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Aftermath of 1930-31

Aftermath of 1930-31. Mid-1930s civil disobedience suspended and raj still in place = Indian nationalists new course Gandhi continued as unifying symbol, when demanded, stepped briefly onto political stage but mainly focused on constructive work such as liberating the untouchables, and women, promiting village industries, reforming education and sanitation etc Congress kept aiming for Indian independence, but after reforms of 1935 which expanded the electorate and enhanced the role of elected provincial legislatures (so was some lee-way as Gandhi had anticipated with the Delhi Pact) so its leaders turned to working within the system rather than as a separate entity outside of it. Parlayed its popular influence into votes. World War II ended this participation. Oct 1939 Congress ordered the resignation of its provincial ministers, and moved once more into outright opposition (war without consulting any Indian representatives and refused to meet nationalist demands as a reward for loyalty) 1942 “Quit India” resolution triggered a mostly spontaneous and violent popular rebellion, almost 100,000 arrested and over 1000 killed. Outside India, Subhas Chandra Bose raised the INA (Indian National Army) and fought the British alongside the Japanese For the British, during the war the police had slipped badly in discipline and loyalty and reliability of Indian soldiers also in doubt. INA hailed as heroes. British post-war economy probs couldn’t cope with any new repression exerted in India Labour Party 1945, time ripe for change Any political statement by now had to win consent of not just Congress, but also the Muslim League- now question not of communal relationships in independent India but rather possible creation of separatist state (Gandhi didn’t want this) Sikhs threatened by this, homeland of the Punjab seemed likely to be partitioned between two states. 1946-7 violence. Gandhi fasts. Students march- 5000 Muslims alongside 5000 Hindus- not tension everywhere India seemingly crumbling, Britain want to opt out The opposition that had schooled Indian leaders in the political skills crucial in operating a viable democracy. Free and democratic (despite split and loss of Gandhi’s dream of unity- ultimately had to decide whether wanted unity or independence).

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