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Violence

Violence. Others were clearly not so convinced. Wanted vengeance for Amritsar, general conditions under British rule an violent repression. Bande Mataram (a Congress Extremist) stated; “…peaceful means can succeed only when these imply the ugly alternative of more troublesome and fearful methods, recourse to which the failure of peaceful attempts must inevitably lead to” Gandhi claimed to “admire and adore” terrorists patriotism and giving of their lives to the cause for it had “much sacrifice to its credit” but he felt that their methods were wrong and were more a hindrance than an advantage There were violent acts being carried out during this period of mass non-violent resistance too – perhaps Gandhi felt if signed the pact would give a bit of hope and pull people back to non-violence (by this stage had accepted that some chose to follow his satyagraha not for a way of life but for political expedience) So what violence was there? Numerous sporadic small cases. Also the Chittagong Armoury Raid of 1930 as well as various revenge killings Chittagong Armoury Raid Attempt on April 18, 1930 to raid the armoury of police and auxiliary forces from Chittagong by revolutionary freedom fighters led by Surya Sen Believed in armed uprisings for Indian independence Armoury was captured as planned, couldn’t locate the ammunition but succeeded in dislocating telephone and telegraph communications and disrupting trains Total of 65 revolutionaries took part (not much when compared to Gandhi and Congress Movement of this year) Military salute, raised National Flag Police traced some of the revolutionaries hiding in Jalalabad hills on outskirts of Chittagong (April 22) Over 80 British and 12 revolutionaries killed in ensuing gunfire Sen arrested February 1933. Tried and hung, January 1934 General Violence During 1930-32 22 officials and 220 non-officials were killed in separate incidents by such pro-violent groups, organisations, and individuals This time, Gandhi had vowed not to call off the campaign due to violence Violence always present, even in 1940s such as in 1942 Key figures of Chandrashekar Azad (left) and Bhagat Singh (right).

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