Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the “Delhi Pact” signed 1931
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Gandhi-Irwin Pact, the “Delhi Pact” signed 1931. By signing Gandhi and Irwin were committing themselves to the following; - discontinuation of the civil disobedience movement by Congress in return for… - participation by the Indian National Congress in the Round Table Conference - Withdrawal of all ordinances issued by the British Government imposing curbs on the activities of the Indian National Congress - Release of prisoners arrested for participating in the civil disobedience movement - the removal of tax on salt, which therefore allowed the Indians to produce, trade and sell salt legally and for their own private use Many Indian citizens, and indeed members of Congress felt this fell a long way too short of the movement’s overarching aims and were angry and disappointed in Gandhi’s signing of it. No inquiry into police abuses, farmers could not recovered seized land that had been sold, picketing of foreign cloth and liquor shops could continue but not as a political sanction. Salt laws would stay in place – but govt would not interfere with small-scale manufacture for domestic use. Jawaharlal Nehru bitterly disappointed. Gandhi gave a lot, Irwin gave little. Irwin “I do regard it as a very astonishing thing that Gandhi should have been so far persuaded to come into line” Some British thought was too lenient (will always have critics) Gandhi thought would lead to further concessions – keep picking away, patience. Gandhi himself was disappointed. Round Table talks in London shortly after achieved nothing. Only way forwards is with more civil disobedience BUT within months of his signing the pact, Irwin was succeeded by the far more hard line Lord Willington. Ready and waiting. Willington embarked on a new campaign of crushing the movement by repression and violent techniques. Unlike Irwin he was not so willing to drink tea and talk. He was not sympathetic to the cause nor Gandhi whom he promptly had arrested. Movement did continue without him though, and without many of the key Congress leaders such as J. Nehru and Patel- even Nehru’s mother arrested. Although this round of civil disobedience did not strictly speaking finish until 1934, after the first six months it failed to seriously challenge the raj HOWEVER despite lack of constitutional change or material benefits, showed power of mass movement. Did succeed in weakening raj in some areas. Shredded the legitimacy of British rule. Loss of authority of raj- change in meaning of going to jail (eg Singh proud) Gandhi embodiment of national purpose. Inside Congress his stature gave him enormous leverage, could suppress factional quarrelling and spur it to turn itself into a mass political organisation- but not necessarily a projection of Ganhi’s ideals just because the movement flowed from him.Слайд 17 из презентации «Nationalism in India 1920-1947»
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