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Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,
INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious
Modern medical microbiology
Modern medical microbiology
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS
Microbiological nomenclature
Microbiological nomenclature
The size of bacteria
The size of bacteria
Morphology of Bacteria
Morphology of Bacteria
Spherical (cocci) bacteria
Spherical (cocci) bacteria
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Representatives of pathogenic cocci
Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA
ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA
Rod-shaped bacteria
Rod-shaped bacteria
SPIRAL FORMS
SPIRAL FORMS
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria
SPIROCHAETES
SPIROCHAETES
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema
BACTERIAL CELL
BACTERIAL CELL
FLAGELLA
FLAGELLA
CAPSULE
CAPSULE
SPORE
SPORE
Cell wall
Cell wall
Gram Staining Technique
Gram Staining Technique
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Bacteria with deficient cell walls
Bacteria with deficient cell walls
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Kharkov National Medical University
Kharkov National Medical University
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of viruses
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of Rickettsiae
Morphology of chlamydia
Morphology of chlamydia
Methods of laboratory diagnosis
Methods of laboratory diagnosis

Презентация: «Kharkov National Medical University». Автор: Виктория Леонидовна. Файл: «Kharkov National Medical University.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 4152 КБ.

Kharkov National Medical University

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1 Kharkov National Medical University

Kharkov National Medical University

Head of Microbiology, Virology and Immunology Department Minukhin Valeriy Vladimirivich

2 Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,

Tkachenko Victoria 1, 5, 11, 14, 19, 21, 30 Kovalenko Natalia 2, 12,

25, 29 Siritsa Anna 6, 8, 15, 16, 20, 22, 28 Kon Katerina 3, 7, 10, 18, 24, 26, 27 Mozgovaya Yulia 4, 9, 13, 17, 23

3 INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

INTRODUCTION IN MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY

Medical microbiology Classification of microorganisms Morphology of bacteria Bacterial anatomy Morphology of viruses Morphology of rickettsiae Morphology of chlamidia Methods of laboratory diagnosis

4 Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious

Medical microbiology is the study of causative agents of infectious

diseases of humans and their reactions to such infections. In other words it deals with etiology, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, specific treatment and control of infection (immunization).

5 Modern medical microbiology

Modern medical microbiology

Bacteriology – the science of bacteria, the causative agents of a member of infectious diseases. Virology – the science of viruses, non-cellular living systems, capable of causing infectious diseases in man. Immunology – the science which concerned with mechanisms of body protection against pathogenic microorganisms and foreign cells and substances. Mycology – the study of fungi pathogenic for man. Protozoology – which deals with pathogenic unicellular animal organisms.

6 CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS

CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMS

Protista Vira DNA-viruses and RNA-viruses Eukaryotes Prokaryotes Fungi Blue-green algae Algae Bacteria Protozoa Scotobacteria Photobacteria Slime moulds 1. Class Bacteria 2. Class Rickettsias 3. Class Mollicutes

7 Microbiological nomenclature

Microbiological nomenclature

In microbiology the binominal system of nomenclature is accepted where each species has a generic and a specific name. The generic name is written with a capital letter, and the specific name – with a small letter. For example: the anthrax bacillus – Bacillus anthracis; the tetanus bacillus – Clostridium tetani.

8 The size of bacteria

The size of bacteria

The size of bacteria is measured in micrometer (?m) or micron (?) (1 micron or micrometer is one thousandth of a millimeter) and varies from 0.1 ? to 16-18 ?. Most pathogenic bacteria measure from 0.1 to 10 ?. The other units of measurement of microorganisms are millimicron (m?) or nanometer (nm) (one millionth of a millimeter) and 1 Angstrom (?) (one tenth of nanometer).

9 Morphology of Bacteria

Morphology of Bacteria

Bacteria are intracellular free-living organisms having both DNA and RNA. Their biological properties and predominant reproduction by binary fission relates them to prokaryotes. Spherical (cocci) Rod-shaped (bacteria, bacilli, and clostridia) Spiral-shaped (vibriones, spirilla, spirochaetes)

10 Spherical (cocci) bacteria

Spherical (cocci) bacteria

Micrococci Diplococci Streptococci Staphylococci Tetracocci Sarcine

11 Representatives of pathogenic cocci

Representatives of pathogenic cocci

1

2

1.Scanning Electron Micrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae 2.Scanning electron micrograph of a Staphylococcus aureus

12 Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Electron Micrograph of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

13 Rod-shaped bacteria

Rod-shaped bacteria

Bacteria (1) include those microorganisms, which, as rule, do not produce spores (E.coli, Salmonella, Shigella). Bacilli (2) (B.anthracis) and clostridia (3) (C.tetani, C.botuli-num) include organisms the majority of which produce spores. Size of rod-shaped bacteria varies 2-10 ?m: small rods are 2-4 ?m; long rods are 5-10 ?m.

1

2

3

14 ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA

ARRANGEMENT OF ROD-SHAPED BACTERIA

15 Rod-shaped bacteria

Rod-shaped bacteria

2

1

Single Rod Streptobacillus

16 SPIRAL FORMS

SPIRAL FORMS

1. Vibrios – are cells, which resemble a comma in appearance (curved rods). Typical representative of this group is Vibrio cholerae.

17 2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria

2. Spirilla – are coiled forms of bacteria

Pathogenic species: Spirillum minus (1) – which is responsible for a disease in humans transmitted through the bite of rats – rat-bite fever – sodoku; Helicobacter pylori (2) – causative agent of ulcer disease of stomach.

2

1

18 SPIROCHAETES

SPIROCHAETES

Treponema – exhibits, thin, flexible cells with 6-14 regular twists. The size of Treponema varies from 10-18 ? (T.pallidum). Leptospira – are characterized by very thin cell structure. The leptospirae form 12-18 regular coils (primary spirals) (L.interrogans) and C- or S- shape according secondary twist. Borrelia – have large irregular spirals, the number of which varies from 3 to 10. (B.recurrentis, B.persica).

19 3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema

3. Spirochaetes – are flexuous spiral forms which include: Treponema

(T.pallidum) (1), Borrelia (B.recurrentis) (2), Leptospira (L.interrogans) (3)

1

3

2

20 BACTERIAL CELL

BACTERIAL CELL

21 FLAGELLA

FLAGELLA

Electron Micrograph of Bacteria with Flagella

22 CAPSULE

CAPSULE

Enterobacter aerogenes

Klebsiella pneumoniae

23 SPORE

SPORE

Bacillus anthracis

Bacillus megaterium

24 Cell wall

Cell wall

In addition to conferring rigidity upon bacteria, the cell wall protects against osmotic damage Chemically, the rigid part of the cell wall is peptidoglycan First described by Gram in 1884. It is' used to study morphologic appearance of bacteria. Gram's stain differentiates all bacteria into two distinct groups: a. Gram-positive organisms b. Gram-negative organisms

25 Gram Staining Technique

Gram Staining Technique

fuchsine

26 Kharkov National Medical University
27 Bacteria with deficient cell walls

Bacteria with deficient cell walls

Mycoplasma: a genus of naturally occurring bacteria which lack cell walls L-forms: cell-wall-deficient forms of bacteria, usually produced in the body of patients treated with penicillin Spheroplasts: derived from Gram-negative bacteria; produced artificially by lysozyme or by growth with penicillin or any other agent capable of breaking down the peptidoglycan layer Protoplasts: derived from Gram-positive bacteria and totally lacking cell walls; produced artificially by lysozyme and hypertonic medium

28 Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus

Electron micrograph mycoplasma cells (1) and L-forms of Proteus

mirabilis (2)

1

2

29 Morphology of viruses

Morphology of viruses

Do not possess cellular organization Contain one type of nucleic acid either RNA or DNA Lack enzymes necessary for protein and nucleic acid synthesis machinery of host cells They multiply by complex process and not by binary fission. They are unaffected by antibiotics. They are sensitive to interferon.

30 Kharkov National Medical University
31 Morphology of viruses

Morphology of viruses

32 Morphology of Rickettsiae

Morphology of Rickettsiae

They are minute organisms having properties in between bacteria and viruses. It contains both DNA and RNA. Contains enzymes for metabolic functions. Multiplies by binary fission. It is coccobacilli 300x600 nm in size, non-motile, non-capsulated and is Gram-negative. Sensitive to many antibiotics. Can multiply only inside living cells.

33 Morphology of Rickettsiae

Morphology of Rickettsiae

34 Morphology of chlamydia

Morphology of chlamydia

Chlamydiae are Gram-negative. They lack some important mechanisms for the production of metabolic energy, so they are intracellular parasites. There are 2 morphological forms of chlamydia: Elementary bodies Initial bodies

35 Methods of laboratory diagnosis

Methods of laboratory diagnosis

Bacterioscopical Bacteriological Detection sensitivity of bacteria to antibiotics Serological Biological DNA-technology test (PCR)

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