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Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
Exploration with Colleagues
Exploration with Colleagues
Acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
Exploration with Drug-Abusing Mothers
Exploration with Drug-Abusing Mothers
The Circle of Security is a Story of
The Circle of Security is a Story of
The Circle Team set out to create an intervention:
The Circle Team set out to create an intervention:
Components of Infant-Parent Relationship
Components of Infant-Parent Relationship
Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
What set attachment apart from other developmental theories
What set attachment apart from other developmental theories
Definition of Attachment
Definition of Attachment
Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs
Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs
Experience in Relationships
Experience in Relationships
Attachment-- The Internal Working Model
Attachment-- The Internal Working Model
Attachment-- The Internal Working Model
Attachment-- The Internal Working Model
Neural Plasticity
Neural Plasticity
Why All The Fuss
Why All The Fuss
Basics of COS Protocol
Basics of COS Protocol
Assessment
Assessment
Platforms for COS Intervention-I
Platforms for COS Intervention-I
Platforms for COS Intervention-II
Platforms for COS Intervention-II
Platforms for COS Intervention-III
Platforms for COS Intervention-III
Leveraging Group Process
Leveraging Group Process
Welcome to the Club
Welcome to the Club
Lets Meet Veronica
Lets Meet Veronica
Veronicas Representational World
Veronicas Representational World
What About Interactive Behavior
What About Interactive Behavior
I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT
I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT
First Things First
First Things First
Technology as a Tool for Connection
Technology as a Tool for Connection
COS Protocol Sequence
COS Protocol Sequence
Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs
Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs
COS Protocol Sequence
COS Protocol Sequence
Specific Goals of the Videotape Reviews
Specific Goals of the Videotape Reviews
Support and Reflect with Veronica
Support and Reflect with Veronica
Going Deeper
Going Deeper
Behavior and Emotion Regulation Across Development
Behavior and Emotion Regulation Across Development
Shark Music
Shark Music
Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs
Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs
Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs
Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs
Celebrating Change
Celebrating Change
Attachment-Based Therapy
Attachment-Based Therapy
Applications of the COS-I
Applications of the COS-I
Applications of the COS-II
Applications of the COS-II
Applications of the COS-III
Applications of the COS-III
CIRCLE OF SECURITY
CIRCLE OF SECURITY
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Bibliography on The Circle of Security
Bibliography on The Circle of Security

: Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security. : Glen Cooper. : Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security.ppt. zip-: 893 .

Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security

Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security.ppt
1 Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security

Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security

Neil W. Boris, M.D. Tulane University Health Sciences Center and Institute for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Health

www.infantinstitute.org nboris@tulane.edu

2 Exploration with Colleagues

Exploration with Colleagues

Glen Cooper, Kent Hoffman, and Bert Powell Center for Creative Intervention, Spokane, WA Bob Marvin and Bill Whelan Mary D. Ainsworth Child-Parent Attachment Clinic, Charlottesville, VA www.circleofsecurity.org

3 Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements

My colleagues at Tulane especially those at the Tulane Institute for Infant and Early Childhood Mental Healthvisit us at www.infantinstitute.org

4 Exploration with Drug-Abusing Mothers

Exploration with Drug-Abusing Mothers

A debt of gratitude to Veronica and the brave mothers who have come into treatment Perhaps the greatest gift is agreeing to share ones life story and struggles with others

5 The Circle of Security is a Story of

The Circle of Security is a Story of

Passion and friendship Technology as a tool for connection Leveraging science and creativity to improve clinical practice Finally, an answer to how we can seamlessly link careful assessment to intensive intervention!

6 The Circle Team set out to create an intervention:

The Circle Team set out to create an intervention:

That is consistent with attachment theory and research That focuses on the caregiver as the partner in the dyad with the greater degrees of freedom for initiating change That focuses on both the caregivers Internal Working Models of self and child and on his/her caregiving behavior That can be used as either group or individual therapy models

7 Components of Infant-Parent Relationship

Components of Infant-Parent Relationship

IBParent

RParent

RBaby

IBBaby

What you hear

What you see

Developing Attachment System

Adapted from Bruschweiler Stern and Stern, 1989

8 Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
9 What set attachment apart from other developmental theories

What set attachment apart from other developmental theories

Linked to natural selection as driving force: Protection of young = protection of genes Based theory on observations; de-emphasized the role of meeting oral needs Ethology and Harry Harlows monkeys The concept of imprinting as a cross-species phenomenon

10 Definition of Attachment

Definition of Attachment

Inborn system feedback loop Operative throughout life External goal in infancy is to balance exploration and proximity to caregiver (the secure base) Internal goal to achieve sense of felt security

11 Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs

Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs

Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin and Powell, 2000

I need you to

I need you to

Watch over me Help me Enjoy with me Delight in me

Support My Exploration

I need you to

I need you to

Welcome My Coming To You

Protect me Comfort me Delight in me Organize my feelings

12 Experience in Relationships

Experience in Relationships

As our brain has evolved in complexity our dependence at birth on caregivers has increased. Each of us, as caregivers, have working models in our minds--expectations and emotions about relationships derived from experience.

13 Attachment-- The Internal Working Model

Attachment-- The Internal Working Model

Story of the Relationship

14 Attachment-- The Internal Working Model

Attachment-- The Internal Working Model

Relationship template (structure of the mind) Formed by experience (influenced by temperament genes?) Accessible in adults by interview Predicts later patterns of behavior in relationships (stable though malleable)

15 Neural Plasticity

Neural Plasticity

EXPERIENCE MOLDS THE BRAIN (and vice versa)

Peck, S. D. (2003) Measuring sensitivity moment-by-moment: A microanalytic look at the transmission of attachment. Attachment and Human Development, 5, 38-63.

Schore, 1999

16 Why All The Fuss

Why All The Fuss

Selection of neuronal pathways Emotionsdevelopment and regulation Shaping of Internal Working Models/Representations

17 Basics of COS Protocol

Basics of COS Protocol

Pre-intervention videotaped, structured assessment to inform treatment goals Group-based parent education and psychotherapy lasting ~20-weeks using videotaped intervention Goals of video review are to: increase sensitivity to the childs cues increase self-other reflective capacity explore new representations and interaction patterns

18 Assessment

Assessment

Strange Situation Procedure Augmented with a cleanup of toys, a reading session and blowing bubbles! Narrative Interview-Circle of Security Interview Parent perception about their childs needs, their relationship with the child and childhood relationship with their own caregivers Other narrative interviews (e.g., the Working Model of the Child Interview, Insightfulness Assessment) are equally useful

19 Platforms for COS Intervention-I

Platforms for COS Intervention-I

Susan McDonoughs Interaction Guidance One of the earliest parent-infant therapies that used videotape to build relationship Therapy focused relentlessly on positive moments of connection in order to engage caregivers

20 Platforms for COS Intervention-II

Platforms for COS Intervention-II

Attachment Research Both study of interactive behavior using the Strange Situation Procedure, and Study of the importance of representations in shaping parental behavior, and Study of the importance of reflective capacity in reshaping representations.

21 Platforms for COS Intervention-III

Platforms for COS Intervention-III

Parent-Child Psychotherapy, for which goals include: Gaining an understanding of how parents experiences are impacting perceptions, feelings, and behaviors toward infant Changes are sought at 3 levels: representation of the child representation of the self as parent representation of the self as adult individual

22 Leveraging Group Process

Leveraging Group Process

Insights of peers can be incredibly helpful Distancing from the expert (who may not be trusted) Sense of shared challenge in parenting is a huge benefit Welcome to the Club Seeing the struggles (and successes) of others is highly motivating and can also externalize painful patterns so that they can be seen

23 Welcome to the Club

Welcome to the Club

Being a parent may just be the most difficult job on the planet. Everyday, parents the world over want the best for their children. And everyday, parents the world over fail to meet some of the needs of their children. Help me moments go unseen. Watch over me moments get interrupted. Comfort me and Organize my feelings moments end up being pushed away, or lost in the rush and stress of everyday life. Welcome to the club. Of course, its hard to know that we make mistakes. The good news is that as parents, we all have an inner wisdom that helps us work with these mistakes.

Excerpt from a reading that is part of the group

24 Lets Meet Veronica

Lets Meet Veronica

Woman in her late 30s; mother of 5 children, 4 of whom are in custody of the State 15-month old named Dalton is with her in a residential treatment program Participates in a weekly open-ended Circle of Security group which is held on site at the treatment program 3 year history of cocaine dependence, major depression and chronic pain

COSI

25 Veronicas Representational World

Veronicas Representational World

Confident and Worthy

He needs me and will signal me

I can read his signals and respond

Old Working Model

New Working Model

26 What About Interactive Behavior

What About Interactive Behavior

Veronica will need to see how her wish to have her son fill her void is influencing her behavior She is very intrusive He is very avoidant She experiences his avoidance as not needing her and, with the weight of having lost her other children, pushes harder for connection

R2 Clip

27 I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT

I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT

ACTING LIKE I NEED TO EXPLORE OR BE DISTANT

I MISCUE YOU ABOUT MY NEED BY...

28 First Things First

First Things First

Establish a Holding Environment for the Parent Provide Parent a User-friendly Map of Secure Parent-Child Interaction.

29 Technology as a Tool for Connection

Technology as a Tool for Connection

Current editing software allow for extremely creative approaches to engagement Adobe Premiere Elements is available at reasonable cost with incredible ease-of-use even for non-geeks like me!

Beauty Tape!

30 COS Protocol Sequence

COS Protocol Sequence

Establish a Holding Environment for the Parent Provide Parent a User-friendly Map of Secure Parent-Child Interaction.

31 Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs

Circle of Security Parent Attending to the Childs Needs

Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin and Powell, 2000

I need you to

I need you to

Watch over me Help me Enjoy with me Delight in me

Support My Exploration

I need you to

I need you to

Welcome My Coming To You

Protect me Comfort me Delight in me Organize my feelings

32 COS Protocol Sequence

COS Protocol Sequence

Establish a Holding Environment for the Parent Provide Parent a User-friendly Map of Secure Parent-Child Interaction --Then, through video review of her child and herself Develop the Parents Observational Skills Increase Parental Reflective Functioning Facilitate an Empathic Shift in the Parent Toward the Child

33 Specific Goals of the Videotape Reviews

Specific Goals of the Videotape Reviews

To enhance the parents feeling of being understood, valued and supported while reducing their anxiety regarding criticism and humiliation To engage the parents in reflective dialogue (Reflective Capacity) To increase the parents ability to have empathy for their children even when their childrens needs make the parent uncomfortable To help the parents develop a sense of themselves as successful in responding to their childrens needs

34 Support and Reflect with Veronica

Support and Reflect with Veronica

Need to help Veronica see that her need to make up for losing her other kids by pushing Dalton to bond is not going to work Can she understand the link between intrusiveness and avoidance? Can she tone down the pressure she feels and respond to his cues not her own fear? Can she understand what it has been like for him to live through her depression and drug abuse?

35 Going Deeper

Going Deeper

There are moments in our interactions with others during which the needs of the other set off a reaction Perhaps fear, withdrawal, dread, anger etc These moments are EXPLICITLY recognized using the theme song from the Movie Jaws Parents learn half-way through the group about shark musicthe idea that each of us has moments in which we hear the Jaws theme

36 Behavior and Emotion Regulation Across Development

Behavior and Emotion Regulation Across Development

Trauma May Impair Both Mutual and Self-Regulation

Mutual regulation: Regulated with the help of the caregiver

Self- regulation of behavior and emotions

37 Shark Music

Shark Music

This concept becomes a central focus of the Tape Review for each parent Moments of struggle, of missed opportunity are reviewed and the parent is asked to think about their response and why it occurred. These are key moments in the reflective dialogue and it is here that the empathic shift is sought

Tape Review 2

38 Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs

Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs

SAFE HAVEN

SECURE BASE

I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT

THAT MAKES US UNCOMFORTABLE SO...

ACTING LIKE I NEED TO EXPLORE OR BE DISTANT

I MISCUE YOU ABOUT MY NEED BY...

39 Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs

Circle of Limited Security Child Anxious about the Parents Needs

SAFE HAVEN

SECURE BASE

STEPPING OFF THE CIRCLE..

I NEED YOU TO WELCOME MY COMING TO YOU BUT

ACTING DISTANT OR LIKE I NEED TO EXPLORE

I MISCUE YOU ABOUT MY NEED BY...

40 Celebrating Change

Celebrating Change

Goal is to highlight shifts in behavior and to create a living memory of progress One effective method is a music video of key moments

F/U reunion and Song

41 Attachment-Based Therapy

Attachment-Based Therapy

The Circle of Security model not only provides a roadmap of attachment that parents can understand and relate to. The model ALSO supports the therapist by providing a protocol to follow The use of video externalizes the struggles and allows the therapist to face the caregivers struggles with them

42 Applications of the COS-I

Applications of the COS-I

Open-ended groups Well-suited to certain situations including substance-abuse programs Requires more of the therapist in that there is constant catching up of new group members and need for recreating the holding environment serially

43 Applications of the COS-II

Applications of the COS-II

Model being used in individual or couples therapy Allows for wider latitude to explore related themes Ability to focus on issues like abdication of hands on the circle and role reversal Loses the punch of group input Can add in parenting partners more easily than with groups

44 Applications of the COS-III

Applications of the COS-III

Focus on different child age groups Infants using the Still Face procedure as key to interactive assessment School-aged children using Story Stems as key to interactive assessment Adolescents using Relational Play procedures or shared narratives

45 CIRCLE OF SECURITY

CIRCLE OF SECURITY

Monitor me (texting!)

Support My

Delight in me

Exploration

See cues for help but ask before helping

Enjoy with me

Welcome My

Coming To You

Always:

be BIGGER, STRONGER, WISER, and KIND.

Whenever possible:

follow my childs need.

Whenever necessary:

take charge.

PARENT ATTENDING TO THE CHILDS NEEDS

I

need

you to...

I need

you to...

2000 Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell

46 ?????

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47 Bibliography on The Circle of Security

Bibliography on The Circle of Security

nboris@tulane.edu

www.circleofsecurity.org Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., Powell, B. and Marvin, R. (2005) The Circle of Security intervention: Differential diagnosis and differential treatment. In Berlin, L.J., Ziv, Y., Amaya-Jackson, L. M., & Greenberg, M. T. (eds.) Enhancing early attachments: Theory, research, intervention, and policy. New York: Guilford Press. Marvin, R., Cooper, G., Hoffman, K., and Powell, B. (2002) The Circle of Security project: Attachment based therapy with caregiver-pre-school child dyads. Attachment & Human Development 4(1):107124

Lessons Learned from the Circle of Security
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