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Gandhis calling off the movement 1922

Gandhis calling off the movement 1922. Subhas Chandra Bose (Gandhis biggest rival for leadership of Congress in 1930) said of Gandhis decision; the Mahatma opens a campaign in a brilliant fashionmoves from success to success till he reaches the zenith of his campaign- but after that he loses his nerveshortcomings inherent in the movement from the very beginning (what are these?) and which were to reveal themselves more and more with the lapse of timetoo much power and responsibility was handed over to one manthe promise of Swaraj within one year as not only unwise but childishno leader worth the name should impose impossible conditions This is the third time I have received a rude shock when I have been on the eve of embarking upon mass civil disobedience. The first was in April 1919 (Amritsar Massacre, 1516 casualties with 1650 bullets- official figures. General Dyer. ), the second in November last (Bombay, Prince of Wales visit), and now I am violently agitated by the events in the Gorakhpur District (Chauri-Chaura)The civil disobedience of Bardoli can make no impression upon the country when disobedience of a criminal character goes on in other parts of the country, both for the same ends. The whole conception of civil disobedience is based upon the assumption that it works in and through its completely non-violent character. I may be a bad judge of human nature to believe that such an atmosphere can ever be brought into a vast country such as India, but that would be an argument for condemning my capacity for sound judgement, not for continuing a movement which is in that case bound to be unsuccessful. I personally can never be party to a movement hald violent and half non-violent, even though it may result in the attainment of so-called swaraj, for it will not be real swaraj as I have conceived it (Gandhi in a letter to members of Congress Working Committee, Bardoli, 8 February 1922) Chaura Chauri 1922 final straw Means and ends- ends do not justify the means. Satyagraha way of life, a faith, spiritual, not to be picked up and dropped whenever you want Got to win the opponent over, talk, they are not our enemies and can be persuaded. Terrorism will only justify their repression moral and spiritual high ground essential great optimism in others Will only achieve their goals if can prove that India is capable of self-government, and resorting to violence proves the opposite Truth is God Had to be whole nations effort and half of India is too weak to offer a violent resistance (Gandhi to Viceroy, 1 August 1920) unity Democracy Versus Mobocracy My greatest anxiety about non-co-operation is not the slow response of the leadersBut the greatest obstacle is that we have not yet emerged from the mobocratic stage (not ready for the challenge) Total non-violence not easy and difficult to hold all the movements together. Felt sense of responsibility- fasted for five days to absolve himself as what he perceived as his role in the attacks> felt he had been too hasty in encouraging a revolt against the British Raj, whilst not emphasizing enough the importance of ahimsa (nonviolence) and not training the resisters enough. He had warned repeatedly that he was prepared to lead only a strictly non-violent campaign, and that its aim was not class struggle or social revolution. Once Gandhi called the movement off, it collapsed, showing how indispensable he had become. The British had dared not touch Gandhi while the movement continued. Once it collapsed they arrested him (in March), tried him in Ahmedabad, sentencing him for sedition for 6 years (served two). Gandhi invited the highest penalty for his deliberate crime (said they disagreed over what constituted a crime but could see that in their (British) view what he had done was a crime. No protests when he went to jail.

12 Nationalism in India 1920-1947

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