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Language
Language
Language
Language
The Universal Language = what languages share
The Universal Language = what languages share
Language
Language
Properties of Language
Properties of Language
Language
Language
Grammar
Grammar
Syntax and Semantics
Syntax and Semantics
Syntax and semantics each promote understanding
Syntax and semantics each promote understanding
A) A witness signed the official legal document
A) A witness signed the official legal document
Click migration Click travels to the boundary between phrases
Click migration Click travels to the boundary between phrases
Usually, syntax and semantics work together
Usually, syntax and semantics work together
Language
Language
Other examples of ambiguity
Other examples of ambiguity
Does Language influence thought
Does Language influence thought
Evidence in favor of linguistic relativism
Evidence in favor of linguistic relativism
Language
Language
Davidoff, Davies, & Roberson (1999)
Davidoff, Davies, & Roberson (1999)
Language
Language
M
M
The modularity of word activation
The modularity of word activation

: Language. : Rob Goldstone. : Language.ppt. zip-: 1216 .

Language

Language.ppt
1 Language

Language

Language as a critical phenomenon for cognitive science Language separates humans from other animals Behaviorists: language learning by stimulus-response associations Chomsky: An innate Language Acquisition Device is needed Innate constraints for language learning Kids learn language in about 2.5 years, from positive evidence Kids are not generally corrected for grammaticality We can generate and understand novel sentences Without any constraints, an infinite number of grammars is consistent with any finite amount of data (Golds Thesis) 1,2,3,4,5? 29? 53? Xth number in series is 2(x-1)(x-2)(x-3)(x-4)+x=53

2 Language
3 The Universal Language = what languages share

The Universal Language = what languages share

Constraints on what we will consider as grammars Constraints are good - they allow learning to take place Word order of subject and object Subject-verb-object occurs Subject-object-verb occurs Object-subject-verb (almost) never occurs Word order of adjectives and nouns An adjective comes close to the noun it modifies La femme brave a frappe lhomme cruel [The woman brave hit the man cruel] Constraints help us to learn grammar rules quickly

4 Language
5 Properties of Language

Properties of Language

Productivity/generativity People can produce novel utterances by putting together pieces (words) in different arrangements Regularity Language has a systematic structure Only some structures are allowable Grammar gives rules for determining what is allowable Arbitrariness of symbols No inherent connection between symbol and meaning Violations Onomatopoiea - words that sound like what they mean: crack, buzz, bark Sound/meaning clusters: slip, slither, slide, sled, slope, slalom, slack, slimy

6 Language
7 Grammar

Grammar

Sentence -> NP VP NP -> [article] [AP] noun VP -> verb NP AP -> adj [AP]

Recursion: AP defined in terms of itself

8 Syntax and Semantics

Syntax and Semantics

Syntax The set of rules for putting together words and phrases to make sentences Semantics The meaning of the sentence Syntax without semantics Colorless green ideas sleep furiously Williams syndrome. Very low IQ, preserved language Wernickes aphasia: flowing, meaningless speech Semantics without syntax If you wants now million dollars, give it to me say. Brocas aphasia: halted, contentful speech

9 Syntax and semantics each promote understanding

Syntax and semantics each promote understanding

Three kinds of sentences in experiment Semantically meaningful and grammatical Semantically meaningless but grammatical Agrammatical Meaningful sentences are more likely to be comprehended than meaningless sentences Contribution of semantics Meaningless but grammatical sentences are more likely to be comprehended than agrammatical sentences Syntax provides its own constraints The more predictable and constrained a sentence is, the more comprehendible it is Redundancy helps understanding

10 A) A witness signed the official legal document

A) A witness signed the official legal document

B) Sloppy poetry leaves nuclear minutes. C) Attracted wrapper the reverence private odorless. A) A jeweler appraised the glittering diamond earrings. B) Romantic ink follows wasted games. C) Became lecture the bar deep wealthy. A) A storm prevented the annual company picnic. B) Total coffee describes eternal spots. C) Played the formula club old controversial the. A) A magazine exposed the shocking political corruption. B) Healthy angry packages bloomed dangerously. C) The built a was tamer fortune blaze by lazy.

11 Click migration Click travels to the boundary between phrases

Click migration Click travels to the boundary between phrases

Syntax influences perception

Syntactic gaps seem larger than they really are Large gaps are more likely to be filled

As a direct result of their new inventions influence the company was given an award.

(As a direct result of their new inventions influence) (the company was given an award)

(The retiring chairman whose methods still greatly influence the company) (was given an award)

The retiring chairman whose methods still greatly influence the company was given an award.

12 Usually, syntax and semantics work together

Usually, syntax and semantics work together

Finding meaning often requires finding syntactical parsing (interpretation) Sentences are often ambiguous because parsing is ambiguous Often, once syntax is clear, semantics is clear

John, while Mary had had had, had had had had. Had had had had a better effect on the teacher.

John while Mary had had had had had had had had had had had a better effect on the teacher.

Buffalo buffalo buffalo Buffalo buffalo

13 Language
14 Other examples of ambiguity

Other examples of ambiguity

In the window of an Oregon store: Why go elsewhere and be cheated when you can come here? In a New York restaurant: Customers who consider our waitresses uncivil ought to see the manager. In a Los Angeles dance hall: Good clean dancing every night but Sunday. In the offices of a loan company: Ask about our plans for owning your home.

15 Does Language influence thought

Does Language influence thought

The Sapir-Whorf hypothesis Linguistic relativism: people who speak different languages think abut world differently Eskimoes have 32 words for snow is NOT evidence for Sapir-Whorf Hopi combine form and substance together in words and similarity judgments Support from Brown and Lennenburg Determine highly codable colors and less codable colors based on consistency of color labels across people. Show 4 colors to subject Have subjects find colors in a pile Recognition for highly codable colors > recognition for less codable colors Rosch argues against Sapir-Whorf: universal color perception Dani are better at recognizing highly codable colors (in English) even though they only have terms for light and dark A universal progression of color terms

Orange Pink Gray Purple

Black White

Yellow Green

Red

Blue

Brown

16 Evidence in favor of linguistic relativism

Evidence in favor of linguistic relativism

Wooden Fork

Plastic Fork

Plastic Knife

English

Mayan

Berinmo and English differ in their ability to remember colors English and Berinmo have different color categories Task: Present a color, delay, show two possible colors, subjects task is to choose the previously presented color English best at task when one color is blue and the other is green Berinmo best at task when one color is wor and the other is nol Chinese children count earlier than American children (In part) because Chinese numbers are more systematic Yucatac Mayan vs. English speakers (Lucy, 1992) Count nouns are countable objects: chairs, bananas, pens, trees Mass nouns are substances: jello, copper, mud, grease Mayans do not need to use plurals for most objects, treating them as mass nouns English:two chairs. Mayan:two chair Mayans similarity judgments are more influenced by material (as appropriate for mass nouns), rather than shape (as appropriate for count nouns)

17 Language
18 Davidoff, Davies, & Roberson (1999)

Davidoff, Davies, & Roberson (1999)

19 Language
20 M

M

F

The gender marking for a word influences similarity ratings of pictures, and the features listed for a picture

Der Luffel (M): Spoon Die Gabel (F): Fork Das Messer (N) : Knife

21 The modularity of word activation

The modularity of word activation

The speech is special movement Word priming is modularized: fast, efficient, doesnt take everything into account Disambiguation of word meaning Rumor had it that, for years, the government building had been plagued with problems. The man was not surprised when he found several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room. Are both insect bugs and listening device bugs activated when we read bugs? Lexical decision task: Is the following string a word? Thirgs: No - non word Insect: Yes - word related to appropriate meaning Spy: Yes - word related to inappropriate meaning Book: Yes - word unrelated to either meaning Both Insect and Spy are faster than Book immediately after we read bugs After 750 msec, only Insect is primed. First priming is based on pure association, not on context or knowledge Other examples of priming

Language
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