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Language & IT Dr
Language & IT Dr
Lecture 12
Lecture 12
What is NLP
What is NLP
Why Study NLP
Why Study NLP
Goals of NLP
Goals of NLP
Applications
Applications
General Themes
General Themes
Ambiguity of language
Ambiguity of language
Language as a formal system
Language as a formal system
Rule-based & Statistical Methods
Rule-based & Statistical Methods
The need for efficiency
The need for efficiency
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Презентация на тему: «Language & IT Dr». Автор: nader darawsheh. Файл: «Language & IT Dr.pptx». Размер zip-архива: 376 КБ.

Language & IT Dr

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1 Language & IT Dr

Language & IT Dr

Abdullah Al Fraidan

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2 Lecture 12

Lecture 12

NLP Natural Language Processing

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3 What is NLP

What is NLP

Natural Language Processing (NLP) Computers use (analyze, understand, generate) natural language A somewhat applied field Computational Linguistics (CL) Computational aspects of the human language faculty More theoretical

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4 Why Study NLP

Why Study NLP

Human language interesting & challenging NLP offers insights into language Language is the medium of the web Interdisciplinary: Ling, CS, psych, math Help in communication With computers (ASR, TTS) With other humans (MT) Ambitious yet practical

5 Goals of NLP

Goals of NLP

Scientific Goal Identify the computational machinery needed for an agent to exhibit various forms of linguistic behavior Engineering Goal Design, implement, and test systems that process natural languages for practical applications

6 Applications

Applications

speech processing: get flight information or book a hotel over the phone information extraction: discover names of people and events they participate in, from a document machine translation: translate a document from one human language into another question answering: find answers to natural language questions in a text collection or database summarization: generate a short biography of Noam Chomsky from one or more news articles

7 General Themes

General Themes

Ambiguity of Language Language as a formal system Rule-based vs. Statistical Methods The need for efficiency

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8 Ambiguity of language

Ambiguity of language

Phonetic [raIt] = write, right, rite Lexical can = noun, verb, modal Structural I saw the man with the telescope Semantic dish = physical plate, menu item All of these make NLP difficult

9 Language as a formal system

Language as a formal system

We can treat parts of language formally Language = a set of acceptable strings Define a model to recognize/generate language Works for different levels of language (phonology, morphology, etc.) Can use finite-state automata, context-free grammars, etc. to represent language

10 Rule-based & Statistical Methods

Rule-based & Statistical Methods

Theoretical linguistics captures abstract properties of language NLP can more or less follow theoretical insights Rule-based: model system with linguistic rules Statistical: model system with probabilities of what normally happens Hybrid models combine the two

11 The need for efficiency

The need for efficiency

Simply writing down linguistic insights isn’t sufficient to have a working system Programs need to run in real-time, i.e., be efficient There are thousands of grammar rules which might be applied to a sentence Use insights from computer science To find the best parse, use chart parsing, a form of dynamic programming

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