<<  Public bonfires of foreign cloth, even Bhagat Singh involved Chauri-Chaura 1922  >>
* Assam

* Assam. Strong protests. Workers in the tea gardens, demanding higher wages. Rumours of a ‘Gandhi Raj’ in which labourers would be given land * Gujarat (one of the areas most politically active throughout, gave second highest donations to the Tilak Swaraj Fund). Strong movement in areas in which Gandhi had worked in 1918, and also in rural south. Patidar peasants to the fore. Bardoli Taluka particularly strong- he was selected in late 1921 to inaugurate official Congress no-tax campaign (Gandhi delegated) Congress cadres were sent to prepare the area (funding) This was a ryotwaru areas, with no landholding intermediaries between the peasants and the British. * Southern Rajputana. Bhil movement led by Motilal Tejawat. Anti-landlord. * Madras Presidency. Andhra coastal region sees richer peasants refusing to pay taxes (note how rarely poorest peasants are involved), under belief that ‘Gandhi Swaraj is coming and we shall not have to pay any taxes’. In interior of Andhra, tribal peasants break forest laws > was believed that Gandhi would abolish forest regulations. * Kerala. Mapilla peasants were inspired by Khilafat to rise. Belief that a new Islamic state is about to be inaugurated in which there would be no expensive litigation and the present system of police would be abolished. Turned violent in August 1921 when a police raid on a mosque led to a wide scale violent rising against Hindu landlords (not good for movement cohesiveness). British lost complete control over two sub-districts for two months and Khilafat Republics were established. Approx. 600 Hindus were killed and 2500 forcibly converted. Revolt suppressed harshly, with 2337 rebels being killed and 1652 wounded. 45,000 people taken prisoner. So not good- Gandhi not happy (although as in 1915-18, did show that was considerable discontent that with the right organisation, leadership and control could potentially be harnessed.) November, Prince of Wales (future Edward VIII) visited India. Congress boycotted him and there were large demonstrations. Also some fights between middle and upper class Indians who wished to warmly welcome the Prince and the demonstrators who did not. This was in Bombay and through the clashes, 20 died. Gandhi was much disheartened by this (as well as the accumulation of all of the above, and of course, the Amritsar Massacre of 1919 was still fresh in everyone’s minds- violence by British. Clearly there was a great propensity for violence on both sides at this time). Gandhi postponed taking the movement on to its next level of tax-refusal in Bardoli. And, furthermore, by the end of 1921, Gandhi was having reservations about what he had set in motion, a sense of responsibility due to the continuing violence. Final nail in the coffin was Chauri-Chaura, Feb. 1922.

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