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Life in the Polar Regions
Life in the Polar Regions
Challenges to Life at the Poles
Challenges to Life at the Poles
Map of Arctic Region
Map of Arctic Region
Basic Arctic Biomes
Basic Arctic Biomes
Tundra
Tundra
Tundra Plants
Tundra Plants
Tundra Plant Facts
Tundra Plant Facts
www
www
Taiga
Taiga
Taiga Ecology
Taiga Ecology
Common Arctic Birds
Common Arctic Birds
Less Common Arctic Birds
Less Common Arctic Birds
Birds by Habitat
Birds by Habitat
Spotlight on
Spotlight on
Tundra (or Whistling) Swan
Tundra (or Whistling) Swan
Herring Gull
Herring Gull
Arctic Tern
Arctic Tern
Migration of Arctic Tern
Migration of Arctic Tern
Puffin – surface dives to swim after small fish, catching and holding
Puffin – surface dives to swim after small fish, catching and holding
Common Redpoll (Finch)
Common Redpoll (Finch)
American Golden Plover
American Golden Plover
Arctic Fish
Arctic Fish
Spotlight on:
Spotlight on:
Greenland Shark: largest fish in northern waters, Scientific name,
Greenland Shark: largest fish in northern waters, Scientific name,
Arctic Cod: most northerly range of any marine species, swim in
Arctic Cod: most northerly range of any marine species, swim in
Arctic Char: most northerly range of any freshwater fish in the world,
Arctic Char: most northerly range of any freshwater fish in the world,
Alaska Blackfish
Alaska Blackfish
Coastal/Marine Arctic Food web
Coastal/Marine Arctic Food web
Arctic Mammals (charismatic macrospecies
Arctic Mammals (charismatic macrospecies
Spotlight on:
Spotlight on:
Lemming
Lemming
Walrus Very social – gather by the hundreds
Walrus Very social – gather by the hundreds
Arctic Fox
Arctic Fox
Rare Animals in Arctic
Rare Animals in Arctic
What About Invertebrates
What About Invertebrates
Map of Antarctica
Map of Antarctica
Antarctica Characteristics
Antarctica Characteristics
Plant Life in the Antarctic Region
Plant Life in the Antarctic Region
Adapted and Reproduced with permission from Elizabeth Anne
Adapted and Reproduced with permission from Elizabeth Anne
Antarctic Birds
Antarctic Birds
Spotlight on Penguins
Spotlight on Penguins
Ad?lie, Pygoscelis adeliae
Ad?lie, Pygoscelis adeliae
King, Aptenodytes patagonicus
King, Aptenodytes patagonicus
Antarctic Fish and other sea creatures
Antarctic Fish and other sea creatures
Spotlight on
Spotlight on
Antarctic Mammals
Antarctic Mammals
Whales
Whales
Seals
Seals
Invertebrates
Invertebrates
Basic Adaptation Response Avoidance or Confrontation
Basic Adaptation Response Avoidance or Confrontation
Bird Adaptations to Cold Environments
Bird Adaptations to Cold Environments
Arctic and Antarctic: Perfect Laboratories
Arctic and Antarctic: Perfect Laboratories
Climate Change Impacts on Biota: Some Hypotheses
Climate Change Impacts on Biota: Some Hypotheses
Resources
Resources
Tapping into Ongoing work
Tapping into Ongoing work

Презентация: «Life in the Polar Regions». Автор: marie. Файл: «Life in the Polar Regions.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 4999 КБ.

Life in the Polar Regions

содержание презентации «Life in the Polar Regions.ppt»
СлайдТекст
1 Life in the Polar Regions

Life in the Polar Regions

A short survey of plants and animals found in the Arctic and Antarctic Regions

2 Challenges to Life at the Poles

Challenges to Life at the Poles

Plants and Animals must adapt to: Cold Drought Short growing season Long days, Long nights More recently, small changes in climate can mean dramatic changes for life at the poles

3 Map of Arctic Region

Map of Arctic Region

4 Basic Arctic Biomes

Basic Arctic Biomes

Taiga

Tundra

www.runet.edu

www.ulapland.fi/

5 Tundra

Tundra

Tussock Sedge, dwarf shrub, moss

Low Shrub

Sedge grass, moss wetland

Low grass, forbs, low shrub

www.arcticatlas.org

www.mbgnet.net

6 Tundra Plants

Tundra Plants

Purple Saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)

Arctic Willow (Salix arctica)

Reindeer Lichen / Caribou Moss (Cladonia rangiferina)

Arctic Moss (Calliergon giganteum)

www.iwebquest.com

7 Tundra Plant Facts

Tundra Plant Facts

Often reproduce by rootstocks or runner Grow in clumps to create microclimates May bloom from buds that are one to two years old Seed may germinate and grow while still attached to parent plant Similar to desert plants, aerial parts reduced in favor of root mass, larger roots capable of storing enough energy and minerals to allow instant growth in spring

8 www

www

world-builders.org

9 Taiga

Taiga

White and Black Spruce Picea glauca, Picea mariana

Jack Pine, Pinus banksiana

Balsam Fir, Abies balsamia

www.runet.edu

www.blueplanetbiomes.org

10 Taiga Ecology

Taiga Ecology

Lower plant and animal diversity compared to tundra Often succeeds tundra over long periods of time or due to changing climate (accelerated) Typically needle leaf plants adapted to cold and drought

11 Common Arctic Birds

Common Arctic Birds

Arctic tern (Sterna paradisea) Common Eider (Somateria mollissima) Snow Goose (Chen caerulescens) Tundra Swan (Cygnus columbianus) Herring gull (Larus argentatus) Alcids (Guillemot, Puffin, Auk, Murre) Ptarmigan (Lagopus spp.) Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) Snowy Owl (Nyctea scandiaca) Common Redpoll (Carduelis flammea )

12 Less Common Arctic Birds

Less Common Arctic Birds

Loons (common, pacific, Red billed, yellow billed) Plovers (American golden, Black bellied) Sandpipers e.g. Ruddy Turnstone (Arenaria interpres) Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) Northern Fulmar (Fulmaris glacialis) Laysan Albatross (Diomedea immutabilis)

13 Birds by Habitat

Birds by Habitat

Marine/Coastal – auks, puffins, gulls, terns, loons, ducks, geese, swans Terrestrial – sparrows (primarily tundra), owls, hawks, eagles, falcons , plovers, ravens

14 Spotlight on

Spotlight on

Gyrfalcon one of the only birds to winter in the Arctic, found only above treeline, hatch early to “outhunt” other birds of prey, hunt by flying low to ground and chasing prey

15 Tundra (or Whistling) Swan

Tundra (or Whistling) Swan

Before ballpoint or fountain pens, the quills of the whistling swans were a common implement for writing. Thousands of these birds were killed for their feathers and the whistling swan was driven almost to extinction. However, because of their isolation, Arctic populations have persisted.

arctic.uoguelph.ca

16 Herring Gull

Herring Gull

One of the larger members of the family, monogamous, nesting on rocky coastlines, cosmopolitan feeding habits, have a good memory for predators

arctic.uoguelph.ca

17 Arctic Tern

Arctic Tern

Only species migrating from arctic to Antarctic, live in large colonies +100 pairs, can dive up to 10 meters to feed. Live 30 years or more

18 Migration of Arctic Tern

Migration of Arctic Tern

Long distance trip between ~late-July and October by an Arctic Tern banded as chick

Direct flight = ~6165 miles

19 Puffin – surface dives to swim after small fish, catching and holding

Puffin – surface dives to swim after small fish, catching and holding

in its bill until it has a full load – known to have carried 61 fish in a single trip. Arranges fish crosswise in its bill using its raspy tongue to hold against the roof of its mouth while catching the next fish. Roof of its mouth has rearward-pointing spines to help hold the fish. Not graceful flyers, but can reach speeds of up to 88 km/hour. When arriving on land often end up crash landing!

Spotlight on..

arctic.uoguelph.ca

20 Common Redpoll (Finch)

Common Redpoll (Finch)

Smallest bird to overwinter in Arctic. (although some do migrate as far south as Central U.S.) Some breed as far north as Ellesmere Island. In the winter it survives by inhabiting the tunnels of lemmings, which run along the surface of the ground under the snow, where it is protected from harsh winds and can find seeds to eat.

21 American Golden Plover

American Golden Plover

Migration of American Golden Plover

Migrates along Atlantic Flyway- stops over in New England

22 Arctic Fish

Arctic Fish

*also found in Antarctic

Eels, Slatjaw cutthroat (Synaphobranchus kaupi), longfin sawpalate, (Serrivomer parabeani) Eelpouts (many)* Banded gunnel (Pholis fasciata), Pricklebacks Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) Lanternfish Haeckel's chimaera (Harriotta haeckeli) Lumpfish and Snailfish Alligatorfish Halibut and Flounder Sand Lance Deepwater redfish (Sebastes mentella) Skates Sleeper sharks (Greenland shark, Somniosus microcephalus) Wolffish Alaska Blackfish

Lake chub (Couesius plumbeus) Burbot (Lota lota) Arctic lamprey (Lampetra japonica) Salmon (Whitefish, Trout, Arctic Grayling, Arctic Cisco, Herring, Arctic Char) Sculpins Smelt (including argentines) Stickleback Lake sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) Longnose sucker (Catostomus catostomus) Dragonfish Barracudina Bristlemouths Cods, Mora’s and Grenadiers Daggertooth (Anotopterus pharao)* Black scabbardfish (Aphanopus carbo)

23 Spotlight on:

Spotlight on:

Lanternfish: deep sea fish - vertically migrate, possess photophores – light organs – on head and body. Level of light they emit is low enough to match the light coming from the surface of the sea and conceal the fish's presence from predators below, Swim in schools so large sonar pulses from boat navigational equipment often bounce off their swim bladders, giving the impression of a false ocean bottom!

arctic.uoguelph.ca

24 Greenland Shark: largest fish in northern waters, Scientific name,

Greenland Shark: largest fish in northern waters, Scientific name,

Somniosus microcephalus – the tiny headed sleeper . Swims so slowly - often difficult to tell whether or not it is alive, this immense shark is a scavenger, shearing huge hunks of flesh off dead seals and whales or munching on the remains of dead fish or other marine organisms.

25 Arctic Cod: most northerly range of any marine species, swim in

Arctic Cod: most northerly range of any marine species, swim in

gigantic schools that can stretch for kilometers. The smallest of all the cods, now found encroaching on cod habitat in North Atlantic. One of the last remaining commercially viable cod species.

26 Arctic Char: most northerly range of any freshwater fish in the world,

Arctic Char: most northerly range of any freshwater fish in the world,

huge morphological adaptability – ranging from 10-100kg, must migrate out of oceans (fear of freezing)

27 Alaska Blackfish

Alaska Blackfish

a type of mudminnow, living in low-lying mossy ponds with soft bottoms. Capable of living without oxygen for a day and without food for a whole year. Can survive temperatures of -20 degrees C (4 F) and the complete freezing of some body parts, including their heads, for up to several days. Use a chemical much like antifreeze to prevent crystal formation in the blood.

28 Coastal/Marine Arctic Food web

Coastal/Marine Arctic Food web

29 Arctic Mammals (charismatic macrospecies

Arctic Mammals (charismatic macrospecies

Whales (Beaked, Grey, Right, Sperm, White, Roqual)* Dolphins (Orca, Long-finned, White-beaked, Atlantic)* + Harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) Seals (Harbour, Harp, Hooded, Bearded, Ringed)* Walrus (Odobenus rosmarus) Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) Grizzly Bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) Caribou (Rangifer tarandus) Muskox (Ovibos moschatus) Arctic fox (Alopex lagopus)

Grey wolf (Canis lupis) Red fox (Vulpes vulpes) Yakut Horse Lemmings and Voles (Norway Lemming, Lemmus lemmus, Brown Lemming, Lemmus sibiricus) Arctic hare (Lepus arcticus) Shrews Arctic ground squirrel, Citellus parryi Ermine (Mustela erminea) Least weasel (Mustela nivalis) Wolverine (Gulo gulo)

* Also found in Antarctic

30 Spotlight on:

Spotlight on:

Caribou Four sub-species in far north. Found primarily on tundra, spend winter in taiga. Their unpredictable migration patterns led many native cultures to herd them. Have countercurrent circulation like some birds and also extra phosphates in their blood to increase oxygen uptake in cold temps.

epe.lac-bac.gc.ca, www.athropolis.com,

31 Lemming

Lemming

Smallest mammal in the arctic, brown in summer, white in winter. Do not hibernate – overwinter by burrowing into tunnels under snow and continuing to feed.

32 Walrus Very social – gather by the hundreds

Walrus Very social – gather by the hundreds

Ranking established by tusk size. While diving, blood flow is diverted away from its skin and blubber; when it basks in the sun after a long dive in cold water, blood flow to the surface of the blubber is increased, allowing heat gain.

33 Arctic Fox

Arctic Fox

Lung branches longer with more surface area than temperate relatives. Lung structure enhances warming and mixing of cold inhaled air with warm exhaled air, improving heat conservation. Dens can have 4-12 entrances and cover up to 30 sq. m (323 sq. ft.). Some dens may be used for centuries, by many generations, and eventually become huge, with over 100 entrances.

34 Rare Animals in Arctic

Rare Animals in Arctic

Eskimo Curlew (Numenius borealis) (rarest of all) Allegedly, guided Columbus to the New World six centuries ago, on its way to its breeding grounds on the arctic tundra. Pigeon-sized, sickle-billed shorebird once a dominant species in arctic. Its one pound, fat-laden body was appreciated by North American settlers who hunted this bird in the 1800s for food. Such a popular target, it was hunted to near extinction. Pelican gulper (Eurypharynx pelecanoides) a type of eel, mouth 4 X larger than rest of body. Ambush hunter, lures prey by waving the luminescent organ at the tip of its tail in front of its mouth, once prey is close, fish lunges, opening its mouth at the last second. Water rushes into the mouth, ballooning out the pelican-like pouch. Once the prey is swept into the mouth with the current, the jaws snap shut. Water escapes through tiny gill openings. Found only in the Davis Strait in the arctic. Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) Unlike most owl species, snowy hunts mainly in daytime. Small – only weighing 2-4 pounds. Highly nomadic, movements tied to abundance of primary prey species, lemmings. Local numbers high when lemming population is high, lower when lemming population is low. Protected under the federal Migratory Bird Treaty Act. Cook Inlet Beluga Whale (Delphinapterus leucas) isolated sub-species of beluga, noted for white color – found only in the Cook Inlet. Threatened by hunting and, increasingly by estuary pollution, population not bouncing back as expected. Listed as Endangered Species, the IUCN lists it as critically endangered.

35 What About Invertebrates

What About Invertebrates

2,000 species overall, 550 in the high arctic Diptera (flies), Hymenoptera (ants, wasps, bees), Lepidoptera (moths, butterflies), some ectoparasites of warm-blooded vertebrates, mites and Collembola (springtails), relatively more successful. In extreme arctic and alpine environments, where cold limits the period suitable for flight, some species have reduced wings or antennae.

36 Map of Antarctica

Map of Antarctica

www.map-of-antarctica.us/

37 Antarctica Characteristics

Antarctica Characteristics

Covered in ice and snow – little ice-free land for plant colonization “Summer growing season” (Dec. – Feb.) near freezing. High winds all year round A virtual desert inland, several meters of snow fall along coast annually No trees or shrubs, only two species flowering plants,( in South Orkney Islands, the South Shetland Islands and western Antarctic Peninsula.) Moss and lichen in wetter areas. Greatest species diversity along western side of Antarctic Peninsula, where climate is generally warmer and wetter.

38 Plant Life in the Antarctic Region

Plant Life in the Antarctic Region

Tussock Grass, Falkland Islands

Lichens, Verrucaria, Xanthoria, Turgidosculum (Mastodia), Lecanora Mosses, Muelleriella crassifolia Tussock Grass Puccinellia macquariensis

Antarctic Pearlwort Colobanthus quitensis Hairgrass Deschampsia antarctica

Photographs by Rob Seppelt

39 Adapted and Reproduced with permission from Elizabeth Anne

Adapted and Reproduced with permission from Elizabeth Anne

Viaulizabeth Anne

40 Antarctic Birds

Antarctic Birds

Petrels (Wilson’s storm, Cape, Snow) Albatross (black browed, grey headed, light mantled Blue-eyed cormorant (Phalacrocorax atriceps) Penguins (Emperor, Adelie, Chinstrap, King, Royal) Arctic Tern

41 Spotlight on Penguins

Spotlight on Penguins

Macaroni, Eudyptes chrysolophus, most numerous of all the world's penguins, with an estimated world population of over 9 million breeding pairs. Breed on peninsula and many outlying islands

Emperor, Aptenodytes forsteri - largest, found on mainland only

Photo by Yan Ropert-Coudert

www.seaworld.org

42 Ad?lie, Pygoscelis adeliae

Ad?lie, Pygoscelis adeliae

Most highly studied, named after an area of the Peninsula called Adelie Land (Adele, wife of explorer Jules Dumont d’Urville) Least conspicuous, very good camouflage from predators. Estimated at 2.5 million pairs, largest populatin near Ross Sea.

43 King, Aptenodytes patagonicus

King, Aptenodytes patagonicus

Like Emperors, King penguins make no nest, and instead lay a single egg of around 310g, which they hold on their feet for the entire incubation period of about 55 days. This adaptation allows breeding in much colder terrain than would be the case for species that lay their eggs on the ground, and negates the need for nesting material. The eggs are brooded by both parents in turn, with shift changes of 6 to 18 days; the non-brooding parent going to sea on extended foraging trips. Found on islands around peninsula.

44 Antarctic Fish and other sea creatures

Antarctic Fish and other sea creatures

Patagonian Toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) Squid Antarctic Ice Fish Jellyfish Starfish

45 Spotlight on

Spotlight on

Antarctic Ice Fish have antifreeze proteins that keep their blood from freezing, instead absorbing oxygen through their skin. Some lack hemoglobin (Thus the blood is more fluid and the animals save energy otherwise needed to pump blood through their body),.

Julian Gutt, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research

46 Antarctic Mammals

Antarctic Mammals

Seals (Leopard, Ross, Weddell,, Crabeater) * Whales (Baleen – Blue, Humpback, Toothed - Sperm)* Orca (in the dolphin family, referred to as toothed whale)* *Also found in Arctic

47 Whales

Whales

Orca

Blue Whale

48 Seals

Seals

Leopard – Most ferocious

Weddell – Most well known

49 Invertebrates

Invertebrates

On the whole Antarctic continent, the only creatures that really live on the land are insects. Midges and mites live in patches of moss that grow on rocky mountain sides, in spots that are sheltered from the wind, the insect eggs stay frozen all winter, and thaw and hatch the next year. The moss they live in often grows near bird rookeries, where it is fertilized by bird excrement -- called "guano.“ Ticks and lice also live on the sea birds, penguins, and seals The largest land-living creature on the entire continent is the wingless fly, about six mm long (about 1/4 inch to 1/2 inch).

Project Explore, Val Olnes, Univ. of Minn.

50 Basic Adaptation Response Avoidance or Confrontation

Basic Adaptation Response Avoidance or Confrontation

Migration Resistance Hibernation Poikilotherms Homeotherms

51 Bird Adaptations to Cold Environments

Bird Adaptations to Cold Environments

Antifreeze eggs Cold Feet, warm heart Cozy homes Dressing down Feathered snowshoes Knobbly feet Posing for warmth

52 Arctic and Antarctic: Perfect Laboratories

Arctic and Antarctic: Perfect Laboratories

In particular, Antarctic Peninsula excellent place to study evolution – home to many amazing adaptations. Arctic – Historical Records deep in the ice – CO2

53 Climate Change Impacts on Biota: Some Hypotheses

Climate Change Impacts on Biota: Some Hypotheses

Lemming Population Dynamics affected by snow and ice conditions – food sources entombed in ice/decrease snow depth impairs sheltering Sea Ice Extent: Antarctic - Adelie Penguins, Arctic Polar Bears Warmer Winters=Decreases in Krill populations Successional Changes in Tundra/Taiga

54 Resources

Resources

Information on Tundra food web http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/tundra/tundra.html Source for Food Web Game http://mudface.net/ Arctic Lesson Plans http://www.nps.gov/akso/ParkWise Compendium of Arctic Species http://www.arctic.uoguelph.ca/cpl/organisms/orgframe.htm Updates on Biotic Indicators in Arctic http://www.arctic.noaa.gov/reportcard/index.html Antarctic Lesson Plans http://www.classroom.antarctica.gov.au Biotic research from UCAR http://www.windows.ucar.edu Live krill cam in Antarctic - http://www.aad.gov.au/webcams/krill/

55 Tapping into Ongoing work

Tapping into Ongoing work

SATELLITES – students and teachers, part of GLOBE project TEA Armada – Teachers Experiencing the Antarctic and Arctic (www.tea.armadaproject) PolarTREC – Nationwide and here at UMass – Julie Brigham Grette (Lake El’gygytgyn) http://www.polartrec.com/geologic-climate-research-in-siberia NASA Explorer School Teams Antarctic research by local student, Maggie Waldron – Studying at and around Palmer Station (until late March) doing bacteria productivity studies in the bay and helping with penguin research. maggie.r.waldron@gmail.com, webcam of station - http://pal.lternet.edu/

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