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1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement

1930-31 Civil Disobedience Movement. leadership of Sarojini Naidu (female poet and member of the Working Committee) and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Some Congress leaders disagreed with Gandhi's promotion of a woman to lead march Several times, Naidu and the satyagrahis approached the salt works, before being turned back by police. At one point they sat down and waited for twenty-eight hours. Hundreds arrested. 1930 Salt Satyagraha British hadn’t responded to their boycott of the Simon Commission, nor of Congress’s demands for the British at the least, to grant India dominion status (Gandhi had moderated views of younger men like Subhas Chnadra Bose and Jawaharlal Nehru). He reduced his call for this to a year. No response. Gandhi as ever informed his ‘Dear Friend’ Lord Irwin (Viceroy) of his plans for the Salt March. It was a march against British monopoly of the salt trade, “India’s pulse”. High tax on the salt. Illegal to make it or sell it without a government license. Gandhi said that every Indian man had the right to make his own salt, it was from the Indian ocean which was his, not the British “let everyman claim it as his own” 248miles from Ahmedabad to Dandi, took from 12 March – 5 April. At Dandi, symbolic act by Gandhi of making salt himself. See photo. Over 12,000 congregated in Dandi Thousands joined him on route. (few Muslims so fissures of Indian society seen) 30,000 greeted them in Surat ad at railhead for Dandhi, 50,000 gathered! Wave of resignations of local officials followed. Gave interviews along the way. Gandhi commended the government for not interfering with the march This symbolic campaign was one of his most successful at upsetting the British hold on India (back with a bang). Start of deliberate, systematic civil disobedience Something which people everywhere could mimick – sense of empowerment and pride and unity. People everywhere outright breaking the law > selling own made salt in the street etc. Police imprisoned more and more. Gandhi warned that could do so but more would follow until they couldn’t imprison anymore The Salt March launched a nationwide protest against the British salt tax. On May 4, 1930, Gandhi wrote to Lord Irwin, Viceroy of India, explaining his intention to raid the Dharasana Salt Works. He was immediately arrested. The British government, represented by Lord Edward Irwin decided to negotiate with Gandhi (Irwin and Gandhi apparently got on quite well, or at the very least respected each other. Irwin always insisted that police should not arrest Gandhi- fear of protest and backlash “To arrest Gandhi is to set fire to the whole of India” (nationalist n newspaper) and they regularly met and drank tea together and in 1928 sent a note of condolence over death of his nephew) Over the course of three weeks of meetings between Irwin and Gandhi, the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was signed Dharasana salt works 1930 Protest following the Salt March to protest against rule of the British Raj Hundreds of satyagrahis were beaten by Indian soldiers under British command at Dharasana. The ensuing publicity attracted world attention to the Indian independence movement, and brought into question the legitimacy of British rule in India The Congress, led by Gandhi and Jawaharlal Gandhi publicly issued the Declaration of Independence, or Swaraj, on January 28, 1930. The Congress decided to continue with the proposed plan of action (despite Gandhi’s arrest). Many of the Congress leaders were arrested before the planned day, including Nehru and Vallabhbhaj Patel Several times, Naidu and the satyagrahis approached the salt works, before being turned back by police. At one point they sat down and waited for twenty-eight hours. Hundreds more were arrested.

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