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LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
CULTURE: integrated human knowledge, belief and behaviour, which
CULTURE: integrated human knowledge, belief and behaviour, which
LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS : All languages share the same universal matrix of
LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS : All languages share the same universal matrix of
LANGUAGE DIVERSITY 6.000-7
LANGUAGE DIVERSITY 6.000-7
Distribution/concentration of languages: English  official language
Distribution/concentration of languages: English official language
Where does all this diversity come from
Where does all this diversity come from
Where does all this diversity come from
Where does all this diversity come from
Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist
Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist
The outstanding fact about any language is its formal completeness [
The outstanding fact about any language is its formal completeness [
Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) known for his descriptions of Nahuatl,
Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) known for his descriptions of Nahuatl,
We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe
We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe
Categorization of the World comparison of things (phenomena) that are
Categorization of the World comparison of things (phenomena) that are
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By
Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By
Cultural schemas/frames Did you hear that the guy who the police were
Cultural schemas/frames Did you hear that the guy who the police were
Grammar is thick with cultural meaning
Grammar is thick with cultural meaning
LANGUAGE FAMILIES AND LANGUAGE TYPOLOGY
LANGUAGE FAMILIES AND LANGUAGE TYPOLOGY
EUROPE
EUROPE
EUROPE
EUROPE
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES from the Indo-Eropean Parent language, spoken
INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES from the Indo-Eropean Parent language, spoken
inflectional language(s) nouns: 3 numbers + collective (
inflectional language(s) nouns: 3 numbers + collective (
Indo-Iranian languages: Indic: Vedic, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu,
Indo-Iranian languages: Indic: Vedic, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu,
Armenian attested from 5th c. AD Bible translation by St Mesrob Grabar
Armenian attested from 5th c. AD Bible translation by St Mesrob Grabar
Albanian descended from Illyrian
Albanian descended from Illyrian
1190  independent state Gheg  since 16th c. (north) Tosk  official
1190 independent state Gheg since 16th c. (north) Tosk official
Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)
Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)
Anyone wishing to hear how Indo-Europeans spoke should come and listen
Anyone wishing to hear how Indo-Europeans spoke should come and listen
Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,
Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,
GREEK LANGUAGE(S) Minoan civilization on Crete (settled 128
GREEK LANGUAGE(S) Minoan civilization on Crete (settled 128
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Minoan eruption  Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
Minoan eruption Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation
Mycenean Greek  Linear B Ancient Greek: Aeolic Ionic (Asia Minor,
Mycenean Greek Linear B Ancient Greek: Aeolic Ionic (Asia Minor,
CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES
CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES
CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish
CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish
Brehon Law  the early Celtic law womens rights to property, the
Brehon Law the early Celtic law womens rights to property, the
linguistic typology of Celtic languages: V-S-O order consonant
linguistic typology of Celtic languages: V-S-O order consonant
counting base: no base (Melanisia: thumb, wrist, elbow, shoulder)
counting base: no base (Melanisia: thumb, wrist, elbow, shoulder)
GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)
GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)
Western: Northern: German Danish Yiddish Faroese Plattdeutsch (Low
Western: Northern: German Danish Yiddish Faroese Plattdeutsch (Low
GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)
GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)
Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire
Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire
Gothic art
Gothic art
Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)
Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)
West Germanic languages Bavarian Alemanic High German High Franconian
West Germanic languages Bavarian Alemanic High German High Franconian
ROMANCE LANGUGES
ROMANCE LANGUGES
Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on
Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on
Oscan , Umbrian, Latin Archaic Latin (7th-2nd c. BC): scattered
Oscan , Umbrian, Latin Archaic Latin (7th-2nd c. BC): scattered
Ibero-Romance languages: Spanish Castilian (standard Spanish),
Ibero-Romance languages: Spanish Castilian (standard Spanish),
ETRUSCAN
ETRUSCAN
BASQUE LANGUAGE  EUSKARA Basque country  Euskal Herria:
BASQUE LANGUAGE EUSKARA Basque country Euskal Herria:
ergative-absolutive language complex agreement system: the auxiliary
ergative-absolutive language complex agreement system: the auxiliary
ergative-absolutive languages
ergative-absolutive languages
impersonal  no argument It rains
impersonal no argument It rains
ARGUMENTS HAVE SEMANTIC ROLES: agent, patient, recipient, beneficiary,
ARGUMENTS HAVE SEMANTIC ROLES: agent, patient, recipient, beneficiary,
semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject
semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject
ROLE ALIGNMENT ergative - absolutive : nominative  accusative
ROLE ALIGNMENT ergative - absolutive : nominative accusative
ergative languages: Basque Caucasian (Kartvelian=Georgian) Tibetan
ergative languages: Basque Caucasian (Kartvelian=Georgian) Tibetan
URALIC LANGUAGES
URALIC LANGUAGES
URALIC LANGUAGES proto-Uralic (the Ural Mountains) UGRO-FINNIC Finnic:
URALIC LANGUAGES proto-Uralic (the Ural Mountains) UGRO-FINNIC Finnic:
FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least
FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least
FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least
FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least
SAMI
SAMI
HUNGARIAN  Ugric language Pannonia (9th BC  end of 4th AD)  Roman
HUNGARIAN Ugric language Pannonia (9th BC end of 4th AD) Roman
SAMOYEDIC (30
SAMOYEDIC (30
17th vs 20th c
17th vs 20th c
TYPOLOGY OF URALIC LANGUAGES nominative-accusative alignment elaborate
TYPOLOGY OF URALIC LANGUAGES nominative-accusative alignment elaborate
FINNISH NOUN CASES nominative talo house genitive talon of the house
FINNISH NOUN CASES nominative talo house genitive talon of the house
ALTAIC LANGUAGES
ALTAIC LANGUAGES
ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,
ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,
TYPOLOGY vowel harmony agglutination SOV word order
TYPOLOGY vowel harmony agglutination SOV word order
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES
SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
CHINESE CHARACTERS (h
PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +
PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
CHINESE LANGUAGES Han languages - H
CHINESE LANGUAGES Han languages - H
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Typology of Chinese languages isolating languages SVO tonal languages
Typology of Chinese languages isolating languages SVO tonal languages
Tonal languages have tonemes, i. e. phonemes which differe only in the
Tonal languages have tonemes, i. e. phonemes which differe only in the
Classifers are morphemes which refer to some innate semantic feature
Classifers are morphemes which refer to some innate semantic feature
Chinese classifers (measure words) between numerals/demonstratives and
Chinese classifers (measure words) between numerals/demonstratives and
JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages
JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages
? ??
? ??
JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages
JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages
HONORIFICS grammatical or morphosyntactic encoding of the relative
HONORIFICS grammatical or morphosyntactic encoding of the relative
Honorifics in English: Mr,, Mrs
Honorifics in English: Mr,, Mrs
HONORIFIC SPEECH - KEIGO polite language: TEI NEIGO desu at the end of
HONORIFIC SPEECH - KEIGO polite language: TEI NEIGO desu at the end of
HONORIFIC WORDS/particles, added to nouns or names chan  children,
HONORIFIC WORDS/particles, added to nouns or names chan children,
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European
LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA AUSTRALIA Indo-European languages
LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA AUSTRALIA Indo-European languages
27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law
27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law
LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA INDIAN OCEAN, INDONESIA, MALESIA,
LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA INDIAN OCEAN, INDONESIA, MALESIA,
PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES SOCIO-LINGUISTIC DEFINITION: pidgin:
PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES SOCIO-LINGUISTIC DEFINITION: pidgin:
LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS: lexifier language, common grammatical
LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS: lexifier language, common grammatical
belo kaikai belhat manki gras bilong fes gras no gut maus gras sit
belo kaikai belhat manki gras bilong fes gras no gut maus gras sit
Papa bilong mipela, Yu stap long heven
Papa bilong mipela, Yu stap long heven
decreolisation: basilect mezolect acrolect
decreolisation: basilect mezolect acrolect
LANGUAGES IN AFRICA
LANGUAGES IN AFRICA
AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,
AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,
8th BC  Aramaic becomes the common language of communication in the
8th BC Aramaic becomes the common language of communication in the
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
Amharic  Ethiopia, (from Geez)
Amharic Ethiopia, (from Geez)
Typology of Semitic languages introflection
Typology of Semitic languages introflection
Berber, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian (formerly Hamitic
Berber, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian (formerly Hamitic
NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES
NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES
Niger-Congo (1350) Yoruba, Fula, Akan BANTU languages (535, 250
Niger-Congo (1350) Yoruba, Fula, Akan BANTU languages (535, 250
Class languages
Class languages
AGREEMENT, CONCORD AGGLUTINATION
AGREEMENT, CONCORD AGGLUTINATION
KHOISAN LANGUAGES
KHOISAN LANGUAGES
Khoi-Khoi first people Khoi-Khoi > many speak Bantu languages Nama
Khoi-Khoi first people Khoi-Khoi > many speak Bantu languages Nama
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
Native American languages 45
preColumbian America: over 1500 languages, 10 million in North America
preColumbian America: over 1500 languages, 10 million in North America
History of Native American  European relations
History of Native American European relations
Leyes de Burgos 1512 Leyes nuevas 1542: forbade maltreatment, endorsed
Leyes de Burgos 1512 Leyes nuevas 1542: forbade maltreatment, endorsed
Indian Removal Act  1830 (Andrew Jackson) Trail of Tears http://www
Indian Removal Act 1830 (Andrew Jackson) Trail of Tears http://www
Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973
Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975
Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene
Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
http://www
Classifier+Stem
Classifier+Stem
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant
Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant
wigwam words
wigwam words
Native American toponyms: Arkansas (Arkans - tribe), Oklahoma (red
Native American toponyms: Arkansas (Arkans - tribe), Oklahoma (red
Nebraska (flat river), Texas (via Spanish tejas = friends), Iowa
Nebraska (flat river), Texas (via Spanish tejas = friends), Iowa

: LANGUAGE AND CULTURE. : User. : LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.ppt. zip-: 4181 .

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE.ppt
1 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

LANGUAGE AND CULTURE

2 CULTURE: integrated human knowledge, belief and behaviour, which

CULTURE: integrated human knowledge, belief and behaviour, which

depends on the capacity of symbolic thought and social learning (pan-human or shared by different groups). LANGUAGE is a system of (verbal) signs embedded in social and cultural reality of language users. The structures of language reflect (and shape?) COGNITIVE STRUCTURES. CULTURE MIND LANGUAGE

3 LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS : All languages share the same universal matrix of

LANGUAGE UNIVERSALS : All languages share the same universal matrix of

syntactic patterns and generative-transformational rules. LINGUISTIC RELATIVITY: 1. Languages, especially those genetically unrelated, differ significantly. 2. The structure and the lexicon of a language reflect and affect the cognitive processes and conceptualization of reality.

4 LANGUAGE DIVERSITY 6.000-7

LANGUAGE DIVERSITY 6.000-7

000 languages in the world Languages by the number of speakers: Mandarine Chines e 847,000.000 Hindi 366,000.000 English 341,000.000 Spanish 330.000,000 Bengali Arabic Portuguese Russian Japanese German . 2000 languages less than 1000 speakers

5 Distribution/concentration of languages: English  official language

Distribution/concentration of languages: English official language

in 52 countries 900 languages on Papua New Guinea (5-10 million people) high density also in Caucasus, (Native) California ? of languages no longer used by children 1/3 of languages less than 1000 speakers English: 615.000 non-technical words (over 2,000.000, if slang and techical words added) (imported from more than 240 languages) average use in daily speech 800-1000 words college graduates 10.000-20.000

6 Where does all this diversity come from

Where does all this diversity come from

Franz Boas (1858-1942), anthropologist Since the total range of personal experience which language serves to express is infinitely varied, and its whole scope must be expressed by a limited number of phonetic groups, it is obvious that an extended classification of experience must underline all articulate speech.

7 Where does all this diversity come from

Where does all this diversity come from

Different languages different implicit classification of experience: Inuit: aput snow on the ground qana falling snow piqsirpoq drifting snow qimuqsuq snow drift Linguistic classifications reflect, not dictate thought.

8 Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist

Edward Sapir (1884-1939), anthropologist-linguist

formal completeness of each language as a symbolic system:

9 The outstanding fact about any language is its formal completeness [

The outstanding fact about any language is its formal completeness [

..] [W]e may say that a language is so constructed that no matter what any speaker of it may desire to communicate [...] the language is prepared to do his work. The Hopi language is capable of accounting for and describing correctly...all observable phenomena of the universe... Just as it is possible to have any number of geometries other than the Euclidean. Linguistic classifications channel thought: Language is guide to social reality [...] Human beings do not live in the objective world alone [...] but are very much at the mercy of the particular language which has become the medium of expression for their society [...] No two languages are ever sufficiently similar to be considered as representing the same social reality...

10 Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) known for his descriptions of Nahuatl,

Benjamin Lee Whorf (1897-1941) known for his descriptions of Nahuatl,

Hopi, Mayan and other native American languages the need for calibration objective non-linguistic evaluation (physical sciences?) The very natural tendency to use terms derived from traditional grammar, like verb, noun, adjective, passive voice, in describing languages outside of Indo-European is fraught with grave possibilities of misunderstanding

11 We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe

We cut nature up, organize it into concepts, and ascribe

significances as we do, largely because we are parties to an agreement to organize it in this way an agreement that holds throughout our speech community and is codified in the patterns of our language. The agreement is, of course, and implicit and unstated one, but its terms are absolutely obligatory Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis = the structure of a language affects the way in which its speakers conceptualize the World.

12 Categorization of the World comparison of things (phenomena) that are

Categorization of the World comparison of things (phenomena) that are

not alike but similar in (at least) one important way conceptual metaphor source domain (more concrete > target domain (more abstract) metaphor mapping: = a systematic set of correspondences that exist between constituent elements of the source and the target domain [] To know a conceptual metaphor is to know the set of mappings that applies to a given source-target pairing. Time is a path. I fear the days ahead. Time is money. Dont waste my time.

13 Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By

Lakoff, George & Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By

Chicago: University of Chicago Press How does ones conceptualization (categorization) of the world become culture? (integrated human knowledge, belief and behaviour, which depends on the capacity of symbolic thought and social learning (pan-human or shared by different groups). memetic theory: culture and language united by memes: meme > Greek m?m?ma something imitated Richard Dawkings, The Selfish Gene (1976) Culture is an aggregate of many different meme sets or memeplexes shared by the majority of population. Language created by memes and for memes is [also] the principal medium used for spreading memes.

14 Cultural schemas/frames Did you hear that the guy who the police were

Cultural schemas/frames Did you hear that the guy who the police were

looking fors red Cortina got stolen? Will they deny that a nun who your shopkeeper was chatting ups large settee got replicated? c) No head injury is too trivial to ignore.

15 Grammar is thick with cultural meaning

Grammar is thick with cultural meaning

Encoded in the semantics of grammar we find cultural values and ideas, we find clues about the social structures. N. J. Enfield: Ethnosyntax. Explorations in Grammar and Culture. OUP 2002

16 LANGUAGE FAMILIES AND LANGUAGE TYPOLOGY

LANGUAGE FAMILIES AND LANGUAGE TYPOLOGY

17 EUROPE

EUROPE

18 EUROPE

EUROPE

Indo-European Uralic (Ugro-Finnic) Altaic Basque Semitic

19 INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES from the Indo-Eropean Parent language, spoken

INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES from the Indo-Eropean Parent language, spoken

about 5000-3000 AD in south-eastern Russia patriarchal society > kinship terms, masculine pantheon social stratification: slave < warrior, man wulf, birch, beech, bear cow, dog, plough, seed

20 inflectional language(s) nouns: 3 numbers + collective (

inflectional language(s) nouns: 3 numbers + collective (

) drevje : drevesa 3 genders 8 or 9 cases: nominative, vocative, accusative, genitive, dative, ablative, locative, directive (?) instrumental verbs: tense/aspect: present, imperfect, aorist, perfect, pluperfect, future mood: indicative, imperative, subjunctive, optative voice: active, middle persons: 3

21 Indo-Iranian languages: Indic: Vedic, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu,

Indo-Iranian languages: Indic: Vedic, Sanskrit, Hindi, Bengali, Urdu,

Romany chakra, ashram, guru, karma, caste Iranian:Avestan, Iranian, Pashto, Kurdic, Ossetic, Tadjik Balkan (upper house), Bagdad (given by God), balcony, caravan, candy, dervish, mag(ic), paradise

22 Armenian attested from 5th c. AD Bible translation by St Mesrob Grabar

Armenian attested from 5th c. AD Bible translation by St Mesrob Grabar

classical Armenian Armenian Apostolic Church Christianity as national religion (301) language: strong Iranian influence, convergeance with Caucasic languages glottalized consonants (ejectives)

23 Albanian descended from Illyrian

Albanian descended from Illyrian

Thracian? Ptolomy (150 AD) Illyrian tribe Albani Middle Ages Arb?r, Arb?resh 16th c. - Shqip?ria land of eagles(?) shqip understand each other Arnaut Turkish name

24 1190  independent state Gheg  since 16th c. (north) Tosk  official

1190 independent state Gheg since 16th c. (north) Tosk official

Albanian (south)

25 Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)

Baltic languages: Latvian, Lithuanian, Old Prussian (extinct)

26 Anyone wishing to hear how Indo-Europeans spoke should come and listen

Anyone wishing to hear how Indo-Europeans spoke should come and listen

to a Lithuanian peasant. (Antoine Meillet) pitch accent, free accent two grammatical genders (masculine and feminine)

27 Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,

Slavic (Slavonic) languages: Eastern branch: Russian, Ukranian,

Belarusian Western branch: Polish, Czech, Slovakian, Sorbian Southern branch: Old Church Slavonic (extinct), Bulgarian, Macedonian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian

28 GREEK LANGUAGE(S) Minoan civilization on Crete (settled 128

GREEK LANGUAGE(S) Minoan civilization on Crete (settled 128

000 BC, signs of agriculture 5000 BC) named by Arthur Evans Linear A Minoan eruption (Thera, Santorinin) - 2nd millenium BC, tsunami

29 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
30 Minoan eruption  Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation

Minoan eruption Thera (Santorini) ashes, tsunami, deforestation

Mycenaean conquest

31 Mycenean Greek  Linear B Ancient Greek: Aeolic Ionic (Asia Minor,

Mycenean Greek Linear B Ancient Greek: Aeolic Ionic (Asia Minor,

Attic) Doric Greek alphabet < Phoenician syllabary Katharevousa Hellenistic Koin? > modern Greek Demotic (official in Greece, Cyprus)

32 CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES

CELTS AND CELTIC LANGUAGES

core territory 6th century BC

maximal expansion by 275 BC

33 CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish

CELTIC LANGUAGES (insular Celtic) Brythonic: Welsh (Cymric) Cornish

Breton Gaelic: Irish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic Manx

34 Brehon Law  the early Celtic law womens rights to property, the

Brehon Law the early Celtic law womens rights to property, the

kings position and duties, status grading of clerics, lay men and poets, payment for injury, sick maintenance.

35 linguistic typology of Celtic languages: V-S-O order consonant

linguistic typology of Celtic languages: V-S-O order consonant

mutation vigesimal numeric system

20 as the base number: French (quatre-vingts) Resian dialect of Slovene (trikart dwesti nu deset) English (score)

36 counting base: no base (Melanisia: thumb, wrist, elbow, shoulder)

counting base: no base (Melanisia: thumb, wrist, elbow, shoulder)

quarternary: (Maori, Papua New Guinea, other Austronesian languages) quinary: sub-base of vigesimal systems octal: American languages vigesimal: Mayan, Nahualt, Celtic. decimal, duodecimal

37 GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)

GERMANIC LANGUAGES (expansion of the territory from 750 BC and 200 A)

38 Western: Northern: German Danish Yiddish Faroese Plattdeutsch (Low

Western: Northern: German Danish Yiddish Faroese Plattdeutsch (Low

German) Islandic Swiss German (Alemannic) Norwegian (Nynorsk, Bokmal) Dutch Swedish Afrikaans Flemish Frisian English Scots Eastern: Gothic Vandalic .

39 GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)

GOTHS migration from the Baltic to the Black Sea Wulfila (4th c. AD)

Crimean Gothic

40 Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire

Ostrogothic and Visigothic attacks on the Roman Empire

Visigoths in Iberia (till 711) Ostrogoths In Italy (493-553)

41 Gothic art

Gothic art

42 Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)

Noth Germanic languagaes: Old Norse > eastern (Swedish, Danish)

western (Norwegian > Faroese, Icelandic) Dansk-Norsk, Riksmal, Bokmal Landnorsk, Nynorsk

43 West Germanic languages Bavarian Alemanic High German High Franconian

West Germanic languages Bavarian Alemanic High German High Franconian

Frankish Low Franconian Dutch North Sea (Ingvaeonic) Frisian English Saxon (Low German, Plattdeutsch)

44 ROMANCE LANGUGES

ROMANCE LANGUGES

45 Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on

Italic languages: first attested in 7th c. BC in old Italic script on

the basis of Etruscan/Greek alphabet

46 Oscan , Umbrian, Latin Archaic Latin (7th-2nd c. BC): scattered

Oscan , Umbrian, Latin Archaic Latin (7th-2nd c. BC): scattered

inscriptions, Plautus, Terence, Cato the Elder Classical Latin (Golden and Silver Age): Cicero, Caesar, Horace, Vergil, Ovid, Seneca Vulgar Latin (spoken Latin, from 3rd c.) > Romance languages: Gallo-Romance languages: French (attested since 9th c.): langue do?l, langue doc Central French, Norman French (Anglo-Norman), Walloon Occitan > Proven?al Corsican?

47 Ibero-Romance languages: Spanish Castilian (standard Spanish),

Ibero-Romance languages: Spanish Castilian (standard Spanish),

attested since 11th c. Catalan (official language in Andorra, co-official in Catalonia, Balearic Islands and Valencia, spoken also in Alghero on Sardinia) Portuguese Ladino (Judaeo-Spanish) Italian (since 10th c. dialects of Tuscany) Sardinian? Rhaeto-Romance languages: Ladin Friulian Romansch Istriot? Romanian

48 ETRUSCAN

ETRUSCAN

Tusci, Etrusci (Latin) Tyrrennioi (Greek) Rassena, Rasna (Etruscan) since 8th c. BC 3rd c. BC

49 BASQUE LANGUAGE  EUSKARA Basque country  Euskal Herria:

BASQUE LANGUAGE EUSKARA Basque country Euskal Herria:

Spanish-French border 700.000 speakers, most bilingual, the first printed book in 1545 Basque language unrelated to any other known language DNA shows close relations to other Europeans

50 ergative-absolutive language complex agreement system: the auxiliary

ergative-absolutive language complex agreement system: the auxiliary

agrees with the subject, direct and indirect object very complex nominal paradigm, (9 cases, 2 numbers, postpositioned article)

51 ergative-absolutive languages

ergative-absolutive languages

It rains

PREDICATEverb

He kicked the ball

He sleeps

He gave her a flower

VALENCY - THE NUMBER OF ARGUMENTS/ACTANTS/COPMPLEMENTS CONTROLLED BY THE PREDICATE

52 impersonal  no argument It rains

impersonal no argument It rains

intransitive one argument He sleeps

verb

transitive two arguments He kicked the ball

He gave her a flower ditransitive three arguments

53 ARGUMENTS HAVE SEMANTIC ROLES: agent, patient, recipient, beneficiary,

ARGUMENTS HAVE SEMANTIC ROLES: agent, patient, recipient, beneficiary,

means/instrument.

impersonal no argument It rains

intransitive one argument He sleeps AGENT

verb

transitive two arguments He kicked the ball AGENT, PATIENT

He gave her a flower ditransitive three arguments AGENT, RECIPIENT, PATIENT

54 semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject

semantic roles grammatical (syntactic) function agent, doer subject

instrument subject recepient indirect object benefactor patient direct object . ROLE ASSIGNEMENT SYNTACTIC OR MORPHOLOGICAL

55 ROLE ALIGNMENT ergative - absolutive : nominative  accusative

ROLE ALIGNMENT ergative - absolutive : nominative accusative

intransitive agent/subject intransitive agent/subject transitive patient/object transitive agent/subject ABSOLUTIVE CASE NOMINATIVE CASE transitive agent/subject transitive patient/object ERGATIVE CASE ACCUSATIVE CASE Basque: Gizona etorri da. Gizonak mutila ikusi du. man-ABS arrived-AUX man-ERG boy-ABS saw-AUX Japanese Otoko ga tsuita. Otoko ga kodomo o mita man-NOM arrived man-NOM child-ACC saw

56 ergative languages: Basque Caucasian (Kartvelian=Georgian) Tibetan

ergative languages: Basque Caucasian (Kartvelian=Georgian) Tibetan

Native American (Chinook, Eskimo-Aleut, Mayan) Australian

57 URALIC LANGUAGES

URALIC LANGUAGES

58 URALIC LANGUAGES proto-Uralic (the Ural Mountains) UGRO-FINNIC Finnic:

URALIC LANGUAGES proto-Uralic (the Ural Mountains) UGRO-FINNIC Finnic:

Finnish, Estonian, Sami (Lappish) Ugric: Hungarian SAMOYEDIC

59 FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least

FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least

8500 BC Swedish rule from 12th century 1249 Swedish the dominant language of higher classes 17th century Sweden and Russia fought over Finland 1809 Finland becomes an autonomous Great Duchy of Russia Finnish language gains recognition Kalevala 1835 (Elias L?nnrot) independence delared on December 6, 1917

60 FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least

FINNISH (SUOMI) official language in Finland Finland settled at least

8500 BC Swedish rule from 12th century 1249 Swedish the dominant language of higher classes 17th century Sweden and Russia fought over Finland 1809 Finland becomes an autonomous Great Duchy of Russia Finnish language gains recognition Kalevala 1835 (Elias L?nnrot) independence delared on December 6, 1917

61 SAMI

SAMI

Sapmi area: settlements since 10.000 BC fishermen, raindeer hunters, since 1500 raindeer herders 19th, 20th century: pressure to wipe out Sami culture (Norwegian names, language, sterilization of Sami women in Sweden logging, mineral mining, military activitities, Chernobyl 9 varieties of Sami language:

Northern Sami (15000), the rest 3500 (400-600)

62 HUNGARIAN  Ugric language Pannonia (9th BC  end of 4th AD)  Roman

HUNGARIAN Ugric language Pannonia (9th BC end of 4th AD) Roman

province Huns, Ostrogoths, Lombards, Gepids, Avars and Slaves Magyars led by Arpad since 895 federation of tribes Saint Stephan I Hungary integrated into feudal Christian Europe Latin official language until 19th c. 1200 funeral oration 1430s Bible translation 1533 first printed book (letters of St. Paul) agglutinative language, up to 18 cases 2 conjugations: definite for transitive, indefinite for intransitive verbs four levels of politeness kinship terms depend on the relative age (younger/older) separate prefixes for up to eleventh ancestors and tenth descendants surname generally comes first

63 SAMOYEDIC (30

SAMOYEDIC (30

000 70.000) Nenets

64 17th vs 20th c

17th vs 20th c

65 TYPOLOGY OF URALIC LANGUAGES nominative-accusative alignment elaborate

TYPOLOGY OF URALIC LANGUAGES nominative-accusative alignment elaborate

case systems agglutination no grammatical gender dual in Samoyedic and Sami languages vowel harmony

66 FINNISH NOUN CASES nominative talo house genitive talon of the house

FINNISH NOUN CASES nominative talo house genitive talon of the house

accusative talo (object, complete) partitive taloa (object, part, incomplete) translative taloksi into (change) a house instructive taloin with, using the house abessive talotta without a house essive talona as a house comitative taloineen together with the house LOCATIVE internal: inessive talossa in the house elative talostani from inside of the house illative taloonsa into the house LOCATIVE external adessive talolla at the house ablative talolta from the house allative talolle to the house

67 ALTAIC LANGUAGES

ALTAIC LANGUAGES

68 ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,

ALTAIC LANGUAGES: TURKIC Turkish (83 millions), Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek,

Azerbaijani, Turkmen, Uigur, Chuvash (Bulgarian), Yakut (360.000) MONGOLIAN Mongolian (Khalka), Kalmyk, Buryat TUNGISIC Evenki, Manchu

69 TYPOLOGY vowel harmony agglutination SOV word order

TYPOLOGY vowel harmony agglutination SOV word order

Vowel harmony: result of distant assimilation of vowels in neighbouring syllables adjustment of the vowels in the bound morpheme to the vowel in the stem Turkish ev house - ev-ler houses kadin woman - kadin-lar women

Agglutination: ev N. Sg. ev-i D. sg. ev-ler N. pl. ev-ler-i D. pl.

70 SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES

SINO-TIBETAN LANGUAGES CHINESE LANGUAGES TIBETO-BURMAN LANGUAGES

71 CHINESE CHARACTERS (h

CHINESE CHARACTERS (h

nzi)

72 PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +

PHONO-SEMANTIC COMPOUNDS radical + phonetic clue mother = woman +

sounds like horse

73 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
74 CHINESE LANGUAGES Han languages - H

CHINESE LANGUAGES Han languages - H

ny? W?n-y?n 1500 BC logographic writing system B?ihu? 1917 reformed languages (written) Simplified Chinese since 1956 (2.238 characters simplified) P?t?ngu? common language -1949 spoken standardized language based on Mandarin (official in China and Taiwan, Singapore and UN) Mandarin (850) Cantonese (Yue) (70) Guangong, Hong Kong, Macau, overseas Wu (90) - Shanghai Min (50) Taiwan (Taiwanese), Southeast Asia Hakka - southern China, Xiang Hunan (central China).

75 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
76 Typology of Chinese languages isolating languages SVO tonal languages

Typology of Chinese languages isolating languages SVO tonal languages

classifiers

In isolating languages free morphemes prevail. Words are mostly monomorphemic. khi t?i d?n nh? ban t?i, ch?ng t?i b?t d?u l?m b?i. when I come house friend I plural I begin do lesson article

77 Tonal languages have tonemes, i. e. phonemes which differe only in the

Tonal languages have tonemes, i. e. phonemes which differe only in the

register (pitch) and/or its contour (shift). Tonal languages: Chinese, Thai, Vietnamese, sub-Saharan African languages, Native American languages

??????????????? IPA: /m?i m?i m?i m?i/ "Does new silk burn? (Thai tong-twister)

????????/???????? Pinyin: m?ma m? m? de m? ma? "Is mom scolding the horse's hemp? (Mandarin)

78 Classifers are morphemes which refer to some innate semantic feature

Classifers are morphemes which refer to some innate semantic feature

of the content word they are used with. They can be used with different word classes.

Classifier languages: Chinese, Thai, Australian languages, Mayan

Murrinhpatha (Australian): Nanti kamarl : C:generic + eye = eye Kura kamarl : C:water + eye = pond Mi kamarl: C:non-meat food + eye = seed

Nominal: (Yidini) bama waguja: C:human + man Numerical: (Thai) luuk saam khon: child + three-C:human Verbal: (Waris) sa ka-m put-ra-ho-o coconut + me + C:kokos + meni + C:round + give .

79 Chinese classifers (measure words) between numerals/demonstratives and

Chinese classifers (measure words) between numerals/demonstratives and

nouns

general classifer, books, flat objects, animals, large buildings and mountains, domestic animals, long and flexible animals, horses

?w? five

?t?u CL

?ni? cattle

80 JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages

JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages

(agglutination, SOV word order) Chinese influence lexicon, writing system Chinese characters kanji (< hanzi) (several thousands) 2 syllabaries: kana scripts: katakana, hiragana (46 basic characters each) Latin script: romaji

81 ? ??

? ??

???

????

JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages (agglutination, SOV word order) Chinese influence lexicon, writing system Chinese characters kanji 2 syllabaries: kana script: katakana, hiragana Latin script: romaji: Watashi-wa kissaten-de koohi-o nam-da.

82 JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages

JAPANESE many typological characteristic of Altaic languages

(agglutination, SOV word order) Chinese influence lexicon, writing system Chinese characters kanji 2 syllabaries: kana script: katakana, hiragana Latin script: romaji WATASHI wa KISSATEN de koohi o NAM da

83 HONORIFICS grammatical or morphosyntactic encoding of the relative

HONORIFICS grammatical or morphosyntactic encoding of the relative

social status of the addressee the referent the bystander the circumstances Examples: T-V distinction in many Indo-European languages 3 different linguistic styles in Japanese, 4 in Javanese and Nahuatl, 6 in Korean avoidance speech: Australian, Austranesian, American, Cushitic and Bantu languages (e.g. different words used in the presence of opposite sex parents-in-law, children-in-law, cross-cousins in Dyrbal)

84 Honorifics in English: Mr,, Mrs

Honorifics in English: Mr,, Mrs

, Ms,. Miss, Doctor, Captain, Coach, Officer, Reverend, Father, Professor Sir, Madam, Your Honour, Your Majesty, Your Highness (below royalty) Your Excellency (heads of state, ambassadors, governors, bishops) Your Eminence (cardinals)

85 HONORIFIC SPEECH - KEIGO polite language: TEI NEIGO desu at the end of

HONORIFIC SPEECH - KEIGO polite language: TEI NEIGO desu at the end of

the sentence, masu at the end of the verb, prefixes o- or go- for nouns used by television presenters, the safest form to be learned by non-native speakers respectful language: SON KEIGO special forms or words used, lengthy polite expressions, e.g taberu eat, nomu drink > meshiagaru hito person > kata: ? > ? when talking about/to superiors and customers; not used when referring to oneself. in business, professional capacity humble language: KEN YOOGO similar to respectful language but used when referring to oneself

86 HONORIFIC WORDS/particles, added to nouns or names chan  children,

HONORIFIC WORDS/particles, added to nouns or names chan children,

pets, close friends little girls kun people of lower social status, boys san the most common marker of respect (Mr. Mrs, also for family members) sama esteemed sensei master, teacher

87 LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European

LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European

languages (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali) Dravidian languages

88 LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European

LANGUAGES IN SOUTH AND SOUTH-EASTERN ASIA INDIA Indo-European

languages (Hindi, Urdu, Bengali) Dravidian languages INDOCHINA Sino-Tibetan languages (> Tibeto-Burmese > Burmese) Tai languages (Thai, Lao/Laotian) Austro-Asiatic languages (Khmer, Mon, Vietnamese?)

89 LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA AUSTRALIA Indo-European languages

LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA AUSTRALIA Indo-European languages

(English) Australian Aboriginal languages; Tasmanian languages

90 27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law

27 language families 150 languages many ergative mother-in-law

(avoidance) languages skin system taboo against naming the dead (a year or more) sign languages

91 LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA INDIAN OCEAN, INDONESIA, MALESIA,

LANGUAGES IN AUSTRALIA AND OCEANIA INDIAN OCEAN, INDONESIA, MALESIA,

PACIFIC OCEAN Austronesian languages: Formosan, Malagasy, Indonesian, Malay, Javanese, Filipino (Tagalog), Maori, Samoan, Tahitian, Hawaiian, Tongic . Papuan languages 800 languages, 60 families, only a few more than 100.000 speakers polysynthetic some are tonal PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES

92 PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES SOCIO-LINGUISTIC DEFINITION: pidgin:

PIDGIN AND CREOLE LANGUAGES SOCIO-LINGUISTIC DEFINITION: pidgin:

auxiliary language, emerging where more than two languages in contact, no native speakers, the use restricted to certain fields of life (e.g. trade) creole: first language of communication GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION: Pacific and Indian Ocean, Australia, West Africa, Caribean islands, South America

93 LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS: lexifier language, common grammatical

LINGUISTIC CHARACTERISTICS: lexifier language, common grammatical

features pidgin: the number of grammatical categories reduced, the encodement transparent, poor morphology creole: reassertion of grammatical categories, grammaticalization of lexemes, basic morphology Tok Pisin: balus bird kaikai eat bubu great parent/child lotu church rokrok frog tambu in-laws (< taboo) pikinini child kantiri sisters child, uncle

94 belo kaikai belhat manki gras bilong fes gras no gut maus gras sit

belo kaikai belhat manki gras bilong fes gras no gut maus gras sit

haus, liklik haus haus moni manmeri solwara gat bel hevi

95 Papa bilong mipela, Yu stap long heven

Papa bilong mipela, Yu stap long heven

Nem bilong yu i mas i stap holi. Kingdom bilong yu i mas i kam. Strongim mipela long bihainim laik bilong yu long graun, olsem ol i bihainim long heven. Givim mipela kaikai inap long tude. Pogivim rong bilong mipela, olsem mipela i pogivim ol arapela i mekim rong long mipela. Sambai long mipela long taim bilong traim. Na rausim olgeta samting nogut long mipela. Kingdom na strong na glori, em i bilong yu tasol oltaim oltaim.Tru.

96 decreolisation: basilect mezolect acrolect

decreolisation: basilect mezolect acrolect

97 LANGUAGES IN AFRICA

LANGUAGES IN AFRICA

98 AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,

AFRO-ASIATIC languages (Hamito-Semitic languages) Semitic, Berber,

Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian

99 8th BC  Aramaic becomes the common language of communication in the

8th BC Aramaic becomes the common language of communication in the

Middle East > after 3rd BC, also the spoken language of Jews Hebrew remains the literary and liturgical language of Jews 19th c. Eliezer ben Yehuda 4000 new words, 1959 dictionary of modern Hebrew Ivrit Arabic until 7th c. on the Arabian penninsula with expansion of Islam 8th c. > northern Africa, Spain, India 610 Muhammad recieved revelations by Gabriel (Jibril) Koran (Quran) classical Arabic > modern literary Arabic algebra, alcohol, alchemy, zenith, nadir, zero, cipher

100 LANGUAGE AND CULTURE
101 Amharic  Ethiopia, (from Geez)

Amharic Ethiopia, (from Geez)

102 Typology of Semitic languages introflection

Typology of Semitic languages introflection

(nonconcatanative/discontinuous morphology) kit?b "book" kutub "books" k?tib "writer" kutt?b "writers" kataba "he wrote" yaktubu "he writes" VSO word order some dialects only 3 vowels most dialects 3 numbers 2 genders masculine and feminine

103 Berber, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian (formerly Hamitic

Berber, Cushitic, Chadic, Omotic, Egyptian (formerly Hamitic

languages)

104 NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES

NIGER-CONGO LANGUAGES

105 Niger-Congo (1350) Yoruba, Fula, Akan BANTU languages (535, 250

Niger-Congo (1350) Yoruba, Fula, Akan BANTU languages (535, 250

mutually intelligible) Cameroon (proto-Bantu language) 2000-3000 years ago eastward and southward Swahili Xhosa Zulu Rwanda Swazi Kongo Shona Ndebele

106 Class languages

Class languages

Swahili:

class

semantics

prefix

singular

translation

plural

1, 2

persons

m-/mu-, wa-

mtu

person

watu

3, 4

trees, natural forces

m-/mu-, mi-

mti

tree

miti

5, 6

groups, AUG

?/ji-, ma-

jicho

eye

macho

7, 8

artefacts, DIM

ki-, vi-

kisu

knife

visu

9, 10

animals, loanwords, other

?/n-, ?/n-

ndoto

dream

ndoto

11, 12

extension

u-, ?/n-

ua

fence, yard

nyua

14

abstraction

u-

utoto

childhood

107 AGREEMENT, CONCORD AGGLUTINATION

AGREEMENT, CONCORD AGGLUTINATION

Mtoto mdogo amekisoma. a small child has read it Watoto wadogo wamekisoma small children have read it amekisoma: a = class marker of the subject me = perfect tense ki = class marker of the object (< kitabu book) soma = root morpheme read

108 KHOISAN LANGUAGES

KHOISAN LANGUAGES

109 Khoi-Khoi first people Khoi-Khoi > many speak Bantu languages Nama

Khoi-Khoi first people Khoi-Khoi > many speak Bantu languages Nama

(Namibia), a.k.a. Hottentot San outsiders, Bushmen Kalahari, about 75.000 still hunters gatherers land conflict with Botswana

Clicks reduplication for plural 3 tones 3 genders, feminine and masculine nouns 3 numbers, neuter nouns 2 numbers SOV

110 Native American languages 45

Native American languages 45

000 14.000 BC across the Beringia land bridge one wave, several waves?

111 Native American languages 45

Native American languages 45

000 14.000 BC across the Beringia land bridge one wave, several waves?

macro families (Joseph Greenberg) Eskimo-Aleut Na-Dene Amerind

112 preColumbian America: over 1500 languages, 10 million in North America

preColumbian America: over 1500 languages, 10 million in North America

30 million Central America 50 million South America today: North America: 200.000 speakers Central America: 6 million speakers South America: 12 million speakers Most populous: Navajo, Inuit, Nahuatl, Mayan, Quechua Aymara, Guarani Mayan 6 million Nahuatl 1,5 million Guarani 5 million Quechua 6-7 million Navajo 170.000 speakers

113 History of Native American  European relations

History of Native American European relations

Columbus: They traded with us and gave us everything they had, with good will..they took great delight in pleasing us..They are very gentle and without knowledge of what is evil; nor do they murder or steal..Your highness may believe that in all the world there can be no better people ..They love their neighbours as themselves, and they have the sweetest talk in the world, and are gentle and always laughing

114 Leyes de Burgos 1512 Leyes nuevas 1542: forbade maltreatment, endorsed

Leyes de Burgos 1512 Leyes nuevas 1542: forbade maltreatment, endorsed

conversion to Catholicism, pregnant women protected hammock provided, meat on Sundays, sacred dances allowed, no physical abuse allowed typhus, influenza, smallpox, measles

115 Indian Removal Act  1830 (Andrew Jackson) Trail of Tears http://www

Indian Removal Act 1830 (Andrew Jackson) Trail of Tears http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=Nfo_LnuDJ1c&feature=related

116 Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973

Pine Ridge Reservation, Wounded Knee incident in 1973

117 Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975

Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 1975

118 Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene

Eskimo-Aleut: Inuit, Inuktikut, Kalaallisut (Greenlandic) Na-Dene

Athabascan Navajo, Apache Amerind Algonquian: Cree, Algonquin, Blackfoot, Ojibwe, Shawnee.. Siouan: Sioux (Dakota, Lakota), Crow Iroquian: Iroquois, Cherokee, Chocktaw Uto-Aztek: Nahuatl Mayan: Mayan, Yucatec Arawakan, Caribean Andean: Quechua, Aymara, Guarani

119 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

implosive, ejective phonemes

120 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

implosive, ejective phonemes polysynthetic

121 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

implosive, ejective phonemes polysynthetic ergative

122 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

implosive, ejective phonemes polysynthetic ergative classifiers

123 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

implosive, ejective phonemes tonemes polysynthetic ergative classifiers alienable/inalienable possession animacy marking many mood, tense and aspect distinctions

124 http://www

http://www

youtube.com/watch?v=XFayFUiyv20

from Nahuatl:

Nimitzt?tlamaquilt?z ni-mits-te?-tla-maki-lti?-s' I-you-someone-something-give-CAUSATIVE-FUTURE "I shall make somebody give something to you"[6]

125 Classifier+Stem

Classifier+Stem

Label

Explanation

Examples

-'?

SRO

Solid Roundish Object

bottle, ball, boot, box, etc.

-y?

LPB

Load, Pack, Burden

backpack, bundle, sack, saddle, etc.

-?-jool

NCM

Non-Compact Matter

bunch of hair or grass, cloud, fog, etc.

-l?

SFO

Slender Flexible Object

rope, mittens, socks, pile of fried onions, etc.

-t?

SSO

Slender Stiff Object

arrow, bracelet, skillet, saw, etc.

-?-tsooz

FFO

Flat Flexible Object

blanket, coat, sack of groceries, etc.

-t???'

MM

Mushy Matter

ice cream, mud, slumped-over drunken person, etc.

-nil

PLO1

Plural Objects 1

eggs, balls, animals, coins, etc.

-jaa'

PLO2

Plural Objects 2

marbles, seeds, sugar, bugs, etc.

-k?

OC

Open Container

glass of milk, spoonful of food, handful of flour, etc.

-?-t?

ANO

Animate Object

microbe, person, corpse, doll, etc.

126 Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant

Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant

untsit wop a stick from that tree tsit = elongated object

127 Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant

Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant

untsit wop a stick from that tree tsit = elongated object

Animacy scale in Navajo: humans/lightning ? infants/big animals ? mid-size animals ? small animals ? insects ? natural forces ? inanimate objects/plants ? abstractions

128 Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop  jahuacte tree - tek = plant

Mayan numeral classifiers: untek wop jahuacte tree - tek = plant

untsit wop a stick from that tree tsit = elongated object contrast between alienable and inalienable possession

Animacy scale in Navajo: humans/lightning ? infants/big animals ? mid-size animals ? small animals ? insects ? natural forces ? inanimate objects/plants ? abstractions

129 wigwam words

wigwam words

hickory, pecan, chipmunk, papoose, moose, squaw, igloo, kayak , pow-wow, moccasin, racoon, tomahawk, totem chocolate, tomato, condor, coke, chili, hammock

130 Native American toponyms: Arkansas (Arkans - tribe), Oklahoma (red

Native American toponyms: Arkansas (Arkans - tribe), Oklahoma (red

people), Arizona (little springs), Michigan (great water), Chicago (place of onions), Mississippi (big river), Missouri (person who has a canoe), Utah (mountain top dwellers), Wyoming (place of the big plain), Dakota (another name for Sioux), Idaho (tribe),

131 Nebraska (flat river), Texas (via Spanish tejas = friends), Iowa

Nebraska (flat river), Texas (via Spanish tejas = friends), Iowa

(tribe), Kansas (tribe), Minnesota (cloudy river), Illinois (tribe), Ohio (fine river), Tennessee (after a Cherokee village Tanase), Kentucky (meadowland), Alabama (tribe Alibamon), Wisconsin (gathering of waters), Connecticut (beside the long tidal river), Canada (village, community), Manitoba (great spirit), Ontario (beautiful lake), Manhattan (island of many hills) etc.

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