflict, (c) increased cohesion and changes in structure, (d) a period of high performance. Which of the two theories discussed in the book--Tuckman's stage model or Bale's equilibrium model--best describes your group?

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