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Migration and Navigation
Migration and Navigation
Why migrate
Why migrate
Monarch butterflies
Monarch butterflies
Spiny lobster
Spiny lobster
Salmon
Salmon
Green turtles
Green turtles
White- bearded Wildebeest
White- bearded Wildebeest
Gray whales
Gray whales
Lesser long-nosed bats
Lesser long-nosed bats
N. American birds
N. American birds
Arctic terns
Arctic terns
Navigational strategies
Navigational strategies
Landmark orientation
Landmark orientation
Navigation by dead reckoning
Navigation by dead reckoning
Cataglyphis ant homing
Cataglyphis ant homing
3-D path integration by ants
3-D path integration by ants
Starlings use a compass
Starlings use a compass
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers
Compass cues
Compass cues
A solar compass requires time compensation
A solar compass requires time compensation
Logic of clock-shift experiments
Logic of clock-shift experiments
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Indigo buntings in planetariums
Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils
Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins
Turtles detect magnetism
Turtles detect magnetism
Magnetic field cues
Magnetic field cues

Презентация: «Migration and Navigation». Автор: Jerry Wilkinson. Файл: «Migration and Navigation.ppt». Размер zip-архива: 7501 КБ.

Migration and Navigation

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1 Migration and Navigation

Migration and Navigation

Migration examples Navigational strategies Piloting Path integration Compass orientation Navigational mechanisms Compass cues

2 Why migrate

Why migrate

Increase availability of food Avoid cold weather Decrease risk of predation on juveniles

3 Monarch butterflies

Monarch butterflies

300 million

Michoacan, Mexico

4 Spiny lobster

Spiny lobster

Move from shallow to deep water in the fall in long single file lines. Females spawn in deep water in spring before returning.

5 Salmon

Salmon

6 Green turtles

Green turtles

Nest on Ascension Is., feed off Brazil and return to same beach

7 White- bearded Wildebeest

White- bearded Wildebeest

1.5 million animals per year Low levels of phosphorus in short grass may stimulate movement

8 Gray whales

Gray whales

9 Lesser long-nosed bats

Lesser long-nosed bats

Feed on cactus going north, agave going south

10 N. American birds

N. American birds

Radar tracking of fall migrants

254 species migrate to the tropics

11 Arctic terns

Arctic terns

Fly 40,000 km each year

12 Navigational strategies

Navigational strategies

Piloting Use landmark to locate goal (nest, etc.) Path integration (dead reckoning) compute net vector by integrating distance traveled with compass direction Accumulates errors, only good for short distances Compass orientation follow compass heading to goal or landmark True navigation Use compass and map (cognitive) to plot route

13 Landmark orientation

Landmark orientation

One landmark provides distance, but not direction Animal must remember location of goal relative to two or more landmarks Evidence from bees and pigeons suggests that the animal has a mental template of landmark positions Animals approach landmarks from a single compass direction. Consequently, the animal doesn’t have to memorize the template from all directions.

14 Navigation by dead reckoning

Navigation by dead reckoning

Use the direction and distance of each successive leg during the outbound trip Compute net vector and use compass to return home

Home

15 Cataglyphis ant homing

Cataglyphis ant homing

When ants are picked up and moved, they travel in a parallel direction Ants use path integration

Wehner

16 3-D path integration by ants

3-D path integration by ants

Ant odometers record horizontal distance moved not actual distance traveled

Thus, they do not use time or energy expended to determine distance

Trained uphill/downhill with food source 8.7 m

Trained on flat track with food source 5.2 m

Wohlgemuth, S. 2001 Nature 411:795.

17 Starlings use a compass

Starlings use a compass

18 Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers

Migratory direction is heritable in blackcap warblers

19 Compass cues

Compass cues

Sun Time-compensated solar compass Clock-shift experiments Polarized light Stars Nocturnal paths Planetarium experiments Geomagnetic field Pigeon homing experiments Lateralization in robins Turtle swimming

20 A solar compass requires time compensation

A solar compass requires time compensation

21 Logic of clock-shift experiments

Logic of clock-shift experiments

22 Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift

Pigeon homing after a 6 h clock-shift

Each dot represents the bearing chosen by a bird. Black dots are control birds, color dots are experimentals. Dashed line is homeward. When the sun is out, clock-shifted birds go SE rather than SW. On a cloudy day, clock-shifted birds do not change direction indicating that they are not using solar cues.

23 Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day

Polarized light indicates solar position on a partially cloudy day

24 Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass

Nocturnal flight paths implicate celestial compass

Veery

25 Indigo buntings in planetariums

Indigo buntings in planetariums

Planetarium expts show that birds rely on rotational point to indicate north

Control sky is no stars

26 Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils

Pigeon homing with Helmholz coils

27 Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins

Magnetic compass is right eye/left brain dominant in robins

Orientation behaviour under monochromatic green light with the magnetic field as the only cue. The mean headings of the 12 birds are indicated as triangles at the periphery of the circle; the grand mean vector is represented by an arrow proportional to the radius of the circle (for numerical values, see Table 1). The inner circles are the 5% (dotted) and the 1% (solid) significance border of the Rayleigh test25. a, Binocular control (Bi) tested in the geomagnetic field. b, Monocular left eye (L) tested in the geomagnetic field. c, d, Monocular right eye tested in the geomagnetic field (c; R) and in a magnetic field with the vertical component inverted, so that the inclination was pointing upwards (d; R(UI)).

WILTSCHKO, W et al. 2002 Nature 419, 467 - 470

28 Turtles detect magnetism

Turtles detect magnetism

29 Magnetic field cues

Magnetic field cues

Polarity: lobsters, newts, salmon, mole-rats Inclination: birds, sea turtles in northern hemisphere N is indicated by the direction in which the force lines dip toward the earth Intensity: bees, alligators

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