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Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Killology(1)
Killology(1)
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Aggression
Aggression
The Psychology of Aggression
The Psychology of Aggression
Aggression in terms of gaming
Aggression in terms of gaming
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
How does aggression portrayed in videogames versus television differ
How does aggression portrayed in videogames versus television differ
What does this mean for your childs brain
What does this mean for your childs brain
This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting
This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting
What does the evidence say
What does the evidence say
Reality vs
Reality vs
Killing for the Fun of it
Killing for the Fun of it
'Life is a video game
'Life is a video game
The facts of the case
The facts of the case
Grand Theft Auto
Grand Theft Auto
G.T.A: Vice City Facts
G.T.A: Vice City Facts
In defense: What does Thompson say about this
In defense: What does Thompson say about this
Impact of violent videogames on Moore
Impact of violent videogames on Moore
You decide
You decide
It stated "We clearly associate media violence to aggressive behavior
It stated "We clearly associate media violence to aggressive behavior
Trigger happy
Trigger happy
Teaching Kids to Kill
Teaching Kids to Kill
Teaching the art of killing
Teaching the art of killing
Media Guidelines
Media Guidelines
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
What does this mean for you
What does this mean for you
What can you do
What can you do
Bibliography
Bibliography
Cargo, T. (31/7/2009) Banned: the absurdity of Australia's game rating
Cargo, T. (31/7/2009) Banned: the absurdity of Australia's game rating
Michigan State University (2005, October 12)
Michigan State University (2005, October 12)
Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia
Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia

: Media, war and peace. : lisa marie santos. : Media, war and peace.ppt. zip-: 4428 .

Media, war and peace

Media, war and peace.ppt
1 Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn

Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn

session, 2010 Media and Cultural Studies, University of Wollongong The project report had two components. For details of the assignment see http://www.bmartin.cc/classes/MACS390_10outline.pdf 1. An information pack for an organisation. Lisa Santos information pack starts on the next slide. 2. A fictional dialogue on carrying out the project. Lisa Santos dialogue is a separate file. This document is located at http://www.bmartin.cc/classes/MACS390_10tops/.

2 Killology(1)

Killology(1)

3 Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
4 Aggression

Aggression

Aggression is behaviour intended to harm described as being a hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to attack or confront. The action of attacking without provocation. The forceful and sometimes overly assertive pursuit of one's aims and interests.(1)

5 The Psychology of Aggression

The Psychology of Aggression

In psychology, aggression refers to any behaviour that demonstrates malicious intent to cause harm. Aggression is measure in three stages along a mild to violent scale of severity an continuum of Physical, Verbal and Relational violence. Violence on the other hand refers to the physical aggression of which the victim is likely to suffer serious physical injury.(1)

6 Aggression in terms of gaming

Aggression in terms of gaming

Aggression within videogames falls under two categories, proactive and reactive aggression.(1) Proactive aggression is goal oriented. It relies on rewards to stimulate aggressive acts. (2) Reactive aggression is the automatic response to perceived threats. (3) These terms reflect the top tier of the general aggression model. These often trigger other issues. These are detailed on the next slide.

7 Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
8 How does aggression portrayed in videogames versus television differ

How does aggression portrayed in videogames versus television differ

And the answer is: Interactivity and the pursuit of an individualistic goal! (1)

9 What does this mean for your childs brain

What does this mean for your childs brain

There is a causal link between playing the first-person shooting game in our experiment and brain-activity pattern that are considered as characteristic for aggressive cognitions and affects, (1) Adolescents who play violent video games may exhibit lingering effects on brain function, including increased activity in the region of the brain that governs emotional arousal and decreased activity in the brain's executive function, which is associated with control, focus and concentration.(2)

10 This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting

This areas shown is the region where aggressive behaviour is reacting

to violent videogame stimulus!

This reactivity within brain function affects the Occipital, Parietal and Temporal sections within the brain. (1) This highlights the action of videogame technology teaching kids to kill.(2)

11 What does the evidence say

What does the evidence say

Adolescents who expose themselves to greater amounts of video game violence were more hostile, reported getting into arguments with teachers more frequently, were more likely to be involved in physical fights, and performed poorly in school. (1) This can lead to greater long term affects as student become anti-social and risk slipping grades or missing school to play violent videogames on different mediums impacts employability and later on chances of further education and graduation.

12 Reality vs

Reality vs

Fiction

For adolescents who begin gaming at a young age. It is becoming more and more difficult for them to distinguish reality from fiction. WHY? Because game aesthetics are improving with greater pixalisation to appear as true to life as possible. (1) What comes into question here is can you then tell the difference. The case of Devin Moore leads me to think not! You be the judge

13 Killing for the Fun of it

Killing for the Fun of it

Killer Profile: Name: Devin Moore Age: 18 Preferred Video game: Grand Theft Auto III and G.T.A: Vice City

14 'Life is a video game

'Life is a video game

You've got to die sometime.'(1)

On June 7th 2003 in Fayette, Alabama. Devin Moore shot three police officers James Crump (40), Arnold Strickland (55) and Leslie Mealer (38 a police dispatcher) He committed the crime acting out a game sequence from GTA.

15 The facts of the case

The facts of the case

Moore was to be arrested on a alleged stolen car charge. He grabbed one officer's .45 caliber pistol and killed all three before fleeing the station in a police cruiser he stole from the station. (1) This was a popular game sequence within G.T.A and known to all players to reward handsomely. He was eventually caught and sentenced to death by lethal injection. The case was lodges in court under Strickland v. Sony. (2)

16 Grand Theft Auto

Grand Theft Auto

Grand Theft Auto relates to numerous formats of games, which over time has changed identity from G.T.A to G.T.A: Vice city and most recently to G.T.A: San Andreas. Vice City has elements from driving games and third-person shooters, and features open-world game play that gives the player more control over their playing experience.(1)

17 G.T.A: Vice City Facts

G.T.A: Vice City Facts

Grand Theft Auto: Vice City is an action/adventure computer and video game.(1) Vice City draws much of its inspiration from 1980s American culture. It is set in 1986 in Vice City.(2) Story line: Mafia member Tommy Vercetti has recently released from prison after being involved in a drug deal gone wrong. Tommy then has to seek out those responsible while building a criminal empire and seizing power from other criminal organizations in the city.(3)

18 In defense: What does Thompson say about this

In defense: What does Thompson say about this

Moore's lawyers claimed that Moore had been programmed by frequently playing the game GTA Thompson claims Devin Moore was, in effect, trained to do what he did. He was given a murder simulator," (1 )

He bought it as a minor. He played it [For] hundreds of hours [it] is primarily a cop-killing game. (2) Defense: but for the video-game training, [Moore] would not have done what he did. (3)

19 Impact of violent videogames on Moore

Impact of violent videogames on Moore

When looking at all the facts of this case, how does someone who has never shown this behaviour before, who acts out of character and who has shot on target but never held a gun become a killing machine? The answer is simple. (1) Violent video games (2)

20 You decide

You decide

Can you see then the correlation between aggression in videogames, repetitive conditioning and the inability to distinguish reality from fiction due to photorealism? Critics however state differently. They state that violence in video games are not always causally linked with aggressive tendencies. A study conducted in the U.S. Established this.

21 It stated "We clearly associate media violence to aggressive behavior

It stated "We clearly associate media violence to aggressive behavior

But the impact was very small compared to other things. Some may not be happy with that, but thats where the science is. (1) Only 12% of those involved in school shootings were attracted to violent video games, while 24% read violent books and 27% were attracted to violent films.(2) From this data conclusions were drawn then that children who were predisposed to acts of violence before their gaming began, are more likely to take on aggressive actions as a result, thus more susceptible to violent videogames.

22 Trigger happy

Trigger happy

Why is it that teens are so ready to engage in violent videogames? Because the game is always there, it is a distraction of everyday life- a nirvana. It has the ability to promote a reliable existence as it is ruled by absolute order in terms of a game sequence which is not found in everyday life. (1) Because of reinforcements: Think of the rat and the cheese analogy- behaviour that is repeated for reward.(2)

23 Teaching Kids to Kill

Teaching Kids to Kill

Because of the idea that violence in videogames leads to aggressive behaviour, there has been a call to action to halt the flooding of the market of violent videogames available to the public. Some however point out that videogames are an integral part of social development as it can be deemed cathartic[as videogames] provide a sage and beneficial outlet for aggressive feelings in a non-destructive contextthey contribute positively to a child's cognitive development.(1) They do however as a result pose addictive elements to continue this cathartic expression (2)

24 Teaching the art of killing

Teaching the art of killing

As game technology has improved over a the years, and simulations seem less fake, there is an emphasis on the reality of games to assert violent aggressive action. This is seen as cathartic as it provides a secure outlet for the aggressive action of gamers yet all evidence within this slide show shows that violent videogames do assist in creating an atmoshephere where aggression is taught. Therefore violent videogames are negative teaching tools. This can be argued with the case of Devin Moore. A case that further highlights this is the use of Americas Army 3 in training American Soldiers in combat. (1)

25 Media Guidelines

Media Guidelines

As a result, there has been a push to restrict videogame sales nationally. Australia however is an interesting case as restriction laws are quite lax. Did you know that there are no R18+ rating systems within Australia for videogames as it only applies to movies. This means that games are allowed if they are edited to conform to an MA15+ standard or they are refused classification [RC] (1)

26 Lisa Santos Project report MACS390, Media, war and peace, autumn
27 What does this mean for you

What does this mean for you

That you need to take action! You need to monitor what your child sees and how they play. Although you might not have these games at your disposal. Your children's friends might so talk to them about the dangers of aggression and violent videogames.

28 What can you do

What can you do

Reduce the exposure your children have to violent videogames. Be informed only buy age appropriate games - check with the game manufacturers for actual content. Check www.moviereports.org for videogame reviews. Petition for R ratings in Australia through http://www.r18games.com.au/ And finally do your own research and be a responsible parent. (1)

29 Bibliography

Bibliography

Apple online dictionary- Aggression Anderson, C,A. Video Games and Aggressive Thoughts, Feelings and Behaviour in the laboratory and in life, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Anderson, C., EFFECTS OF VIOLENT VIDEO GAMES ON AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR, AGGRESSIVE COGNITION, AGGRESSIVE AFFECT, PHYSIOLOGICAL AROUSAL, AND PROSOCIAL BEHAVIOR: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature, Psychological Science, Vol. 12, No. 5, September 2001 Brown, H.J. (2008) Video Games and Education, M.E Sharpe, London. Blundell, K. (14/2/2010) War Games and Aggression, Accessed 1/6/10, http://earthsciweb.org/MontessoriMuddle/2010/02/14/war-games-and-aggression/

30 Cargo, T. (31/7/2009) Banned: the absurdity of Australia's game rating

Cargo, T. (31/7/2009) Banned: the absurdity of Australia's game rating

regime Accessed 17/5/10 http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2008/07/31/2319787.htm Commonwealth of Australia (2001-2009) Classification Markings on Film and Computer Games Accessed 30/5/10 http://www.classification.gov.au/www/cob/classification.nsf/Page/ClassificationMarkings_ClassificationMarkingsonFilmandComputerGames_ClassificationMarkingsonFilmandComputerGames Gentile, D., Saleem, M., & Anderson, C. (2007). Public Policy and the Effects of Media Violence on Children. Social Issues and Policy Review, 1(1), 15-61. Graham, I. (20/3/2010) Studies and Research on Media Effects?Portrayal of Violence Accessed 23/5/10 http://libertus.net/censor/resources/studies.html Grossman, D & Degaetano, G. (1999) Stop Teaching Our Kids To Kill, Crown Publishers, New York. Grossman, D & Christensen, L.W. (2008) On Combat: the Psychology and Physiology of Deadly Conflict in War and Peace. Worrior science publications, China.

31 Michigan State University (2005, October 12)

Michigan State University (2005, October 12)

Violent Video Games Lead To Brain Activity Characteristic Of Aggression. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 7, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2005/10/051012082710.htm Urbano, L.D., 2010. War games and aggression, Retrieved June 7th, 2010, from Montessori Muddle: http://earthsciweb.org/MontessoriMuddle/ Poole, S. (2000) Trigger Happy: The Inner Life of Video Games, Fourth Estate, London. Radiological Society of North America (2006, November 29). Violent Video Games Leave Teenagers Emotionally Aroused. ScienceDaily. Retrieved June 7, 2010, from http://www.sciencedaily.com /releases/2006/11/061128140804.htm Sapountzis, A. (2007) Can Video Games Lead to Murder? Accessed 28/5/10 www.gamedefender,com/news/20060306.html Serendip, 1994 Brain Structures and their Functions, Accessed http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/kinser/Structure1.html Thompson, J (2005) Games In The Court GTA Life Is A Video Game Accessed 11/5/10 http://www.jackthompson.org/games_in_the_court/life_is_a_videogame.htm

32 Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia

Wikipedia the free encyclopaedia

Strickland v. Sony Accessed 2/6/10 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Strickland_v._Sony (2008) Australia needs an R18+ Rating for video games Accessed 28/5/10 http://www.r18games.com.au/ (2008) Rockstargames- vice city Accessed 15/5/10 http://www.rockstargames.com/vicecity/ (2006) Killology, Accessed 18/5/10 http://www.killology.com/publications.htm (28/9/09) GTA Vice City, Accessed 6/6/10 http://megaupload.blog.friendster.com/uncategorized/gta-vice-city-fully-working-no-crack-needed.html

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