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Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping
Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping
Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use
Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use
Shielding Requirements Limit Portability
Shielding Requirements Limit Portability
Portable Radiography Sources
Portable Radiography Sources
High Activity Source Transportation
High Activity Source Transportation
Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use
Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use
How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused
How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused
Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into
Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into
WHAT IS A DIRTY BOMB
WHAT IS A DIRTY BOMB
External Exposures
External Exposures
Internal Exposures
Internal Exposures
The Human Factor
The Human Factor
Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material
Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material
Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Training http
Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Training http
Definitions
Definitions
Radioactive Material
Radioactive Material
Package Activity Limits
Package Activity Limits
Activity Limits for Excepted Packages
Activity Limits for Excepted Packages
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19
Requirements for Packages
Requirements for Packages
Type A Package
Type A Package
Empty Packages
Empty Packages
Category
Category
Shipping Labels
Shipping Labels
Shipping Labels
Shipping Labels
Shipping Labels
Shipping Labels
TRANSPORT INDEX
TRANSPORT INDEX
Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle
Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle
Overpack
Overpack
Special Form
Special Form
Special Form
Special Form
Package Markings
Package Markings
Marking of Overpacks
Marking of Overpacks
Package Markings
Package Markings
Additional Package Markings IMDG
Additional Package Markings IMDG
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39
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40
40
Package Labeling
Package Labeling
Package Labeling
Package Labeling
Placarding
Placarding
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44
Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG
Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG
SDDG
SDDG
Air Waybill
Air Waybill
Additional Documentation
Additional Documentation
Proper Shipping Names
Proper Shipping Names
Proper Shipping Names
Proper Shipping Names
Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist
Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist
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52
Example 1
Example 1
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54
Co-57
Co-57
2 of each label on opposite sides
2 of each label on opposite sides
Example 2
Example 2
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58
Cs-137
Cs-137
Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN
Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN
Example 3
Example 3
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62
Am241Be
Am241Be
To: Mexico From: Nigeria
To: Mexico From: Nigeria
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65
Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review TEST
Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review TEST

: Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping. : Dwaine Brown and Steve Woods. : Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping.ppt. zip-: 4682 .

Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping

Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping.ppt
1 Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping

Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping

1

2 Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use

Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use

The creation, shipping, and use of radioactive material is highly regulated (IAEA, NRC, DOT, etc.). High activity sources can only be produced by sophisticated methods (e.g. reactors & accelerators). High activity sources can only be obtained after special licensing to ensure their safe use and their security. Similar regulations exist in other countries were radioactive material is produced or used.

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3 Shielding Requirements Limit Portability

Shielding Requirements Limit Portability

For sources: the higher the activity, the more shielding you require to transport the source.

3

4 Portable Radiography Sources

Portable Radiography Sources

Top strength industrial radiography sources can burn fingers and cause radiation sickness within a few minutes. Effects drop off dramatically with distance. Outside of 3 meters, acute effects rare even after hours of exposure. Sources are constructed to meet rigorous testing standards. A typical source is encapsulated in two (2) TIG welded Stainless Steel Capsules. Source material itself is often metal (Cobalt or Iridium) or embedded on non-soluble ceramics or microspheres to prevent inhalation of radioactive material if the source encapsulation is breached.

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5 High Activity Source Transportation

High Activity Source Transportation

Containers that ship high activity sources are meant to withstand very punishing accident conditions.

5

6 Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use

Conclusion: Radioactive Material Production, Transportation, and Use

High activity radioactive material is highly regulated. Industrial sources are very robust and made not to leak. When dangerous quantities are shipped, the material is put in a container capable of withstanding harsh accident conditions. Very high activity industrial/medical sources are facility based and difficult to remove.

6

7 How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused

How Might High Activity Radioactive Material be Misused

Expose people to an external source of radiation. Disperse radioactive material using conventional means. Explosively Disperse radioactive material [a Dirty Bomb]. Create a Nuclear Weapon (this requires special nuclear material)

7

8 Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into

Potential consequences of dispersal of radioactive material into

..

Facility ventilation systems Inhalation (internal) dose hazard Interruption of normal life Expensive cleanup costs Water supplies High dilution Individually significant doses would not likely result.

The general environment (dirty bombs, crop dusters, fire, sprayer, etc..) Low likelihood of acute radiological effects May require population shelter or evacuation May be difficult to clean outdoor areas

8

9 WHAT IS A DIRTY BOMB

WHAT IS A DIRTY BOMB

A Dirty Bomb is conventional explosives combined with radioactive material with the intention of spreading the radioactive material over a relatively large area. This is NOT a nuclear explosion, the radioactive material does not enhance the explosion. Very few deaths would be expected from acute radiological exposure (the greatest hazard would likely be from the effects of the conventional explosives). The contamination will hamper emergency response efforts and can delay hospital treatment. Widespread contamination can deny the use of facilities and areas and have a significant psychological impact on the exposed population.

9

10 External Exposures

External Exposures

Focused radiation or localized contamination can result in radiation effect to specific areas on the body Whole body exposure can result from: A passing radioactive cloud or smoke A large, distant point source Exposure from contamination deposited on the ground

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11 Internal Exposures

Internal Exposures

Once radioactive material is deposited in the body, it can expose the person from within. The magnitude of the dose will depend on many factors: How much material was deposited, how it got into the body (ingestion, inhalation, absorption, or injection), chemical form of the radioactive material, the radiation it produces, how quickly it decays, and how quickly the body eliminates the material.

11

12 The Human Factor

The Human Factor

Concerns about radiation and contamination often produce an exaggerated emotional response. Cant detect it with our 5 senses Associated with cancer Reminiscent of cold war fears Science difficult to understand Out of our control Possible results may be Unexposed people saturating the medical community Health and economic effects from long term anxiety or depression in the community

12

13 Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material

Conclusion: Misuse of Radioactive Material

High activity sources can cause health effects, but only to those in close proximity. Acute health effects from distributed radioactive material unlikely without prolonged, high-concentration exposure. Radiation or contamination will hinder response efforts. Denial of facilities and areas will have a major cost effect Public anxiety and its effects may be the primary lasting health effect.

13

14 Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Training http

Radioactive Material Dangerous Goods Transportation Training http

//halworld.halnet.com/hse/hse_hes/hse_hes_resafety/hse_hes_resafety_radtransport.asp

Objectives: Properly classify a package containing radioactive material Properly label and mark a radioactive materials package for shipment Properly prepare shipping documentation Demonstrate your ability to complete a radioactive materials shipment

14

15 Definitions

Definitions

A1 and A2 values Cargo Aircraft Competent Authority Consignee Excepted Package Radioactive Material Special Form

15

16 Radioactive Material

Radioactive Material

16

Radionuclide

Activity Concentration for Exempt Material Bq/gm

Activity Limit for an Exempt Consignment Bq/gm

Am-241

1 X 100

1 X 104

Co-57

1 X 102

1 X 106

Co-60

1 X 101

1 X 105

Cs-137

1 X 101

1 X 104

Gd-153

1 X 102

1 X 107

I-131

1 X 102

1 X 106

Ir-192

1 X 101

1 X 104

K-40

1 X 102

1 X 106

Ra-226

1 X 101

1 X 104

T(Tritium) H-3

1 X 106

1 X 109

Th-natural

1 X 100

1 X 103

U-Natural

1 X 100

1 X 103

17 Package Activity Limits

Package Activity Limits

Excepted Packages Materials (Limited Quantity) Instruments and Articles - Item Limits Instruments and Articles - Package Limits Instrument and manufactured articles clock, electronic tube, or apparatus having radioactive material as a component part

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18 Activity Limits for Excepted Packages

Activity Limits for Excepted Packages

18

Nature of contents

Nature of contents

Instruments and Articles

Instruments and Articles

Materials

Item Limits

Package Limits

Package Limits (RAM-Limited Quantity)

Solids

Solids

Solids

Solids

Special Form

10-2A1

A1

10-3A1

Other Forms

10-2A2

A2

10-3A2

Liquids

10-3A2

10-1 A2

10-4A2

Gases

Gases

Gases

Gases

Tritium H-3

2 X 10-2A2

2 X10-1 A2

2 X 10-2A2

Special Form

10-3A1

10-2 A1

10-3A1

Other Forms

10-3A2

10-2 A2

10-3A2

19 19

19

Radionuclide

A1 Values

A2 Values

RQ Values

Am-241

2 TBq (50 Ci)

0.0002 TBq (0.005 Ci)

0.00037 TBq (0.01Ci)

Co-57

8 TBq (200 Ci)

8 TBq (200 Ci)

3.7 TBq (100 Ci)

Co-60

0.4 TBq (10 Ci)

0.4 TBq (10 Ci)

0.37 TBq (10 Ci)

Cs-137

2 TBq (50 Ci)

0.5 TBq (10 Ci)

0.037 TBq (1 Ci)

Gd-153

10 TBq (200 Ci)

5 TBq (100 Ci)

0.37 TBq (10 Ci)

I-131

3 TBq (80 Ci)

0.5 TBq (10 Ci)

0.00037 TBq (0.01 Ci)

Ir-192

1 TBq (20 Ci)

0.5 TBq (10 Ci)

0.37 TBq (10 Ci)

K-40

0.6 TBq (10 Ci)

0.6 TBq (10 Ci)

0.037 TBq (1 Ci)

Ra-226

0.3 TBq (8 Ci)

0.02 TBq (0.5 Ci)

0.0037 TBq (0.1 Ci)

T(Tritium) H-3

40 TBq (1000 Ci)

40 TBq (1000 Ci)

3.7 TBq (100 Ci)

Th-natural

unlimited

unlimited

0.0004 TBq (0.011 Ci)

U Natural

unlimited

unlimited

0.0019 TBq (0.052 Ci)

RQ is the reportable quantity. US requirement.

RQ is the reportable quantity. US requirement.

RQ is the reportable quantity. US requirement.

RQ is the reportable quantity. US requirement.

20 Requirements for Packages

Requirements for Packages

General Requirements Easily and safely handled and transported Strong lifting attachments Free from protruding features Surface will not retain water Withstand effects of acceleration and vibration Physically and chemically compatible components Temperature range from -40o C to + 55oC

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21 Type A Package

Type A Package

Meet General Package requirements Smallest outside dimension >100 mm Capability of installing a tamper proof seal Forces on tie-down attachment must not damage package during transport Temperature range -40oC to + 70oC No loss or dispersal of material or a 20% increase in radiation level after water spray, free drop, stacking, and penetration tests.

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22 Empty Packages

Empty Packages

Previously contained radioactive material Well maintained and securely closed No loose contamination Any labels which may have been displayed are no longer visible

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23 Category

Category

Maximum radiation level at any point on External surface

Transport Index

I-WHITE

Not more than 0.005mSv/hr (0.5 mrem/hr)

0 (< 0.05)

II-YELLOW

More than 0.005 mSv/hr (0.5mrem/hr) but Not more than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr)

0 to < 1

III-YELLOW

More than 0.5 mSv/hr(50 mrem/hr) but Not more than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr)

1 to < 10

III-YELLOW and also Under exclusive use

More than 2 mSv/hr(200 mrem/hr) but not more than 10 mSv/hr(1,000 mrem/hr)

More than 10

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24 Shipping Labels

Shipping Labels

Transport Index < 0.05 Surface < 0.5 mr/hr

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25 Shipping Labels

Shipping Labels

Transport Index <1.0 Surface <50 mr/hr

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26 Shipping Labels

Shipping Labels

Transport Index <10 Surface <200 mr/hr

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27 TRANSPORT INDEX

TRANSPORT INDEX

TRANSPORT INDEX: The radiation level in mr/hr at one meter from the package surface (gamma and neutron).

TRANSPORT INDEX ONE METER

3.3 FEET 39 INCHES

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28 Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle

Maximum Transport Index For Total Number of Packages On One Vehicle

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29 Overpack

Overpack

An enclosure that is used by a single consignor to provide protection or convenience in handling of a package or to consolidate two or more packages. Packages of radioactive material may be combined in an overpack for transport. Only the shipper is permitted to take a direct measurement of the radiation level to determine the TI.

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30 Special Form

Special Form

Indispersible solid or sealed capsule which meets the following: Capsule can only be opened by destroying it Have one dimension not less than 5 mm Design received unilateral approval Demonstration of compliance with the standards can be done by performance, reference to previous tests, or calculations

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31 Special Form

Special Form

Subjected to impact test, percussion test, leaching test, volumetric leakage test, bending test, and heat test Would not break or shatter under the impact, percussion or bending tests Would not melt or disperse in the heat test Would not leak

31

32 Package Markings

Package Markings

Readily visible and legible Type A must be stamped or printed as required Proper shipping name UN Number Excepted packages only require UN Number Shipper and Consignee with addresses Gross mass if exceeding 50 kg

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33 Marking of Overpacks

Marking of Overpacks

Proper shipping name UN number All labels except for the Type A package label that are required on the inner package must be reproduced on the outside of the overpack

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34 Package Markings

Package Markings

Markings required by other international regulations are permitted In addition to the languages of the State of Origin, English should be used. Reportable Quantity (RQ) marked on package for shipments entering or leaving the US

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35 Additional Package Markings IMDG

Additional Package Markings IMDG

Requires a shippers mark be placed on the package or overpack initials of the company (ex: HES) at least 2 inches in height Tracking number (ex: the RMA number) or other locally generated serial number City of destination Number of packages (ex: 1 of 1, 1 of 2)

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36 36

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38 38

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39 39

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40 40

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41 Package Labeling

Package Labeling

Identification of primary hazard Able to withstand open weather exposure Two labels which conform to the appropriate category on two opposite sides of the package or on the outside of all four sides of the freight container Labels must not be folded Labels must not overlap

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42 Package Labeling

Package Labeling

Cargo Aircraft Only label for goods transported into or out of US Category Labels must have Contents symbol of radionuclide mixtures as space permits Activity in Bq can have Ci in parentheses Transport Index for category II and III

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43 Placarding

Placarding

Four placards front, back and both sides Required for Category III in US May be required for all Category labels outside US check local rules Enlarged category labels may be used in place of placards

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44 44

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45 Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG

Shippers Declaration for Dangerous Goods - SDDG

Two copies completed and signed Proper shipping name Class - Radioactive Material class 7 UN number Number of Packages Subsidiary risk Indication of Passenger or Cargo-Only Indication of Radioactive or Non-Radioactive Special handling information Indication if an overpack has been used Full name and address of shipper and consignee Airport or City of departure and destination

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46 SDDG

SDDG

The words Radioactive Material if not contained in the shipping name Name or symbol of Radionuclide(s) Activity in Bq, may have Ci in parentheses Description of physical and chemical or a notation that it is Special Form Competent Authority Certificate mark Category Label I, II, or III For II and III Transport Index and package dimensions Emergency contact information SIGNATURE certifying shipment

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47 Air Waybill

Air Waybill

Must contain a statement to indicate that dangerous goods are described on accompanying DGD When applicable, indicate Cargo Aircraft Only or CAO For Excepted Packages in the Nature and Quantity of Goods box list proper shipping name with UN number

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48 Additional Documentation

Additional Documentation

Competent Authority Certificates Sealed Source Certificates Current Leak Test Certificates Emergency Response Guide Locally required transportation documents

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49 Proper Shipping Names

Proper Shipping Names

Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Limited Quantity of Material, UN2910 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Instruments or Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles, both UN2911 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Articles Manufactured From Natural Uranium, Depleted Uranium, or Natural Thorium all UN2909 Radioactive Material, Excepted Package, Empty Packaging, UN2908

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50 Proper Shipping Names

Proper Shipping Names

Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Non-Special Form, Non Fissile, UN2915 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332 RQ indicated on the declaration when required RQ, Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN3332

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51 Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist

Unit Conversions for your reference IATA/ICAO Radioactive Checklist

Latest revision contained in back of IATA manual Contained on Radiation Safety Transportation web page Recommend completing for each shipment since the air carrier will be using one also to check you.

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52 52

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53 Example 1

Example 1

Isotope Co-57, Special Form Competent Authority Cert USA/0356/S 111 MBq, 3 mCi 1.3 kg, 3 lb Package box, Type A, 10X8X4 inches Surface dose rate = 0.4 mR/hr Dose rate at 1 meter = 40 uR/hr Shipped from US to Aberdeen Source Serial Number 740-DD

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54 54

54

Co-57, 111 MBq (3 mCi),one Type A Package

Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted

7

USA/0356/S

UN 3332

I White

740-DD Security Seal 33456

55 Co-57

Co-57

111 MBq (3 mCi)

55

56 2 of each label on opposite sides

2 of each label on opposite sides

To: HES Aberdeen From: HES USA

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57 Example 2

Example 2

Isotope Cs-137, Special Form, USA/0508/S 12 mCi, 444 MBq Source DB-032, Densometer V3C-120 Type A Package placed in an Overpack Overpack 30X30X90 cm Weight 68 lbs, 30.8 kg Radiation levels on contact = 18 mR/hr at 1 meter = 0.5 mR/hr Ship from USA to France

57

58 58

58

Cs-137, 444 MBq (12 mCi),one Type A Package

Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile

7

Overpack Used

USA/0508/S

UN 3332

II Yellow TI=0.5 DIM 30X30 X90 cm

DB-032, Densometer V3C-120 Security Seal 33456

59 Cs-137

Cs-137

444 M

12 m

0.5

59

60 Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN

Radioactive Material, Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile, UN

3332

To: France From: Duncan USA

2 of each label on opposite sides

Inner Packages Comply With Prescribed Specifications

60

Emergency Contact Information

61 Example 3

Example 3

Isotope Am241Be, 684.5 GBq, 18.5 Ci Special Form, GB/223/S-85 Type A Package, 120X120X120 cm 91kg, 200 lbs Radiation levels on contact = 60 mR/hr neutron and 27 mR/hr gamma. At 1 meter = 7 mR/hr neutron and 1 mR/hr gamma Shipping from Nigeria to Mexico Source Serial Number SW-2240

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62 62

62

Am241Be, 684.5 GBq (18.5 Ci),one Type A Package

Radioactive Material,Type A Package, Special Form, Non Fissile or Fissile Excepted

7

GB/223/S-85

UN 3332

III Yellow TI=8 DIM 120X120 X120 cm

SW-2240 Security Seal 33456

63 Am241Be

Am241Be

684.5 GBq (18.5 Ci)

8

63

64 To: Mexico From: Nigeria

To: Mexico From: Nigeria

Weight: 91 kg (200 lb)

2 of each label on opposite sides

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65 65

65

66 Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review TEST

Exercises then Knowledge Inventory Review TEST

66

Multi-Modal Radioactive Shipping
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