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Development of the Indian National Congress

Development of the Indian National Congress. Established in the late nineteenth century as an organisation for the new educated professional and commercial class. Lots of British-loving. By 1918 Indian political aspirations had advanced- wanted a share in the Government of India. The 1919 Montagu-Chelmsford reforms (dyarchy- in provinces ministries formed with Indians controlling the less important departments e.g. education, local government and exercise.) fell far short of these aspirations and were rejected by Congress as “disappointing and unsatisfactory”. 1918-1923 = transformation of Congress in its political and organizational character. (Gandhi huge role played in this) Nagpur Constitution of 1920 made big difference. As did Gandhi’s leadership of it and the consequent aims and objectives it took on.- he had confidence from recent successes such as the Rowlatt Satyagraha- his first Indian mass movement Gandhi demanded “the attainment of Swarajya (total independence) by the people of India by all legitimate and peaceful means” in a year. Main features of the new Constitution were: Attainment of Swaraj by all legitimate and peaceful means 4-anna membership Provincial Congress committees reorganised on linguistic basis, with a hierarchy of provincial – district- sub-district/town – village committees Delegates to Congress sessions to be in proportion to population of a province (roughly one delegate to every 50,000 of a population). Therefore less crowded and more effective All India Congress Committee formed to meet about four time a year Congress Working Committee with about 15 members formed as executive head of the Congress. Permanent body that met about once a month.

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