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 Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout 1. Vector Data Model Reviewing Vector Data Types Reviewing Vector Data Types Point Feature Line (Arc) Feature Line (Arc) Feature Polygon Feature Topology Why Topology Types of Vector Topology Arc-node & Node Topology Polygon-arc Topology Polygon-arc Topology Route Topology Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout Quality control and topology Quality control and topology Quality control and topology Topology rules: Example Spaghetti Data Model 2. Map Layouts and Cartographic Representation X Map Composition Layouts Map Compilation Map Layout: Map Legend Map Layout: Map Legend Layouts Layouts Layouts Layouts Layouts Map Layout: North Arrows Map Layout: Scale Bar Layouts: data frame ArcMap: data frame Data Frames: Context Data Frames: Inset maps Layouts: data frame MXD Files Layer Files Layer Files Layer Files Layer Files Layer Package Files Layer Package Files

Презентация на тему: «Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout Techniques». Автор: atroy. Файл: «Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout Techniques.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 3386 КБ.

## Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout Techniques

содержание презентации «Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout Techniques.ppt»
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1

### Lecture 4: An Introduction to the Vector Data Model and Map Layout

Techniques

Introduction to GIS

By Brian Voigt University of Vermont Thanks are due to Dr Troy and Dr Zhou, upon whose lecture much of this material is based.

2

### 1. Vector Data Model

Introduction to GIS

3

### Reviewing Vector Data Types

Three basic “feature” or “object” types Point Arc Polygon A layer holds a single feature type

Introduction to GIS

4

### Reviewing Vector Data Types

Attribute table Attribute types Nominal attributes: descriptive information Ordinal attributes: rank order or scale Interval/ratio attributes: numeric items, order, magnitude of difference

Introduction to GIS

5

### Point Feature

ID

X,Y Coordinates

A point layer: a collection of records with (x,y) coordinates

1

2,2

2

3,6

3

5,5

4

6,3

10

4,1

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

Introduction to GIS

2

3,6

3

5,5

4

6,3

1

2,2

10

4,1

Image modified from ESRI Arc Info electronic help

6

### Line (Arc) Feature

One or several line segments define an arc (straight or curved) 2 points define a line segment Line endpoints are nodes; angle points are vertices (sing. vertex) Arcs meet at nodes Feature is the ARC, not the line segments Feature has length but not area

Vertices

Line segment

Node

Node

Introduction to GIS

Image modified from ESRI Arc Info electronic help

7

### Line (Arc) Feature

Each point has a unique location

Introduction to GIS

8

### Polygon Feature

Area of homogenous phenomena In a polygon layer, lines (arcs) define areas Closed region – first and last coordinate pairs are in the same location Line segments bound the polygon

Lines (Arcs)

Points

Introduction to GIS

9

### Topology

Definition1: Explicit encoding of spatial relationships between objects: the spatial location of each point, line and polygon is defined in relation to each other

Definition2: Topology is a collection of rules and relationships that enables the geodatabase to more accurately model geometric relationships found in the world.

Introduction to GIS

10

### Why Topology

Two major purposes

Allows for powerful analysis tools

Quality control mechanism

Introduction to GIS

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### Types of Vector Topology

Arc-node topology

Polygon topology

Route topology

Region topology

Introduction to GIS

12

### Arc-node & Node Topology

Connectivity analysis

Arc-node Topology

Introduction to GIS

Image source: ESRI Arc Info electronic help

13

### Polygon-arc Topology

Polygon-arc Topology

Introduction to GIS

Image source: ESRI Arc Info electronic help

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### Polygon-arc Topology

Introduction to GIS

Image source: ESRI Arc Info electronic help

15

### Route Topology

Define paths based on series of arcs

Introduction to GIS

Image source: ESRI Arc Info electronic help

16
17

### Quality control and topology

Ensuring “logical consistency” Define complex and nuanced rules governing spatial relationships of features Data quality Single layer quality control Mutli-Layer quality control

Introduction to GIS

18

### Quality control and topology

Single layer quality control

Dangles

sliver polygon

does not share a border

Introduction to GIS

19

### Quality control and topology

Multi-Layer quality control: Defining spatial rules between layers

Polygon rules: e.g. Must Be Covered by Feature Class of

Line rules: e.g. Must not Self Intersect

Point rules: e.g. Must be Properly Inside Polygons

ArcCatalog includes new tools for defining and validating topology rules (Book: Building a geodatabase)

Introduction to GIS

20

### Topology rules: Example

Say we have the following layers: parcels, sidewalks, right of way boundaries, building footprints, zoning Rules for spatial relationships Lots must be enclosed polygons Buildings must be entirely within a lot Sidewalks must be outside a parcel polygon and entirely within the public right of way Lots must fall entirely within a single zoning class All lots must have access to a right of way

Introduction to GIS

21

### Spaghetti Data Model

Non-topological data model

Collections of line segments and points Only stores features’ coordinates No real connection, topology or relationships

Not for spatial analysis

Generally come from CAD files or digitizing

Can “clean” these data, using user-defined tolerances

Introduction to GIS

22

### 2. Map Layouts and Cartographic Representation

Introduction to GIS

23

### X

Map Composition

Map?

Map Elements?

Introduction to GIS

24

### Map Composition

Introduction to GIS

25

### Layouts

Create a map for layout in ArcMap Layout view View>>Layout view.

Introduction to GIS

26

### Map Compilation

Geographic features

Other map elements Legend Title North arrow Scale bar Author Neatline Source of data Other objects…

Introduction to GIS

27

28

29

### Layouts

Legends are edited in the Legends property window: Accessed by double clicking a legend.

Introduction to GIS

30

### Layouts

Legend editing: Items

Items

Introduction to GIS

31

### Layouts

Editing legend item style

32

### Layouts

Editing legend frame

Frame

Introduction to GIS

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### Layouts

Editing legend size and position

Size & Position

Introduction to GIS

34

35

36

### Layouts: data frame

Create a new view or “data frame” in ArcMap

Introduction to GIS

37

### ArcMap: data frame

More than one frame can be shown in layout view

Frame 1

Frame 2

Introduction to GIS

38

39

40

### Layouts: data frame

Access and edit data frame properties

Introduction to GIS

41

### MXD Files

Mxd files are project files Save your layout All other preferences Data is not included With an extension .mxd

File >> Save (As)

Introduction to GIS

42

### Layer Files

Save symbology and settings Primarily for saving legend settings Opening a layer file will open the data layer with all the preferences saved With an extension .lyr

Introduction to GIS

43

### Layer Files

Use layer files when you have lots of non-numeric categories

Introduction to GIS

44

### Layer Files

Create a layer file in ArcMap (also in ArcCatalog)

Introduction to GIS

45

### Layer Files

Import a layer file’s symbology in properties

Introduction to GIS

46

### Layer Package Files

Save symbology and settings AND the data! With file extension .lpk

Introduction to GIS

47

### Layer Package Files

Double-click the file to open in ArcMap or ArcCatalog

Introduction to GIS

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