<<  American journalist Web Miller an eye-witness to the beating of Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the “Delhi Pact” signed 1931  >>

1931. Gandhi felt the focus for the campaign’s next phase should remain salt. Should include boycotts of foreign cloth and liquor. Should discourage not paying taxes or breaking forest regulations because these not inherently unjust like the salt May 14 and 22, Congress volunteers attempted march on Hazratganj (Lucknow) - Congress claimed some killed. Lucknow did not win right to march through the street that signified British power, but it forced Raj to abandom the fiction that imperial rule anything but government at gunpoint Bombay city salt satyagraha and cloth picketing were everywhere. Volunteers took over the streets- large, well organised marches Congress had identified an issue that had personal meaning to the people and was a symbol for the general injustice of the British Chittagong, Bengal, terrorists barged their way into and sacked a campaign begun in the spirit of ahimsa (and armoury raid) Northwest Frontier, Muslim Pathans, Abdul Ghaffar Khan- picketed liquor stores. Soldiers opened fire, killed 65. Local officials stepped into the fore when Congress leaders arrested Large scale concentrations of protestors eg Dharasana and Lucknow made people vulnerable to attack so Congress emphasised small-scale dispersed actions eg boycotts Underground journals etc when government confiscated printing presses Withholding payments occurred, over land revenue- Patidars. Moved possessions across border (so crack-down British couldn’t get them). Resistance to land revenue also took hold in U.P – sharp agricultural prices decline second half of 1930 Was breaking of forest legislation eg by Gond and Korku tribe people Rural civil disobedience more difficult for Congress to control- always behnd the curve and struggled to direct and check violence Bombay climax, 12 Dec. Picketers laid in strret to block truicks carrying foreign goods, young volunteer killed. Madras City, Calcutta, Congress employed similar techniques Boycotts huge impact Huge strain on police> after Amritsar British reluctant to use soldiers Sporadic involvement though – couldn’t not be, without Muslim involvement eg Punjab and the Sind little trouble for British (Muslim majority) > only 1152/29,000 prisoners in jail for civil disobedience offences in November were Muslims (were smaller percentage of population though- see Congress slides) Class divisions too starkly apparent > mostly middle, few very poor peasants Second half of 1930 Congress debilitated. Arrest forced leadership to hand initiative to provincial committees, which repression disrupted, and breakdown of central and provincial control eroded non-violent discipline. The more that civil disobedience sprang from local grievances rather than from strategic intent, the more it was likely to stray from the non-violent standard.

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